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Full text of "The California Farmer and Journal of useful Sciences"



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Vi< California State Library ■y 



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Accession No. (o..Ll.X*.9. . 



1237 6-20 10M \<j$ 5"^- 



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THE 



CALIFORNIA FARMER 



AND 



fmintal erf Istfttl Srintrts, 



DEVOTED TO 



CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE, MECHANIC ARTS, HOME INDUSTRY, EDUCATION 



PWRtLBSSHfiS) aVJEffST fOTSSMT $ffi@3BSTaST© % 



BY 



WARREN & SON. 



OFFICE I3SJ- HVETTSICA-ILj H-A.X.3L. BTJIZLIDIISra-, BUSH STBEET. 



VOLUMES I. and II. 



T £3 R M S 



Erom P. \unuin, iu ad\ or delivered by I 



SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 



• rh. 



1853 



£ 






I 



o 

* 

r 



INDEX TO VOLUMES I. AND II. 



VOLUME 



Anatomical Curiosities, 
Agriculture— The Future. 8 

A splendid yield of Wheat, 4 

Agriculture at the Sandwich Islands, 5 
A Happy New Year, 6 

A Future Great Man, B 

Agricultural Lecture*, 
AVhrat growing Country, IB 

A Proline Sow, 1'; 

A Dream, W 

Apples uf Gold 111 Ftotures of Silver, 16 



A Happv World, 

A Sketch. 

Agricultural Fairs, *J 

AMaglcal Duet, 

A Tiger's Jaw, _ , »? 

A Yankee «t the Crystal Palace, 25 

Asparagus as applied to Hydropbo- 

A Wonder In Naval Architecture^ 27 
Apples, '-' 

Agricultural Operations at the Tejon, 30 
A singular Marriage Ceremonial, So 
A I leer- hunt in a " Dug Out," 33 

A New Plant, 84 

A Trip, to Sunny Side, 8* 

Artlllclal Production of Diamond 

Powder. : ''*' 

A Happy Man, 88 

A Obon« Antiolpated, 4n 

A Pace from a Woman S Heart, 41 

Agricultural College for California, 44 
Adaptation of Crops to Market, 45 
A Distrust of One's own Abilities, 40 
46 
49 
51 
Crock- 
Si, SI 
58 
64 

r.s 

59 
68 

(14 
C6 
67 
72 
72 
74 



Balsam Tr»e, 

Bushel nnj Acre. 

Cure for I ysipolas. 

Colic In 11 fees. 

Cotton Se :I Oil, 

Chinese a 1 Japan Agriculture, 

California loul. 

Culture o Ihe Sunflower, 

Callforni.' Iraln Implements, 

CallfornljHat.l.s. 



I!).'. 

! 

178 

II 



I ' 

r 

Ola; ind 
Callforni 

Cure for 
Coke- II 
Carrot B 
' allfnrnii 
Core for 



Chinese 
Crop of 
Orenbcr 

Gallforn 



nal Favors, 

and as Ameliorators, 
History, 

landers, 

Estate at llolkliaio, 
ter, 

ir Clear Lake, 
rotohee in Horses, 



Chinese : ring Offering, 



dnslrv, 
Ileal, 



188 

lss 
908 
S o:t 
908 
DO 



Flora— The Anterrhonum, 

Prying Puns, 

Qrnpe, 

Grass Valley Teh-graph, 



! Ore Pit 



mlp, 



Agrlcnltnrein Virginia, 
All's Well, 

Agricultural Machinery. 
Agricultural Lecture— (S. ) 

ett, Esq.), 
A Venerable Farmer, 
A Luxury, 

Advance of Horticulture, 
Animal Tenacity of Life, 
American Citizenship, 
A liov, 
A Card, 

A Kentucky Corn Crop, 
A Fishing Adventure, 
An Unpromising Old Lady, 
Agriculture, 
Agricultural Meet logs in Napa Co. t4, S2 
A great Apple Tree, 75 

Apparatus for Condensing Smoke, 83 
ALeaf, 83 

An Interesting Husband, »» 

Agricultural Meetings, 90 

Agriculture at Washington, 90 

Agricultural Education, 
Artificial Flower Matin, 
Age of Cattle, 
Agriculture in our State, 
Artesian Wells, 
A Scrap from the Life of n Ruined 

Man. IW 

Australia, 107 

Academy of Sciences, 709 

A California Gordon, 109 

Address of , I. A. Wright, '< ' 

Agricultural Meeting In Napa, 115 

- , Use, 116 



92 
In: 
93 
fit, 195 



Marble, 

Cultlvatl ] of Fruits, 

Culifoni! Wonders. 

Cblldlinn 

Cultiv.ill i of the Badlsh. 

Corresp. " 

Callforni 

California Peaches, 

Calaveras 

Chines,, 

Ojtibagi.Si 

Ottlmsnf California on "Women. 

Irrots fat Horses. Milch Cows. .to.. 105 
t Irresii'aice, 83, 66, 42, 50, IS, 172, IOC, 

21)1 
( nsoljdatton of Sandy Soil, 1 

( tiforniiState Agricultural Society, 4 
( Ifornii Cotton, 
< 'Hornis Legislature, 

ifornifl Pioneers, 

Itivnta'Timbcr Trees, 

i we l.'nise Sweet Potatoes, 

Tiage Hire, 

ileus Extract, 

Itlvrilinn of the Hose, 

n Cribs, 

■n Harvester, 

ifornta Statistics, 

tantlnnple, 

rokae Flat, 

merclal Value of ITonesty, 
Idn't but Laugh, 

Ifnl'llia Wheat, 

nese New Years, 



tlvntion of the Rose, 

w Catching. 

■espondence — J. B. nil], 

Hester, 
nogrunhy, 
is ,,r frhet 



A New Metal broughttnto Use, 

A Way to make Times better for the 

Farmer, 178 

Agriculture at Ihe Capital, 118, 126 
A Fable. 120 

Anecdote of the Late Sir C. Napier, 120 
A Vision (San Francisco 25 years 

hence), 121 

Adams & Co.— Bankers, 120 

A Thanksgiving Scene, 129 

A New Descriptive Hen's Nest, 180 
Agriculture in Maine, ! ;! 

Art ,,f Culture, ;: 

A Good Cow, J81 

Afternoon Rnmblo, ' 

A Trick on Beggars, : ' 

An Evening Btroll, . 138 

A Morning Ride. 139 

Agr cultural Address, 139 

A Horse I A Horse II A Visit for a 

Horse, J«6 

Abundance of Fruit, 140 

Agricultural Society of Polk Conn- 

tv.O.T., JIO 

Arbor Vitio, of Calaveras, 141 

Agricultural Report*. 146 

A Hint for tin- Steamer Combina- 
tion, 1 1« 
A Sign of the Times, ' 
Anecdote of Bums, 152 
A Trip to San Jose and New Alma- 

don, 154. 162, 170 

Academy of Natural Bclenoeo, 154 

An Act to Incorporate a State Agri- 
cultural Soelety, 155 
A Spice Orchard, 157 

Ashes for the Plum, 157 

A Mother's Lev. 160 

A Sporting Lady, jg 

Agricultural Meeting In Santa Clara, 103 
AlJut for Geologists, 1«« 

A Good Joke, "8 

A Curious Book, 188 

A California seen*, 

Agricultural Society In Alameda, 171 
Artesian Wells of San .' 

A Double Embarrassment. 176 
Agricultural College at Mount Ver- 
non. 
Agrlcurral Implement Association. 180 
Agricultural Schools, 

Ancient Agriculturalists, 180 

American Pomologies] Society, 181 
Arrests bv the IS Marshal, 

Agriculture in the Mountains, 195 

LHom l tl 1W 
a Chlnro 

A Proline Potatoe, 

A Hint, 197 

A Home Picture, 801 

■ Plant, 202 

A Fin, I *"3 

Adams .t Co. 'a Banking House, 90S 

Action of Drougth on Plants ** 

Agricultural Committee*, M 
An Hod 

A Wonderful M, M 

Burgess W. 11. I 

Iluekel 13 

It of an Actor, 95 

l 95 

96 

' ■ 

nig p., H 

: 
H 



i|mjtlencc— (Alca. S. T,.ylor),1 11 
milWool. Igg 

158 
168 

104 
164 

104 



11,26 
11 
12 
12 
14 
17 
2u 
211 
21 
23 
26 
27 
82 
82 



2o4 
4, M 

11 

13 
M 

21 
32 
84 

37 
44 

on 
77 
S3 
s,", 



86 
88 
64 
67 

c. p. 

60,59 
58 



at for 1354, 5s 

'ornla Poach Orchards. 59 

freasl d— Cal. Land Claims, 02 

rnla Flour, 66 

iiriifn Groin, 08 

e— High Prices, 7." 

lot Sheep, . 77 

Is Away, 80 

iriiii. Wine, 85 

mil Wine, 35 

—Great Yield, 85 

merclal and Financial, S6 

Itlng Onusce In California, 20 

I 'loii-hl, ig— Siibsolling, 28 

"i John Delofleld, 87 

motive Fire, 02 

ise of the Crape Vine, fj6 

h for Burying Manure, 67 

IngGroln. 68 

b of Mr W. E. P. Hartncll, TO 
H) of Agriculture, 76.S4.92 

, ,, i, . 77 
rtntlon of tbo Samaoan, or Nnvl- 

ralor's Isliin.l,, 82 
niioii pf the Steamer, 

In rings, 
as,, of Poultry, 77,98 

rs Need a Paper, 

Ins 

boflbe Laird of Du , 
gill— Irrigation— Mulchln 
Wlnslnvy's Address in M 

II. 
in Not, hut Work, 

1 Car,-. 
I.Ike Hi. 

- I, 171 

172 

ii, I. his. Iso 



Groat Crop 

Golden Gate, 

Cod made (be Mind to be Free, 

Go Forth ho.. ii, L . Country, 
G real vi,.i,| ,,r Oat*, 

Crape Culture al III,- West, 
Good and Bad Work. 
Gov. Bnwdoln and the School Boy, 
Grist Mill near Sonera, 

Crass Valley. 

Green Fodder, 
Great Britain — Naval Forco, 
Croat. Corn, ni 

Cold Fields of tbo World, 99 

Grafting, ini 

Gardening, ins 

Cutta Percha Pens. lop. 

Getting Drunk will, a Purpose, 112 
Great Clothing Emporium, 114 

Garden Furniture, in 

Goodness, pjs 

Gardening at Ooloma, 131 

Cos Fixtures, 184 

Good Newsier Farmers, Ins 

Has Light in Public Buildings, 189 

Gov'r's Approval (State Ag.'Soc'y), 150 
Cold front the Sierras, 103 

Garget in Cows. V105 

Classes of California, toil 

Gudbrund of the Mountain, 160 

Cale of Wind, 171) 

Grafting Wax, 172 

Great Cattle Show In Ohio, 180 

Gossiping of Cur Village, Is", 

Great Enterprise. 186 

Gooseberries and Currants, 1S7 

Grain Crops of 1854. is!) 

Great Product of Butter, 195 

Crease for Carriage Wheels. 197 

Cin'l Jackson and the Clerk, 200 

Grain Wand:, .uses, 202 

Grain ! Grain, 208 

Good Grit, on* 

Good Advice, 208 

Hints to Lovers of Flowers, 9 

How is Business, 1 1 

Heroism. to 

History and Culture of Mignonette, SS 
31; 
36 
nil 
43 
•It 
60 
69 
01 
69 
: r > 
91 
01 

104 

in;, 
111 

12. 

13s 
Hi 



Horner's Rnnob, 

Horse Exhibition at Springfield, 

Hon. .7. Neely Johnson, 

lion. s. M. Latham, 
How to Boise Sipiashes, 
How to Choose a Domestic, 
Highland Hints. 
How I Saved Me Currants, 

'« lo Mai. GonT Wool, 

Home Indiislry, 

Heavy Cattle, " 

Heavy Sheep, 
II, who ha> most of Heart, 
How to Make Coif,,,, 
Home, 

Husbandry Adapted to Man. 
' ins Horse, 

Hints on II • 

High Pressure, 
1 1 11 ii Poultry, 



OlST E. 

Lou.. Mountain Cemetery, 

Liquid Manure, 

Letter (.from Daniel Webster!, 

Love and Belf-Love. 

Los Angeles Grain Crop, 

Ludlra s Mistake, 

I, ssl and Least, 

Memorial to Congress, 

MagnlDosnl Plants, 

Meeting of the Fifth Legislature, 

Mllrdoek (Musical Hall), 
MuSkotOes Under Class, 
Merino Shoen for Mutton, 
Mokelnmno valley, 

Mixing Crass Seeds, 
Mining Interests, 

Marine Disaster, 

Marble Work, 

Mass. Horticultural Society, 

Montreal Ocean steamship Co, 

Magnificent Steamboat, 

Mission I'eak, 

Melalli,, Cask-making, 

Meaning of Homeric Names, 

Manures, 

Merced River, 

Milk and Butter, 

Millet, 

Monterey County, 
Moss Rose, 

Music, 

Marriage of a Millionaire, 

Merced Valley, 

Moral Culture, 

May-Day— Memories of May, 

Memory, 

Minnesota, 

Music, 

Merino Sheep, 

Mode of Manuring Vines, 

Medicine, 

" Martins have Come," 

Marion County Agrlcul'ral Society, 144 

Mail Facilities, 147 

Mechanism of the Horse, 117 

My Cod Directs the Storm, 152 

Mire Wool, 165 

Massachusetts Agriculture, and Mid- 
dlesex County in Particular, 156 
Musical Anecdote, 160 

Mountain Ico, 102 

Musical, 103 

Massachusetts vs. California, 101 

Management of Peach Trees, 171 

Machine for Cutting Garments, 172 

Management of Ewes, 180 

Mlgnon, lie, jsi 

Mercantile Library Lecture, 186 

Mortality among Cattle, 

189 



18 

24 

87 

42 

45 

46 

46 

64 

5S. Inn 

50 

02 

00 

67 

60 

77 

85 

85 

98 

93 

96 

100 

106 

I19 

llo 

110 

120 

123 

12S 

180 

182 

189 

137 



Quarts, 

Beport of Committee on Plows, 

Report of Committee on Fruit, 

Report of Committee on Flour, 

Bora! Cemeteries, 

Reports on Agriculture, 

Real Estate, 

Right Choice of an Employment, 

Richelieu, 



100 
1 
1 
2 
6 
5 
11 
12 

Real Estato— Shipment of Specie, is 
Rain, ig, S3 

Report on Vegetables, 21 

Remarkable Supposed Case of Petri- 
faction, go 
Railroad to the Gravo, 84 

Rural Cemeteries, 4, 42 

River steamers, Rise of Water, lie, 60 

Real Estate, ag 

Riches of the Amazon Valley, 62 

Rotation of Crops— Its Use and Er- 

„ r> 'f'l' !\, *l 77 

"Robbs," 67 9S 

Royal Ag. Society in England, 67 

Roofing for Buildings, 

Raspberry, 

Robbery, 

Rothschild— Short, 

Hoses for Winter Blooming, 

Raising Fruits from Seod, 



68 
74 
78 
80 
84 
65 
92 
93 
101 
112 
134 
140 
117 
148 



Rico, 

Rassette House, 

Rearing Calves, 

Ruling Passion, 

Reclamation of Swamp Lands, 

Rain and its Ell'ects, 

Report of Com. on Agriculture, 

Rise of the Waters, 

Requisite 1'oiuts of Fowls for Breed 



Rules for the Journey of Life, 

Roving Jack, 

Remedy for Potato Rot, 

Raising Water by Rams, 

Rain, 

Remedy for Plant Lice, 

Salutatory, 

Sacramento City, 

Steamboat Qomfonta, 

Sacramento River Steamers, 

Sweet Potatoes, 

Sacramento Hotel, 

Sugar, 

Sandwich Islands, 

State Agricultural College, 

Bweet Potatoes, 

> nun, Isoii'b Digging Machine, 

Seventeen, 

Splendid Celery, 

Sailing I'! 'trees, 



t on the Pacific, 






Harvesting, " 119, ' xbibitlon, 

\ I ew Words to Farmers, 150 "Nit [hsi,erandmn 
ll,.-.|,li,!lry of Rogues, 181 " 

.no. 
Heavy Sh 101 

1 -iinty, 1-7 

Human s! 
How to Cook Bv 

How to i moke, 198 

■ p from two 
Acres of Land, 
How to Waah Lace, 90 ; 

How to c„.,k Cabbage, 

Hotels — Napa i 

8 

n.ia a Fit Place for a Home. 4 
1 j 
I'ute, 
. s among Far 

87 



Machinery in Farming, is<j Sacramento Pioneer Association, 
Mercantile Library, 115, 155, 194 | Song of the Angel of Flov, era, 
', "k. 111; s naOonntt in 11,,. Field, 

\ ' r ' ,r ., „ ,0 . - 1 a., Agricultural Society, 

M.i-achuselts llorticulal Society, 

■,,,.. _ , ' 2n3 Bending Flour book to New York, 

Masonic 1 olob Hon at Napa Valley, 2":' Bacrame -the Capital of Cat, 

Many Lessons in One Story, 9D4 Sugar Cone 

1 Watermelons, 90S P 

■ llitluenee of VI 
Night-watch wlrhaDrod Intint, 
in the World, 
, ; Agriculture, 
Bertb-wi 



20, 



157 
lli'.l 
170 
172 
173 
187 
197 
4 
8, 18, 140 
6 
13 
26 
13 
20 
22 
22 
20 
28 
32 
85 
42 
40 
•is 

.',11 

50 

52 

00 

02 

' 

66 

07 

lis 



Statistics of Hie Shoe Manufacture, 

Sonoma C.niii v Ahe.nl, 

CtlOD, 74 

shots, 71 

• Hon, 7s 

Trees, 84 

02 Stir the Soil, 

Jubeoll, so 

-Sacramento Democrat, 96 Summer I'rnnlngof tho Ornpe Vine 91 

Springs, 98 

100, 1 



later, 

'I dunning Seals 

rnla. 



' 



icrament,, History, 
aclls a Fertilizer, 

Hon. E. Nhbols, 
sing, 

ilslana. 






IN 

100, llo 
llo 

112,1st 
111 






The Potato Diseasein Great Brit 

1 1' ■ Fisheries of California, no 

Tlic Great Printing Invention, 62 

The Habeas Corpus Act, 62 

Tho Bavarian Sebottiaebe, 64 

Trouble In the House, 65 

Tho Coal Trade. 07 

The Hand that Saves Us, 67 

Trees on Farms, 69 

The Finest Ox In tho World, 69 

Thoughts lor tho Thoughtful. 69 

The Firemen's Annual Parade, 70 

The Exile, 70 

Tho Blasted Tree, 72 

Thoughts Suggested by tho New 

Year, 70 
The Cod-Son, 73 
The Boiled Ham, 77 
The Capital, 77 
The Dream, 90 
The Indian Reserve, 82 
The Lumber Product of Grass Val- 
ley, 88 
The Eloquence of the Human Hand, 85 
The Rose, 86 
The Vine and the Oak, 88 
Tho Departed, 88 
Tho Emperor Alexander, 83 
The Mountain Express, 89 
The Real Wealth of California, 90 
The Tree of Ten Thousand Images, 91 
Three Thousand Dollars, 90 
The Sacredness of Trees, 96 
The Season, 68 
Timber Trees, 100 
The (j round Nut, 101 
To Farmers, 104 

The Christian Wile, lt>4 

The Night Side of Love, 104 

The Betrayer, . 105 

Tho War Question, 107 

Tulare Valley, 109 
The Surrounding of Farm Houses, 109 

Trout Fishing. 57,110 

The Swan of Erin, 110 

Tho Lost One, 112 

The Twin Trees, 112 

Tho Passion Flower, 113 

The Squatter's Adventure, 118 

Transformation of Plants, and the Im- 
portance of its Results, 115 
To Farmers, lit', 
The Kitchen Garden, 117 
The Duehese of Angonlome Pear, 117 
Tlie Soy and Mall, ~ 121) 
The Children and the Novel, 121 
The Wheat Crop, 123,120 
To Destroy Thistles. 
The Popes Destroyed, 123 
The New Horticultural Society. 123 
" Tie. Minesare Nearly l^hausted." 198 

bi Basis nfthe Pre-Emptlon Law, 194 

The Early Harvest Apple, 124 

The Arabian Horse, 124 

The Preparation of the Earth for the 

Intellectual Races. I ' . i 

I- Booh of Specimens, if. 

The Blacksmith's Daughter. 120 

The Largest Ship In the World. 

1 the Noodle, 186 

-I' Love, 97,186 

The Peach. 1 1ll 

' I , Is of Gardening, 111 

The Valleys are Moving, 112 

re Two Ways to Live on 
Karlb, 144 

The Magician and Market Women, 144 
■ 1 is not Yet," 145 

145 
To Out Subscribers, IP! 

lid 
, Mills, 
Tin I, n], roved Breed of Stock, 146 

1 of lions,. Plants, i 

! 11,. I " 

'I'll.- Poetry of the Vegetal Ii 



h HI til 



Frntt— In 

■ 






ft 

W 

M 
>). -.'7 






in. Tit Manure* tlicmoet Per- 



■ 
ilon Kifl.sn, 



nturK 



■ 1M 



koto, 

■ 
m Id Sacramento, 

r .merito, 

rioan TWa, 

t'm, C, L 



1 

Ions in Flour, 

r, 

I Pain : 
1 an<l i>ii: 
■ : 



-\n Jitaqnm, 
f.*r jour Pap< - 

urea. is*.** 

f California. 



,.f S.ln.-. 
at, 



- of the Chinese, 

r Pt 

- 



gate, 

. es and Agriculture, 
• of the rraa. 
Hoary- Mr* Ly.lla Shannon, 

** Oregon Awake, 

lie. 

', brood, 
* t» Japan, 

■ !». 

same. 

rain. 

»* Pr*. 

- rvu<( rui en. 
c Kans-h. 

naMlne: Frull Tim aa>' * 

r..p ,,.,. i n..:Ce, 

rartictt. a. lla, 
Praelac 

era. 

noawer-TW, 

rwaak aad 3w4e la FlaaXa, 

PVantlr't Frail Tre^a. 



I, H7.I5 



lag Frail Trees. 






sieiuaevy, 
lesnaaj 



World, 
'allfornia, 

-• Vet. 

: ,11.': 

Miraelna, 



Polfc, 

V., naa, 
i I'gaaa Pear, 



M 



Sw,bfr,i„ il.r \... r, 

Sis- of ..or i.rMlLakai, 

spar. tb» Bir'a. 

Sop»riat.».l»at B aal TejOB Baaei 



• t Sb~-p. 

me of Teste, 

t Timtj*. 



154 

171 
172 

170 
1-1 

199 

900 

90* 

*st 
908 

*-■• 

909 



l onaoe Eeawra — Mary a 



taaa>l . • - Vaearkaj r.a-.ta. 

-''.-: "-.-'t;^ 'ra, 
TV Paaeh. 

1*8 The .Urieaitaral 

aiaaeihar. Eaq . 1 K, 

TO, li.r....f Lake tlrle. 



lit 



Pi . t aa .J riamairaraHyattaaLat. 

ilreriuloa 



|TrwA, 
Ta I-,.; P.v-.r., of Li- Vraca, 



A Tale nw the Toaag. 

. ,•< 11 -rti. olrure. 
nt Powers af ' 
Planes 






Palieileaelaa * tke Seal, 
Potato tM rVevwaeaai; 

P i It r llialg w 

riewfkiac, 
Plia g. . s'sSwag, 



PveaUfeSaeeax 
i Paa>. Bare* is Co. (aVaakenX 
PearhTrwae, 



IB j The ttt Plea*, 

Mpetaaa, 
1*8 TW Heraa. 

I Toma:,. . .ujB, 



4 
| 

1 
i 

* 

* 



t a ejse -l PoeMo i ,. .■.. 

DM an st,ie« !.a,,i c.,Tmi..loa. 

ML 184 

Uaeaaat Beaae, 1*8 

189 

8a 

• ■•' N.'ik„ra Califs 
Ti a ila > lll.84aa»eaia.efl 
Tic m l li lastleet, 

V I ■ ail, 188 

War*!-. 
WeaUwr la UV gertasatale Va 

.^ia.0*l4ee)0aea, (7 

Waat Is a' 41 






Y.-rk. anal 



Tiikiilan 

Uulc Thi^cs. 
Lore of taw - 

UglKalag 



WSjee tbe Ye 



Love sba. Law nay 

Pewea. 
Leu« rr„na >'a|<a. 




TheF 



*a«, 

T«l . 

Tlv I'.r-arh of Proeauw Ceae, 
Tk.P»t«o(>«. 
TawMi in aed P 



•I »----•-, tsi n rases in. lee 






a/ MTV* Owe. 
Tree Firrsbaw— Haw to atolai It. 

TV lv,r- J CaiKr»a. _ 

Tk. Wrfi,-., 
TaiTaklaaav 
The Aaccl Aaawaw I 

- - * ,. 

TW teea.4 TalWy. 
ae.8* ' 

TW ri iiaa,i4ai f , 
Trlawr 

Tatar 




Mi WaMeadl 

^^^■swat • raraOea, 

** Wens ea Cattta, 



.t Is a Lwttor, 

-Id. 

48 , Whet la tt- 

--T«l ay Plr*. 

i Waaajv. 









1< 
u 



» I iT v la 



TWO 



VOLUME 

neti.lafthtSoeT.lg _ 
Aeaatraaati Voo, 

■ W lliaeeey 
A 6raat 8>n, 







INDEX. 



Antedelnvlon Discoveries, 

Application of Guano, 

A Valid. Kensou, 

American Talont (Mrs. Bobb). 

A new Kotl Dye for Dyeing Wool 

A Profitable Sheep, 

A Machine for Bending Timber, 

Arterial Well., *1, 8S, 61, 60,^91 



92 



A Love Story, continued. 

A very slight Difference, 

A Bouncing Girl, 64 

A Hot Place, f7 

A Word to Wives, „i 

A new Type-Settlng Machine, w 

A Legend of the Last \\ m, '» 

About that Tie Crust, ' 

American Pomologlcal Society, £ 

A Large Snake, grt 

A Reformer, , _ on 

A short Sermon on Manliness, 

A Mother's Love, 

A Lecend of the Lost War, 

A New Invention-Fruit Measure 

A Gem, (Viola,) 

American Women, 

Arrival of Stock, 

A new French Floral Wonder, 

A Monster Horse, — 

A Mountain Cave In Virginia Ex-^ 

plored, oq 

A Wife as Is a Wife, ?* 

An Eventful Career, J„ 

Articles Intended for the Fair, »» 

Australian Woods, '"» 

Agricultural Statistics, 58, 17, 1U» 

AT'reasuro Costing no Money, 1J0 

A Great Country, "" 

A Scene in Court. ';" 

A Princess turned Farmor, 1« 

A Grand Undertaking, '» 

A Rush, ,(., 

A Seed Farmer, '°S 

Asiatic Sheep, }5, 

A Beautiful Extract, •*' 

Agricultural Dlstiess in England, 14; 

A Day Dream, i J 

Agriculture in Icidand, *"*• 

A Little Farm well Tilled, M 

A Love or a Shawl, £f; 

A Good One, '" 

A Beautiful Picture, *? 

Apples, * . 

A True Subscriber, '..__. 12 

Agriculture, and the Professions, 10 

An Impromptu Sonnet, (C.W.IS.) " 

Anecdotes of Girard, " 

A Terfect Wife, " 

Agricultural Prizes, Black Mall, It 

Apples— Wonderful, J 

A Home Anecdote, *^ 

Apples-New Tort, !"S 

A Farmer's Wife I'll be, MJ 

A Lucky Shot, ii^ 

A Fowl Joke, 'ij 

A Mother'B Soliloquy, i°' 

An Indian Story, '~ 

Agricultural Hesonrcesof Hum. Co.,lSb 

Atmosphere and Vegetation, 1M 

Agricultural Surveys, "" 

Agricultural Statistics, «» 

An Eventful Career, «" 

A Public Benefactor, fj" 

A Sweet Saying, »* 

A Large Cherry Tree, ™ 

Breeding of Fish, , ( 

Bush your Tomatoes, *; 

Bone Manure, ~ 



California Enterprise, 160, 196 

Croaker, Mr.. 1fi , 

Cure for Wasp Stings, i|i 

Cooking by Lightning, »» 
Cultivation of Dwarf Pear Trees, 187 

Condition of California, What we 

Want, 1s9 

Cranberries on Uplands, j»» 

ga\Cnut'AgTlcultural Premiums 2M 

Died 6 14. 22, 80, 8S. 40, 64, 62, 70, 78 

' 80,94.102,110.118,126 142 

158,106,174,182,190,198,206 

Death, by G. JS 

Distress among Farmers, • 

Domestic Industry of Cal fornla, 28 
Do you really think he did V « 

Doguerroian Art, I _, 

Destruction of Grcytown,| M 

Dress, 43 > "• 2 ^ 

Deep Plough ng, JJ 

Do King Birds eat Bees, « 

6° W inflow's LetterBfromfte Moun- 
tains, <*>> m > '*' ." 
Dairy Stock, 

Destructive Fire in Butte, 
Disease of the Grape, 
Down's Clothes Back, 
Dr. Winriow's Address, 
Duncan's Art Union, 
Down East Beaten Badly, 
Dlx, Miss, 
Downs, Col. John, 
Dissolving Dioramas, 
DomcsticTelicity In Oregon, 
DomeBtlcKeclnes, 
Day, Mahiou. Died, 
Every word True, 

Egg Dumplings, :-, 

Egg. and Poultry, 11, 21, zun 

Elise de Vault, by Fanny Forn, 17 
Enquiries for Farmers, j™ 

Export of British Stock, 84 

Effect of Vcgetnblo I rowth on Fruit 



SIrSng for the Harness, 8 
How the Salamander Safe was DIs-^ 
covered, o. 

Hardships of Farmers, » 

nymn of Welcome, '„ 

How to Judge Cattle, °J 

Honey, 8 j 

House of Ecfugc, „, 

Hot Weather in Sacramento, »> 

Hindrances to Agriculture, Horticul- 
ture and Floriculture, ■<» 
Horticultural Exhibition at Farmer 



Ncws C S h u U m'ry, 6. 41, 46, 94, 110,189,200 
Nursery Apprentices, 
New Market House, 26, 84, 68, 82 

Native Birds, „„ 

Natural History, ^ 

N :"' r s^e I, Co , mpany, from Santa 



62 
85 
106 
115,116 
134 
104 
165 
176 
17S 
151 
1S9 
195 
4 
11 



Office, 
Human Progress, 
Human Culture, 
Home Manufactures. 
Hold on to yonr Wheat, 
Horticultural Exhibition, 
Hear Him, 
Harvesting Potatoes, 

Horse Shows, 
How to Study, 
Humboldt Times, 
Household, 



107 
' 99 
105 
106,140 
100 
1117 
100 
117 
122 
137 
138 
141 



Ho?S»lbs.on20AcresofLaud,148 5 



114 ; The New York Horticultural Society, 28 
J, 115 The Poor Laborer, 20 



Report of Flonr Committee, 

ReportotComniltteeon Vegetables,.,., ™-™_ 

,4ort of 0{-£naSflC K Grafn'Srower,, 

S"l o? Ar. »5 The Mission Orchard at San Jose, 85 

T,,,l« for Prosnering In Business, 120 Thanks, Thank., 

Repor of Co-mittee on Gr.,ln,,' 121 The Great Machine, 

K or 8SSS5t < 5S5u h ?' T„c Mam'moth Tree 



rat luiiiitiuttit.i'i _ 

Remark, on Magnetic Fores-Dr 



e Sailor Boy's Grave, 



Winslow, 
Report of Fruit Committee, 
Bossette House, 
Reason and Rectitude. 
Refbrmatton of Win. Wirt, 
Kaln In Egypt, 
Russia and the United States, 
Rain v. Artesian Wells 



90 
96 
104 

117 



TrecB, 
Examination of Fruits. 
Errors in Brcad-m: king. 
Every Tiling Help-, 
Eureka Mills, 
Effects of the Drought, 
Elder Knapp, 
Early Garden Cultivation, 
Egg Plant, , 

Exhibition of Dairy Product. 
Evening In California, 
Error. Corrected, 

Education, r 

Extract. i from the "Ana*, (b^ 

Egyptian Utiles, M, Wg 

Economy In a Family, ,„.« 

Faiulllai 'sketches of the Natural His- 



Ilog's I-ard, 
Herdsman's Song, 
Hill Sides, 
Health, ,., 

How to Enjoy a Kiss. 
Hoarding and Enjoying, 

Improvements In Columbia, 
Insects, 

Instinct of Bees, 

Interesting Correspondence, 

Improvements in 1' arming, 

Insects. 

Irish Girl's Stratagem, 

^K c SSacniVyonC,v,,, 2 at,„n, 3 5 

irt'he'S'MllkPolsonon.; ■ 

would I were a Boy Again M 

Introduction of Domestic Animals, 69 



165 

184 
189 
189 

21 ill 
208 
1 
2 
10,28 
13 
20 
21 
28 
82 
34 



130 The Silken Bands, 
184, 140 : The Bargain Tor a Wife, 
147 Typographical, 
157 The Chronicle, 
101) ! The Chinese, 
11,0 Tulare County, 
IbO To Nelly, 
180 The Wife, 



Clara to Martinez, 
Nobodies, 
Nonsuiting a Creditor, 

g^'from" Household Words," 

Niir^cTV Notice! 1 , . 
Sew and Valuable Invention, 

News rrom the East, 60, loo 

Neglected Children, "' 

Nothing Lost, 9 „ 

Native Plums, „, 

National Cattle Show. <" 

Ni,|„,ls' Water Cure Journal, W 

No I'omforts-Tlio Secret. 1W 

Native Alum, J||9 

Satural Food, . 

NeUlU; of Raising Fruit Trees, 16 

Native TobaOCO, ,,,., g^ A , rl enlt..ral Society, 

N ^K:::b; , ^r,e„,t,,ra,Fa,rs,, ? 5 1 , : , l c, : i,,g,n. 



cial Value, ' ' — - ■ 



Bain, 

Slate of Trade, 

Sheep for California, 

Song I'.lrds, 

Sore Romedy for the Potato lot, 

Sales of Real Estotc, 

BabbatU School (Vlebratlon atSac. 



202 
■2 
I, 28, 128 
8 
5 
6 
10 



28,37 
87 
87 
41 
41 
41 
41 
42 
42 
42 
43 

43,165 
48 
48 
13 



Tho Public Schools, 

To Destroy Vermin on Animals and 

Trees, 44 

To Restore those Strnck by Llght'ng, 45 
The Cocoa Nut Tree, 45 

To Cure Warts on Cows, 40 

The Triumph, M 

84 



12 To Manufacturers 
12 The Rose 



V.tur: -.11 v IK v. H i iJs 1 gttSs Agrbullural fecms 
nlii'uo.v'l'Long Again to View. IT | 8au F. co, 



82 



98 
102 
180 

122 
128 



4 

12,13 

18 



84 



Buggy Peas, 

Blood Horses, 

Barley Burnt. 

Boston Elm Tree, 

Booksellers' Favors, 

Business, 

Battle of Monmouth, 

Bantams, 01 

Bay State Mills, "' 

Brick Making, ™ 

Big Sweet Po^to, ^ $ 

Brooklyn Horticultural 8ociety, 188 
Blonch of Monmouth, "' 
Blooming of the Victoria Bcgia, 133 
Bishop Wainwright-Intcresting Me- 
morial, -.j 
Bamum'e, 1(W 
Balm of a Thousand Flowers, 162 
Bcecher. Henry Ward, on Trees, 168 
Birds and Poultry, Rare, 
Batter Pudding without Eggs, 



Butter I'uddlng wunou, j^e*, - — 

Bush Street Congregational Church, 170 



Blackberry, The, 

Bulbs for Borders, 

Big Striker-Monster Nugget, 

Bausman, Wm. B. 

Cotton Crop, 

Culture of the Carrot, 

California Trees, 

Cure for Disease in Cattle, 

Crop in Salinas Valley, 

Curious Corn, 

Cattle Show in Dayton, Ohio 

California Babies, 

CourteBy, 

Cleaning Wall Taper, 

California, 

Coffee, 

Coal, 



171 

179 

189 

202 

8 

5 

5 

10 

11 

12 

13 

19, 66, 83, 9S 

87 

27 

88 

29, 188 

20, 190 



tory of California, 
Flowers and Music, 
Farming in Palestine, 
Farming, 

Forty-five days from Paris, 
Farm, (J. M. Homer's,) 
I ire ill Sacramento, 
Fine Arts, 
Eine Potatoes, 
Fine Hams, 
Fig Trees, 
Future Prices, 
Fine Peaches, 
Fire among the Farm rs, 
From a Journal of 1859, 
Foreign Grain Market, 
Farmers of tile Old School, 
Forever Thine, 
Flora, 

Fire on tho Putali, 
Farmers' Cried, 
Favors Received, 
Farmers, Study your Profession, 
Flouring Mills, 
Flora, Pomona and Ceres, 
Fuchla, (J. C. White,) g 

Fences In the United states, 
From Oregon, °» 

Fencing and Stock Raising, ■*> 

Flour to China, "» 

French Consul for San Francisco, 123 
Fatality among llorsoson the Plains,124 
Fanning In Franco, 'J» 

Foot Rot In Sheep, >f 

Fruit Growing, (uew Varieties,) i 
Familiar Love, 
Favors Received, 
Fruit, Generous prico for. 
Flour, the use of, 
Flax Culture at tho West, 
Female Influence, 
Family Groups, 
Flouring Mills of Saerarnento 
Fruit Trees at Auction, Great Bale, JOi 
Fltchliurg Cattle Show, 
Fish, Flesh ami 1-owl. 1« 

Flora Lymlsny and Mrs. Grundy 169 
For What shall 1 Live, 178 

From the South. '« 

Freedom, a Cundltlon of Health, l»l 
Fire at NevadB, "2 

Fire In San Francisco, 102 

Frost as Manure, 



Iuii'iTtantand True, 
Important from Guaymas, 
Improved Windmill, 
Important from the oorodo 

Individual Responsibility. 

., I Immigrant Slock, 

128 Immense Shipment. _„.,.,,., -joo 

124 Influence of Agricultural Societies 132 

131 Increase of Passengers by Low Fare, 188 

188 Imagery of Scrlpluro, ' 

ISO I Immortality of Man, '« 

Importation of stock, '!Si 

Improvements at Sacramento, 1W 

Is there No Land to Sparc, W 

Impromptu Lines, 'ffl 

I. Farming Profitable, l'« 

Importance of the Onion 

Important Discoveries in Texas, 

. , n.,,-.,rin,,cnt ana ir 



18 

13,86,44 
1» 

20 
20 
21 

. s 



8.5 



02 



,711, !>"" ' " . , , 

I). Catch My Bird, 

Unions lor Fowls, 

Our Stat,- Government, 

Oa the Practical Vuluo of Hie Anal. 

sis of the Soil, V;l 

Oregon Popen, "S 

Opinions oltbePreoB, jjj' 

Onions, , 1(1 q 

Orange Wolermolon, 

tin Hovel l.\|,erlments 
tillicial Report 
Oregon Agrlcn 



gSKT :«sss jb* 



nothing New In Oregon, 
7- Sat, ll.Tiiardino. « 

Bute Agricultural B^.,^"^ 

Subterranean Air Essential in the 

Growth of Vegetables. 
Savin-- BuDk, 

Sn.illi', Pomologlcal Garden, 
., shlp-bulldlng, 
185 Sale of Famous IIor.es, 
184 Superb Fruit, 



60,i 



iltnral Sodetlos, 140,174 State EjblMttoM, 



OS, 1 



Improving Our Social Condition, 
. . Irislt Flax Production, 
18 John Blaxton, 
20 1 Jew's Synagogue, 
29 Journal of Commerce, 

84 J C. Davis' Ranch, 

85 J B. Starr ,t Co., Sacramento, 
J. K. Rose's Vineyard, Sonoma, 
Japanese Apricot, 

Just Right. " 

Jackson— Gen'l Andrew, *" 

Seeping Quinces. 

Kentucky Stock Sale, J 

Kentucky Agricultural Society, i 

^^ed^F^'lM. Honor toMlch- 

igaiil, , , 

Kern Elver, i-. 

Kissing the Bride, SB 

Kind Words, i"'' 

Keep Your Cattle Well Fed, ISO 

Los Angeles Grape Crop, * 

Last Days of Mount Vernon, 25 
Lcibcig, the Great German Chemist, 29 



Obituary— Samuel Downer, 
Oil Manufactory— CalUorma, 
OysUr Corn Cakes. 
Overland Express Line, 

(,,1,| Fellow's Hall, Sacramento, 

Omission, and Corrections, 
Osage ' 'range, 
Old Kcntuck, 
Original Anecdote, 



II 

140 

119 

180 

154 

156 

180 

ls| 

S 8»gri^f , Sr r3? 7^w W .| 
.,,,4 on Parting with Frlendi, - <\ 

48 tmr Alms arc t"" Low, 200 

S!Kln'pot.' r an.l Management of 
r,2 Cuttings, 9 

9s 1 Plant Something, " 

]■"» Poor Bob, R 1fl 

172 ' Partington, Mrs., "• j" 

V>2 Preserving Flour, On^/fa „ ?0 I5 
Premium harms, 11, 19,27,80,^0.^ 



91,1 

94, 188,0 

1 
u 

19 

HI 
HI 

18 

12 



186 
188 
140 

141 
149, 205 
149,205 

157 



r rest as aiaoui,-, -- 

Fortune. or the Gard'ner sDaughtcr.l 1.) 



Children not taughtto Think enough, 37 
California Song, fi 

Curing Foot Rot in Sheop, « 

Cattle Show and Man Show, *> 

Chauncey Langdon, 01 

Callfornfa Slate Agricultural ^ocl^ 

Card your Cattle, j" 

Calliornlaon Canvas, 

California Rye, °5 

California Flour, ?£ 

Can any of you-" Go Better, 83 

CongresslonalApl.roprlnUon.forCol.,8.. 

Childish Simplicity, n „nr„. 

Causes of Embarrassment of Caliror- 

nia Trade, 
S'sTloK Mil.., Sacramento, 93 
Calilorniti Onions, »» 

Cary'a Rotary, „ „ lw 

Coal Ashes, a Remedy for Bugs on 

Vines, „ '"X 

Commemorative Trees, 1 « 

Capita! in Farming, J™ 

Can Love exist without Jealousy, «' ' 
Cure ftir Dhirrhtca, 
California Resources, 
California Oil, 

Collins ,k Co., rrcmlum Hats, 
Cauliflower and Brocoll, 
Cannot, 
Calhoun'B Death, 



Fruit Trees at San Francisco 

Festive Times, 

Franklin's CreBt, 

Grain In Sacramento, 

Great Heat, 

German Benevolence, J 

Gorman Agricultural School. 8 

Grubs In Peach Trees-Shortcnlng-ln, J2 

Grain Crops In the Old Slates, 18 

Grafting Slone Fruit, 

Golden Era, 

Grapes and Peaches, 

Gen. Sutter — Land Titles, 

Great Increase of Fowls, 

G g into Mourning, 

God In the Flowers, 

Soldi Gold!! 

Grasshoppers, 

General Summary, 

Great field of Wheat, 

Growing Cotton, 

Geological Survey of the Great Cave 
in Calaveras County, 

Grand Agricultural and Horticultu- 



Ladies' 'Department, 

London Horticultural Society, 

Landseer's Sketches, 

Little to Do, 

Luscious Peachc, 

Leonora, 

Largo Egg, ' . 

Letter from Port Orford, 

targe Sale or Shorl-horncd Cattlo 

Live Braces n.r Fruit Trees, 

Little Thorns, 

Letter from Yuba, 

Life, . , 

Laziness o. SUto Journal, 

Los Angeles, 

Launch, 

Lenrn All von Can, 

Lombard Mills, 

Liquid Olue, 

Lire's Belter Moments, 

Leather for Manure, 

Liberality, 

Large Apples, 
Life Laurel, 

Loss or the SteamshlnArctlc. 

Legislature 
[jmdTltl 



87 
■II 
■11 
43 
49 
62 
01 
66 
07 
67 
69 
72,184 
74 
78, 88, 107 
78 



84 
Km 
In.', 
116 
124 
132, 168 
149. 157 
189 



Ip arctic. 
-Where Shall it Go. 102 
■Shall we have a Home 1 164 



67 

72 

75, 91, 123 

76 

62 



2,7! 



26, 197 
85 
86 



Clipping 

Jaliro 



California' Corn Meal, 

Crops In Essex County, Mass. 

... ' .. . r . .. „ . ., i n I '., I O 



Crops In csscx vouin/, i '„,,■, , 77; 
ClBirs.Ciinsuinpllonor,lnOollfomlo,140 



Cowper's Mother 
Carson Uotitc, 
Cabbage— Pretty line, 
Crop— A very lair, 
Callt'orninns, Old, 
Cranberries and Jelly, 

Calamities Changed to Blessings, 

Cultivator Band, 



141 

112 
116 
M'J 
156 
168, ISO, 205 
165 
105 



Colors and their Emblems, lee. 
California Agriculture t>. Opinion 

oftliot'MSUtes, 170 

Columbia Clipper, "o 

Cigars, ™ 

CorrespondenU, }i" 

Calll'ornlu Agrlciiltnro, 112 

Cure for Scratches In Horses, 178 

Comity Assessments, Outside the 

Cttyl.lio "4 

Crime, Publicity of, "8 



109 
110 
128 
125 
148 
149 
155, 208 
156 
157 
164 
164 
105 
170 
ITS 
179 
179 
8 — Re- 
179 
, 180 
184 
185 
188 
lor, 
in 



ral Fair, 
Great Exhibition In Kussia, 
Good Prices, 
Green Corn Pudding, 
Ocorge Washington, 

Good Living, , 

God Seen In all His Works, 

Grand Premiums, 

Groat Baby Show, 

Grape Culture In California, 

Good Claim, 

Germans, The, 

Grain Drills, 

Great Destitution, 

Gifts, 

Oamhllng upon the Steamers, 

Girls— A Lesson for, 

Grape Vine Frame— Cross , 

Grapes— Growing for Wine 

Crapes— Culture under GIi 

inarl-s on, 
Hardens and Nurseries— Localities 
(loo.l Scrlpuurnl Name, 
llranilfather'sJJIil Farm 
Genius of California, 

Grape— The Consord, 

Goat— The Cashmere, 

Harvesting, , „ _. ' 

llow to Treat Boots ard Shoos when 
Partially Burned, ' 8 

Horticulture, >»j„, «i ix. 

l|„ ril e ami Homesteads, ^M 4 ' '« 

Hannibal's Treatise on the RtsjSW, »» 

Hon. Sam'l Brannan, 

llow to Avoid Wrinkles and Nov 
to grow Gray, 

Horse Kl I by Bees, 

llow to Get Rid ol Fleas, 



L/lllO lll'L, ^. '- " 

Largest Mill In tho World, 

Lire, 

Lire is a Mystery, 

Labor Demand In Humboldt Co. 

Love and Poetry, 

Laughter, 

Eight Ho! Light Ilo! 

Manufacture of Axes in Collinsvllle, 

Connecticut, 2 

Milk for Manufacturers, j 

Mammoth Pea Stalk. ■> 

Mastodon— Dr. John C. Warren s, 5 

Market Reports. 6, 14, 22. 80, 88, * 1,54 

62, 71, 78, SO, 91, 1H2, 110. I \\ 126 

' 142, 153. 190, 800 

Married 0,14,22,80, 88, 46, B4, 62, 7" 

73.60.94, .02, 111!, 113, 186,142 

150 15S, 166, 174, 188, 19J. 198, 2n6 

Music, . , '"• v' 

Meeting or the Napa Ag. Society, 11 

MnnlBcenoe or a Single Lady, 2 

Morticing Machine, " 

MtalngBolle, _ 

Making Pine Apple Cheese, 6J 

Morning Star Temple ol Honor — 

D. M. Chnllwell, 74 

Morris White and La Grange Peach, 68 



Preserving Fruit, 

Protection to Crops, 

Plum Trees, 

Persevere, 

People's .lottrnal, 

Pctrlfled I'ine. 

Practical Hints about the Dairy, 

Potato sureb. 

Postmasters Paid, 
Pacific Railroad, 
Pompeii, 
Perpetual Thirst, 

Pea Nuts, ^r 

Preserving Flowers and Fruits, 85 

Preparation ol Flax, « 

PoSl llllices. 51,6} 

Page II. * 1 '";. „i 

Prolitalilc Gardening, "» 

Premiums Offered by the California 

State Agricultural Society, 07 

Peacciiiakers, 
Peseh Orchard, 

Piling up the Agony, 

Peaches, 

Poor Pay 1 Poor Preacb, 

Profanity, 

Pears and Nectarines, 

Puss them Along, 

Purchase of Mount Vernon, 

Pareil's New Restaurant, Sac, 

Pbysl. .logical Laws, 

Population, 

Personal. 

Propagation of Fine Roses, 

Public Hotels, 

Premiums at Cattle Show, 

Painful Verdict, 

Plant Utilbs, 

Passenger and Specie Transit, 

Panama, 

Pnlsati., n ol Various Animals, 
preservation orOrapcs, 

I' '.1 - Antidote for Mens 

Premium., offlc'l and Cor'tcd Ltot, ■; 
Prcs'vBtlonofOrolnnndVogetabli 
preserving Butter, BE 

Plough Early-Plough Deep, 
Peaches „t die Lagoon, »» 

Pomologlcal Department at County 



Steam Karioili-, 

Shall I bo a Farmer, 

Splendid Fruit, 

Bonatoi Owln, ; 

Sacramento Water Works, • 

BK I'.cihliiig Materials of Oregon. 

Btrawborrles, 25,83,139,147, 

Bacramcnto Industry, 
Saturday's Exhibition, 
Butter, capt ■!. A., 
spin. Uallosa, 

BUdwlcb Islands, 

South Fork Canal, 

Singular llisclosuros, 
strlcl.cn Out, 
steamer New World, 

-as Works, 

Selling Corn by V, eifllts, 
Striking Cuttings, 

Bpaylng Cows. 

siriloim 1'ranklinsExpedltlon, » 
I Slate Fair tattle Show, 
Shipment ol Treasure, ■' 

Splendid Fruit, Wine, AC, from I 

agon, 
Sandwich islands ,;> 

Springfield, Ohio. Cnltle Sale, 

-„!,-, of Valuable Stock, 4 

gpj, n dld i:. ...1. nc— Homo Farm,! 

Nursery, 
State Fair, Sacramento, u 

Strength or the Soil, ■> 

si.ori.honi .'attle Arrived, 9 

Seed t'ortl--Sclcct </0Vt, f 

Sweet Apple Pudding, 

Snake Story, $ 
Sacrament" B. P.. Meeting, 154, 172 

See.ls, A Chapter on, » 

Sowing Yellow Locust Seed, ' 

Shall the Children Danco, ' 

steamho.it Racing, f 

Saving Seed PoUtoea, ■> 

Setaineiito Cultivator, » 

Su.lc House at Saeriuucnto, " 

Bauramento Pottery, u 

Sutter'. Fort, J 

Shelter your stock, " 

BilBar— How much do wo Eat, " 

Stoppage of Milk In Cows, 2 

Seal Fisheries, , m ,. * 

BoJj Telegraph and Tribunes 

Solidified Mllfi, ' 8 

Social Position ot the Farmer or 

ehanic, " 

Shelter lor Farms 
SUo Works tor a Name, 
singular Case, J> 

1 and Onler, - 

St.euoer HOW World. AccldcnttO 
Saeraineiil" Enterprise, US 

Bheep-Broe.llng In Franco, ' 

Study of Natural History. »' 

Steamer New Brogdon a. Lcllp"- 



To .lohiinie o'er the Sea, 

The Monte, 

The Crops in Humboldt Connty, 

The Senator, 

The New Corial, 

The Drongthot the East. 98 

The Productions, Population and Vol 

uo of Cuba, 98 

The Election, 94 

To , by Oliver Taylor, 96 

The Weeping Willow, 100 

To Mary, on the Death of her Bonq't,104 
The Admonition of James Madison, 104 
True Courage, lu5 

To Our Subscribers, 
The state Fair, 
Tin Humboldt Times, 
Tll.len .V. Little, 

The Honey Bee, 
The row Tree, 
To Cure a Felon, 
Tendencies of Gambling, 
To My Mother In Heaven, 
The Man Over the Way, 
Tlie .'alirornla Farmer, 
The Milk Tree, 

The State Fair, 

The Bcautirul, 

Too Late. Too Lnto, 

The Koason Why, 

To I'revetitSmut In Wheat, 

The Ranunculus, 

The Home of Taste, 

Tomato falslip, 

The Grains of California, 

Tim Vermont Suite Fair, 
The Plata, 

The Catawba Grape, 

The i hrvsUl Palace, 

They were Never Children, 

The Beautiful, 

The Rochester Horllcutturallst, 

Tho Agriculture or Japan, 

The " Gone Goose," 188 

The Premium for the finest Baby, 188 

The Is'c -init S,,r 1&T 



90 
91 



105 
lull 
106 
106 
107 
10T 
109 
109 
109 
Ull 
118 

120,154 
117 
lis 

122, 128 

122 
123 
122 
128 
128 
128 
184 
124 
124, 196 
121 
125 
125 
128 
182 



63 
88 
91 
108 
108 
110 
1 7 
118 
121 
189 
123 
188 
188 
121 

188 

188 



1ST 
138 
145 
146 
149 
149 
158 
154 
155 
157 
101 



aud state Fairs. 

ITiiekoiil the Groins. 

Premiums. Agricultural, 

Parisian Worhl's Exhibition 

Patent Ofllce Circular, 

Pear Tree. At, Ancient, 

Premium,. Novel, 

Press Club, San Francisco. 

Preserving Fruit In Air-tight Cans, 150 

Post lllllccs. 

Pomologlcal Society, Boston, JM 

Perpetual Motion, ]'" 

P r. The, lo0, llS 

Plant Trees. '™ 

Plant Native Shrubs, ™ 

Paten; I Uliee Circular, }« 

Pro ( Fruit-growing In Oregon. 1,0 



.•runing Fruit Trees, 
Pendulum, The, 



Model Baby, 

Middle Yuba, 

More Elver Steamers, 

Musical Hall, Sacramento, 

Member's Tickets, 

Mrs. Ki'.ib's Concert*, 

Mildew and Blight on Grapes, 

Miss Pellet on Politic, 

Mercantile Library, 

Marry, 

Mining, 



ee, leiiiiniiiio, , „„, 

S4 1 Preparing Poultry for Market, 



SO 
'.Is 
9S 
9s 
19, 154 
lull 
lofi 
lis 
180 
189 



Mining, , ,,, , ,, 

Muslc,Mooiillght,LoveandFlowcrs,147 




Mustard and Salt, 

Marrying a Clerk, 

Monster Turnip, 

Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 

Mystery, 

Mav Day Fair, 

.Mlneraloglcal Specimens, 

Make your Girls Independent, 

Madame lTeill'er. the Traveler, 

Mammoth tree. 

Money Mailers— By a Lady, 

Manuring Fruit Trees, 

Mental improvement, 
My Molhei Knows Best, 

lining in El Dorado, 

InlngatGoudyoar's, 

o.lel harms, 
lore about Bonnets, 
s— Kern River, 
England Wine, 



P-ul Willi-, top rl.li; 1!:-, 

Paper-making In California, 

Profit, otn Maryland Farmer 

Price Currenl and shipping List, San 

Francisco, 
Pacific Itollrond Meeting, 

PI r Societies, 

Potatoes, Grown in Tan, 

P'ows, SI,-,!, 
Proverbs. 
P tnallly, 

Product, of Oregon, 

tec ,ii City, Steamer, 

Bare Green House Plants, 

Pice Italic, a G 1 ReclpO, 

Rich Sliver Ware, 

lie ic.lv for the Gapes In fowls, 

Raising Ants for their Egg., 

Bide Across the Plains, 

p.ctiini ,.f Lieut licekvvith, (Pacific 

Hall Koa-1.) '■ 

Raising Seed. « 

Roving Jack, Letters, 68,84 

Ruin In Sacramento, 

Bus. Pavement, _ 66 

Report of Committee on Farms, Gar- 
dens, Niirserh-, i,„ 18,181 

Bed ii- ad. I king an, »» 

Re.our i of California, 100, I3S 

U,| of I omiuittee oil Flour and 

Flouring Mills, 1]i 



171 

172 

172 

170 

181 

181 

n 

186 

190 

194 

Hi 

Vis 

2u0 
200 
808 

151 
11 
11 

27 
20 
20 
42 



Sunsliliic, 

The Lost and the Living. 

The Maiden and tile Hero, 

The Glorious Fourth, 

Tall Grain, 

The Concord Grape. 

The Scientific Convention, 

-I,,,, past, the Present and th«», « 

That wa. Sweet Butter, 
To Fluvio. 

Tho Gambler's wllh, 

The Flora of the Himalayas, 

The Floruof Baorainenlo, 

To Qraln Growers, 

To Mrs. R., 

Too Honest, 

The .ihl llakeu Bucket, ., 

T,, l:- >-l- rsofthe I ahmrnlaF, 3 

■11,, Paoldc lies-order, 1 

Truths to Formors, w 

-|-„ p r , v., it. owsliouislieddl, . 
The Dairy, .... '" 

T„ o child Blowing Bubbles, 20 

Til;: Si Way ... Buildup (26 

.- v ...«..lu Vn 



•Hi.- UlBlits .■.'N.-utnilH, 

Tho Mugnolia, 

The I'miluw "la ItnpenaHS, 

Thf Back Tree, 

Xhe Cut and tli« Camtry, 

Th.- Bl '■■" Fruit, 

To Qraln Growt-rs, 

TatAcoo, 



The We and Btor, 

The " Moil "has arrived, 

'riii.-n-'r. Work Knou^h to Do, 

'i'ii,' i inn 'H city, 

There le Beauty Everywhere, 

Tomato Pigs, 

To My AlMvnt Sister, 

Thankafftvlng. 

Ti'Jcm, From the. 

Tin* <i 1 :inii the BeonUfid, 

The Harvest Rymo, 
Tbaoksfrivlng in Canfornto, 
Thank»glvlng to our .^uhacrlbera, 163 
'i !■■.' a soeiotlon, 164 

The Farnllv Altar, 165 

Tho Milkman, 168 

The Turnpike Box and the Banker,, 169 
Treasure on the Yankee Blade, 170 
TrueLovr 173 

Thoushta Ni:ir a Mother's Gravo, 178 

ili«- Present Age, 177 

The Spirit* in Syria, 177 

To ft Dear Sister In ttieFar,F(trW*?8t,181 
The Study of Phrstologj byMoth'ra.181 
Tho Cheek, or Bearing Bain. 185 

Transition ofn Bool rrom Knrth to *j 
Reai en, 185 

To tho Betrayer, 198 

To the Readers of the Cal. Far., 194, 204 
The Buulan Trade, 194 

The Vintage, 

■ and Groins from China, 
The Pumpkin, 
The Orli ntal Merchant, 
The Industrial PalraflBH, 
Tonrnament »t the Fair, 
The Capitol Question Settled, 
The Close of the year. 
The Signs of the Thrifty Farmer, 
The Beauties or Nature, 
Union Hotel, 

I - i influence of Light, 
I'nion Water Company. 
Utility of Teas 
View- or California, 
Variety "f Pood KeoessaiK 
Vegetame Soups, 

\an Court*e I'lanlng Mills, 

Valnnbk Kecords, 
Voluiru' of Poems, 
Voracity of Rata, 
Vegetables, Floe, 
Vance's 1 1 ■■ ■ G illerr, 

\ egotablue from Pojaro \ 

blefl from WaahlngtoB Toi 
Wbul Is Manure, 

Write Boon, i ■ 

W bat the Farmer Most Needs, 11, 189 
What is Home! 19 

Woi kly Simuiiarvof News, 29,80,83 
Wheal Crops in Vroka, 28 

Wool Growing, 23 

Weeds I Wcedsll 29 

Washington Territory, 42 

Wurksof Art, 49 

Woman "n Floral Lesieon," 48 

Whai liasGov'nt Duue lur Agrlcurre,45 
WolM.il! Kan eh, 51 

Warm Wcatber, 52 

We Want More Population, 52 

Why Uon , ttheLadlesLearntoCook t Q7 
Woman, U7, io7, 128 

Welcomn Back, "4 

Watt l.'ohinson, 
v\ i 1!t i has Become of the CaL Far.. 



anaceo, . t i ■ 

Xo u> ve Marks from Tab oS 



The World Beaten, 

']■!,, Potato Crop, 

Two Men Uunj:, „, , _. 

■ n „. Emperor of China— W 
The Lesson, 
The Pre* , 
The Two Choices, 

., York State 1-air, 
The l-'armer's Home, 
•i' h( . c ,ild*s Gardeni 

The Broken-Hearted, 

■ [,, Correspondents, 
The Grood Work, 
The Bow-God, 
The Mir.,-" in CallroTDla, 
Ths Farmeri 

The Motherless, 

TO Annie, •■ 

TheGroal interest of uiun m 

%SSia raja— 1 

Tli„ WlfO Of Hi- Mmleiii I' 8» 

Tall i\ lioat, ' 7 



195 
IK 

m 

201 

-'"■.! 
Ihill 

203 
SM 
2.13 
SOS 
id 
10T 
160 
17S 
84 
U 
75 
St 
106 
113 
133 
133 
143 
209 
202 
5 



ffool Growing, 
What Shall lw Dr.no, 
Working Oxen, 

Wl.li- W. it, 

Wl,:,t 1 Live 9«t, 

Wl.l.-l. l« tho Mapnlom Nf»n. 

Wli.li <'r<ii,.s Should I..- 1- 

V, nil,- of Art, 

Who— Ueots 

Win, it ; :r,. .vitii: In MnftSHchusctta, 141 

« uVaUfli, 141 

Wool-Kroa Ing in Booth QaroUns, 149 
Win- Is tlie l-:inii.-r |il~, ontODtod, 168 
Wliiter Krnil— lit'tli. rl.'i; u..<l Btor 

log, 
wood, n'lii Proonota, 

i radi of Groat llrluln, 

Wl.it N.-vt. 

Wrlclii't. Banking uonje, 
W lier.- ,ln LMantaoomo From, 
Vtnn's G 
Wvuiao'fl Lough, 

Y 111'., rmiiitv, 

\ lllll,ee His,!.-, 

tnlraalt, 
nanu Whoat, 

V.'.ir Keul I'l.uniet, r, 



103 
lit! 
117 

lao 



us 

mi 



156 

SM 

'i.i'J 

tim 

M 
16 
«1 

•8 

905 





3hi.V 3J.U-.U * u vA 



Ss^ilteH ®«^s'iB««s« 



VOL. l. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 5, 1854. 



NO. 1, 



Memorial to Congress 

■Tn the tfontrebU, the Sraskfe Vnsl Hattsc of 'Rilptvsttttativcs, in 

. ... ,iih)ni ; 

'The umii+siytuiA w<-jltt *ortr^ry tfeffry *s«t thf* attention 

•of tke Hon* cuate'Vbro Hanee of feepreeetitutivea tu a 

fewWief thWghts tdtcWng *t subjofl, *vhirli the undersigned 

. I, ■ . .ti the Highest -linpomtnteto one of the 8tnteM of 

lie co ifdflorwcy sad 5*" of ili , ep 1 rnomewt to the whole Union. 

'feifiiblwWi thetasl State ai? ir3ft*W! into our glorious Union, 

Mm* mttcV tt-oli rapid ndvxncea 'xswSrnte, bns estnbliphed so 

ojn ii'' so flourishing ctt'.ta, ttdcwichetnnduig the dire and 

■ ft reposed '■^ftfouutJcfl that hawe swept them again and again 

i it I s'.'trrc" ahnost.Tjiy^ eXrtH tuag llnmes; nnd again imd 

'SfflSsSrTBsf niiaj ul Q*"6Jfiea (*al>meri;ed hy floods, iiupnrulled 

r the it :>(.■:>• of (iificr r»(cio*&. CnliforsiR, with nil these heavy 

■ .ulsstfil'iTfl -r l>i'-irii ,? ;(» Vif'-.'c crushed woaltMer States nnd older 

1 n,. nowatatidfi before<dhe tuitions of the world a phenomenon 

• of enAkirsncs fWWWdrse and success. 

Oolifonua, by harteaEoveriea in mineral wealth, has created 
hi ehterpriBe^M efterted influence upon the nations of earth 
•unequalled in the testory of the world. 

Her "-ities, lhAr a few years since were unknown, now con- 
■taia s rni a honsea of equal magnitude nnd beauty to those of any 
' ;itj of>the dUber States, and for merchnndiee, the city of San 
I '■rwr'^'u. tW' Queen City of the Pacific, contains wares and 
i ■ereluDt#9Q of the richest kinds from every nation of the oarth. 
(The flags of every nation wave in our harbor; a haftor that 
1 matto superior in fcba world, either tor the extent, or for the 
NeimCv. tonnage, »r apced of itn shipping. 

(Bat there are greater Interest" than all these, and intercuts of 
greater moment, and more enduring in their influence, upon 
t his State and Nation, mid the nations of the earth. 

Our cities may be destroyed by fin- nnd by flood, and then 
van be replaced by tin- gold that u found in our mountains and 
rivers; but tbiagold may not he forever j thin mineral wealth 
may be exhausted; — and If forever, we believe Calfbrme pos- 
sesses within her borders n mine of wealth richer by far twin 
nil othwr sources of wealth combined. 

The Agricuhura of California in ndw attracting a portion of 
that attention and interest which, when duly understood, np. 
predated nnd improved, will place the State before the world 
us poHMcseing advantages of pod and climate in all their variety, 
to ii degree never vouchsafed to any people. 

With a temperature varying from 12) f° of heat in her cities 
and valliea, to the mountains where tliesnows and iefe often. 
twenrv and thirty feet eternally lie,— with soil bo dry, that the 
eartb, during a portion or the season, opens in dinires suffi- 
ciently wide to catch animals tJiat fall into them, and yet these 
fissures mosl wisely ordained as the receptacles of the seed 
that fhiill, with the rainy season, restore again to the sooth its 
verdure and beauty*— *wfl hnv, too, soils la our valleys of vnsl 
extent, where the cultivation and the crops are ecu* be 
where many oi the frulta yield continually. 

There are valleys where, duriugtbe long dry season upon the 
surrounding hills, perpetual moisture is given to the crops in 
ileifc pulleys, by dewsoi oiiu-ual density nnd of an axtraordi- 
oary character, thus giving the bighesi tertUirj to the soil, and 
producing eropi ol extraordinary amount 

There u something so unusual In these peculiarities ol soil 
nnd climate, thevare so deeply Interesthin In rarioty, both in 
the qwditioa of the boU, thr.iiii.-n-ni degrees ol temperature In 

the same locality b; day sad by night, and the difference -it 

ralley from another, distant '"it. a revi miles, these I tlffcring 

in the chnrnotcr uf the soU. and in their atmospheric character, 
that this State possesses within the vast extern of her territory, 
iu her mountuinsj bills and valleys, a wealth m her a ■■ 
hitherto unknown, or granted Bo any people la the ■ 
world. 

Deeply Impressed as aw an vriuu ■ ad baring 

witnessed the woiulcriul developraonts nl ready mnd< 
"land ol proml ■-.' by o constant study ol those . Hpahtlihfv 
.-.nit hi intari ourse with the euMivaijoTS <>i the 
,. V1 . desire to lai ire your honorable body a a 
rias presented Itsell to nor minds most forcibly 
wonderful developments, and the events so nev 
end which are '<• bavsj aa bnportant bi u aettoji in 

it" future history, and which events, If seised ai 
moment will place our nation before the world iw tin 
tors of the world, foi we have an oppottunityn accomplish a 
[real worlt, and an opportunity whfob aa othar bum 
poasessed. 

CeUfbrnln, by Aa dteovsvy of gold within her boistera, 1m.* 
beoonae the residence ■"< "' aD 

uatiens oa the oarth," induci 
inclined 

nnd indu ■ ""d in i-vrry braurh ol tiwle. We 

..... people who have long dwell undei n ■ 
sway, now ud 

feel re* 

will work a great ren n'trioos ol 

ri[,> ,ii sd, if ai tin sajpro- 

itol time, aha word is fltrj our nation 

. , , . i .. OBssred to Is e t 

hich thai nniion has n m it- power to 
■ 
ffoni < earth, upon wh<nu we A 

greal i 

: . 

Htiit..- an 



better effected than by n College liberally endowed — where the 
youth of all nations shall find the doors open wide to receive 
"them, nnd where they could be instrueted in the natural sciences, 
and particularly the many youth who must eventually become 
cultivators of tlie soil. 

The present position of California, her relation to and with 
the Chmese, and the future nnd almost certain connection with 
the Japanese and the A^iatice — present a view to the reflecting 
mind of the most intense interest. 

This view nlone opens to us a world where our influence tells 
upon countless millions ! 

Shall this influence be exerted, and for good r 

Shall it be exerted now ? 

Shall California be the mission field, nnd shall our nation he 
the first to occupy it f 

God grant that it mny be so. 

Already this field in" "ready for the harvest;" for there are 
now within the borders of this State the people of that nation 
that counts by thousands and tens of thousands, and they are 
hut the heralds of the countless numbers that soon must follow, 
and in this great science of agriculture, while we extend to them 
protection and education, we shall be receiving in return, those 
revealments of that knowledge which that nation has possessed, 
as we may say, centuries m advance of us, and which will 
greatly add to our knowledge, wealth and greatness. 

California, by her climate, soil and temperature, beore close 
res.-mblnnce to China, The products of China, with but few 
exceptions, ore the same as California, and it is. not too much to 
aver that erelong, with their knowledge and aid, tea, rice, sugar, 
and many other products, will be found in this State. 

Alrmdy California has commenced the cultivation of cotton 
and tobacco— the grpat staples of our Southern States, and sugar, 
ted and coffee will soon be added, nnd, before ninny years, the 
silks nnd satins, and rich shawls, like those of India, will be the 
proud products of our own beloved country, if we are but true 
to ourselves, and to other nations, whom a wise providence is 
sending to us as helpers iu all these great works of urt and 
science 

Should Conprees in the spirit of lofty patriotism and humanity, 
incited by n noble do-in- to accept and Improve the opportunity 
dow presented to this nation* to be the first to otter a tree and 
liberal education in the bighesi sciences to the youth of all na- 
tions that come to us, and arc desirous to receive such a boon, 
tln-n t-imii m iinl'-'-d !><■ cntith d Co the same oi " ■ great coun- 
try" — mill our Institutions noble ones— for this will be the prool 

Mint OUT love ( if country, nod Confidence iti her. institutions and 
laws, are dearer to u*. than ntiv personal or rectariau feeUng or 

pride. 

At this mi nun it then' i- many ■> broad and fertile i alley, that 
incoming yean shall gladden us by Beldsof waving grain, and 
orchards i>i luscious iruh" — coani a bright lull side thai 
shall bo covered bj the vino and tkj tr» — many h tow 
mi. uatnin, upon whose lofty »uuurdl qj ^ stand, in all llu 
and glory, those giants ol the forests, that like ta I 
ftgfl, "the Mammoth Tra . ' the woodman wfil no longei 
iin ie too musi give plai o to thai onward nam 
Raxoa mce, o*cr mountain, bill nnd van 
elan 
... 
nnd the entire Anintir rririon, and wcii 
through the inuther iHiuntn . tu ■ 
Till Is il -and thus kIibII the pm] I • 

■ 
till.il.- 

"The desen shall blossom as ttu 

■■ Instead of the thorn shall i 

ol the oarth nliall boconu 

Shall ". ■ tbo 
f'rt'i ih«i] nnd ■ 
nuuiKui ■ 

■ 

i il earth, utd m 



With an enrti 



SaaFn WARAEN 



hill, sub-soil, centre-draft, etc.. etc., but as these 
were not put in competition, tne Committee can 
only say that for cast-iron plows they hold their 
usual high rank. 

The plows manufactured in this State bein^the 
only ones entitled to premiums, and this being 
the principal duty of the Committee, they pro- 
ceeded to the examination. 

A wrought steel plow from Stockton had been 
exhibited, but was withdrawn from competition. 

The various plows from Messrs. Morgan & Co., 
were such as to give pleasure in their examina- 
tion, and the Committee find them manufactured 
in a most satisfactory manner, and most creditable 
to the proprietor. From the abundant testimony 
before the Committee they are satisfied of their 
being the very best plows, and most thoroughly 
made, and plows that give greater satisfaction than 
any other steel plow in the country. 

The Committee, in view of the facts before them 
of the high merit and most excellent reputation of 
their real worth, award to L. K Morgan & Co., 
the premium prize, a silver plate, valued at $100. 

The Committee hope that with another year 
many new varieties of plows, adapted to all forms 
of culture, the side-hill, the subsoil and the deep- 
tiller, will be manufactured by our citizens, and 
thus retain at home the wealth of our State for 
the real benefit ofour own people. 

K. L. TlEAnn : J 

Wm. Neely Thompson, > Committee. 

J. IJbyant Hill. ; 



Report of the Committee on Fruit. 
Tin: undersigned were appointed a Committee 
to report upon the Fruits in the Agricultural 
Exhibition, and to make such awards as In their 
judgmenl the several speeinn-ns merited. Having 
attended to that duty, they take pleasure in mak- 
ing the following report and awi 
tin entering anon this duty, the Committee 
difficulty in arriving at an ium 

d aa t«- the name* and charocti r of the 
Kruit, from the fat, that, in (he introduction of 
varieties] into a new country, nuurv Trees will be 
imp-Tied under 'it: reality 

tod bearing diih ri n 
ditUnnt Stales ; and many known mrfeti 
ceiring new and local names fromvari 



the ■uudmful fertility of our toil, and the rapid 

ud "ill pro- 
TV and 



matter of 



the 



• . 

■■■ ■ 

ffhri 



Report of the Committee on Plows. 

Mb— n B- 1 Beard. Wm. Neelj Titoajpeon, 
and J. Bryant Hill, the Committoe appoinl 
itu.inl % silvi-r plate to the mmnu6irttircr 

ilifornia-ma*le plow on exhibition at the 
Acri' 'ultural Fair of Wan 
the plate SB Messrs. L E. MorgBfl 

is valued at |100. The following i« the 
isnort : 

The undersigned, having been appointed i 
Committee to examine U»e WIUSJ plow 

n and premiums at the Sta;- 
mded to that dm h foUow- 

rit.i ■■■ 



I; bis] b" -l(*rin*d of God, tf 
■cwted, t i 

- i >T '.-■ ia vrwiL 

peopls "! "II nulkitM.. 
• law* hih! msti- j «4 

jrttojji^BMMuJ ■ i ^"' h 2 u ^ , 'ThcKMll plows offered for exhibition and 
miums were as (o\\- 



LT> wj"l < 



thisea 

1 .-"^. I 



I.', nnd ot «o many 
I mart ro"J-vtIui y 



1.. K. Morgan v Pcorim Plows. Tir. : 

Clipper No. fi, a hipl.!\ tinished plow, witii 

wheels and eouli 14 inch I 

Clippi • 

SO, wheel and coulter. 2U in.h furrow, 
i Plain or Praine-lami P 

M steel and finished. rattin|r 10 inch 
(urn"' 

■.une crura. 
inch furrow ; So. T. same. 1('. mch farrow. 
I. E. Morgan ,v Co. exhibited in the Ball a 
par or prairie 
_- a 16 inch (arrow. p-tWvt.n; fmat 
upon the workmen in the scleral depart- 
. tncnts of their manufactory-, in the owstro • 1 1. n 
iictr plows; also a most beaatifial mod el a 
mniaiure plow, which was frhihsted opon a table 
!*w1S Se£^--MS-T^ i» thelUll. and attracted much attem..*. 
W.Laitwwlloih- wCuki There were also cast plows from the celebrated 

• or «kwj. •>< ta ■> **f aa a* r. 



:ure. 



ular Taneties, all go 
rti.-ulnre. 

warn. San Francisco— Two 
Strawberries; this fruit was 
■ m>.\ 
"Napa — Fire Xewtown Pip- 

-Sarramento — Speameaaof 

s. Monterev — California Al- 
Theae the Committee notice 
hxationa of success for that 



fine speesmens of Louise Beorre de Jersey 

ON rxrde* of Mr. 

It. and hnm.-ht I tij steamer. 

The Pears were fine and larfe. thoiarh the naror 

was roae. Ther were a p ama m a; niaiaiaraarr of 



Skat* in tlw (.'mod. *rr 




Th. f..;:.« r,. ■ > CT it>-cnt taSta were a!! fp ■ 
. irerou. forwank.i or preseated to the Hall, to 
add to the! 
the rootribi: 

From Cant- Poa xa A baste* of Terr fine 
Apples, gathered from a Bar* - 
this collect), m were flan sperJammv and duuu 
muirial nota-e. aad nxnt i laiai i a il i rin a t» the 
interest taken by Cast. Dodge in dm iTt i wata m 
o. Abmtt lioPjeoe . 
P.I.Mttv the product of 



nificent Oregon Pippin, of a bright golden hue, 
weighing one and a half pounds and measuring 
one foot and two inches in circumference. 

By George Sanderson, San Francisco — From 
the nurseries of J. B. Stevens, Oregon — A col- 
lection of fine Apples, five or six kinds, and all 
fine and valuable varieties — Spitzenburgs, Green- 
ings, Newark Pippins, etc. 

By J. Pn'tchard, from Oregon — One Golden 
Pippin, from Mihvankic ; a very perfect and beau- 
tiful s pecimen, weighing one pound five ounces. 

By Messrs. Truett & Truett, San Francisco — 
One Golden Pippin, from Oregon. This wonder- 
ful specimen was the admiration of all ; it was 
beautiful as it was large — weighing one pound 
nine ounces. 

By Patch A Clayton — Five large baskets of 
superior Russet Pears, fine sugary flavor, juicy. 
and :i first rate table fruit ; (from Kcdman Park, 
.Simla Clara.) Many of them weighed three- 
quarters of a pound each. Two dishes large 
purple Figs fully ripe, the second crop of the 
season. 

Patch and Clayton nlso exhibited the following 
fruits, imported by them: two baskets Oranges. 
from Bora Bora; two Cocoa Nuts (growing), do: 
two baskets Oranges, from Lahaina; one basket 
I. inns, from do; OBC basket Citrous, from do — all 
IultIi flavored and fragrant, and added much to 
the exhibition. 

From Julius K. Rose, Sonoma — Two dishes 
I'm 1 1 - large Apples; fonr dishes pnrplc Crapes; one 
dish white chasselas Grapes; two dishes purple 
Figs. The Grapes of Mr, Hose were large and 
fine berries, and of delirious flavor, one bunch 
weighing tivr pounds. The white Grapes were 
the first shown in this country of the vsri 
and though small berries, weie rich in flavor and 
esteemed highly. The, Figs were large, fully ri]>c 
and luscious. 

Prom Gen. M. M. McCarrer, Oregon Citi 
i«-d seedling Apples, verv large and I 
til'id. proved to be the Uravenstuin ; three i i 
hockings, winter grei tour pound Poai 

proved the true kngoru — this collection of fruits 
i y superb, and as fine specimen: 

r.d. 

From J. Levelling, Mission San Jost — Om I 
i lie Queen Pippin, I 
fornia Pippin box Crapes, very 

Mr. Lcwelling's Apples were remarkable. I 

is and grafts of thi 
The Gi . 

ing fivi 

and su| I Sugar ot Ro 

ii mi ol th 

i 

ii. Itolinas B 

aalband from one small tree; a port hi ■ ' 
Mr. Morgan 

i.. Julraa *. 

■ I tptcimet,. 
of anuuia limemmsd'T m.dal. $10. 

mid, of San 

Jose— hi 

apt. 1. I^welljm, 

of San Jose— ftrat clasa slver medal, 810. 

There were several < 

bemg attrt for esl " ot T'"!" 

miumv and some from Oregon — all of sack 

beaaty and exceUenre. that u 

nil aid to bare it in their power t 

special priaes hare been placed at U, 

br Me»-r«. Warren A Soa, aad they ami 

foOowing extra awards : 

ird, Reamaa I ■ 







• and Fi«»— a aperial priae, flrat dm 

Mesam. Paaeh k ClaytaB— fcr b am tsTnl Sl 

- 

\ Margmv Bolma. 
eolkcsioa «f rVmajH-fh^ dam sflTar meda' fl- 



lifts <&®n$®zwA® @mm%%* 



Gen. M. M. M. Carver, Oregon City— for 
b Pears and Apples, specimens reflecting 
•at credit npon him and his nursery — a first 
■lass silver medal, $10. 

To Gen. M. G. Vallejo, Sonoma-=-for collection 
of Apples and Grapes"-'tirst class silver medal,® 10. 
To E. L. Beard, San Jose-— for Porter Apples 
and extra Grapes— first class silver medal, $10. ' 
The Committee congratulate our citizens in the 
pleasing assurance they have of an abundance of 
luscious fruits of the very highest character and 
in a brief time, and wc would assure all, that 
from the specimens exhibited at this Fair, no one 
need longer doubt of success. The Committee 
have been highly gratified to know by actual taste 
that many of the fruits were most excellent and 
high flavored, although they had been long gath- 
ered and had remained at the room many weeks. 
The Committee hope that all who feel an in- 
terest in Fruit growing will hereafter give that 
■care in the selection of only the best varieties, and 
strive for correctness in nan.e and variety which 
is of so much importance and will save so much 
disappointment. 

The Committee notice that at this date many 
of the best specimens are in perfect keeping, and 
now at the Hail, having reamained eight weeks 
on exhibition. F. W. Macondray, 

Julius K. Rose, 
Win. Neely Thompson - , 
Davio Chambers, 
G. P. Throckmorton. 



Report on California Flour. 

The following is the report of the Committee 
on California Flour, exhibited at the late Agricul- 
tural Fair : 

The undersigned. Committee on Flour, assem- 
bled at the store of Coit & Beals, to investigate 
the eight samples of California made Flonr ex- 
hibited at your Agricultural Fair, in competition 
for the award of a fifty dollar cup. The commit- 
tee of three were all old New*- York flour mer- 
chants, and have given each of the samples sub- 
mitted to us their full share of attention. 

We would premise, that three of the samples 
wero inferior in quality, two defective in color, 
and, for the credit of the mills, should never have 
been sent to the Fair, evidently being made of 
unsound and inferior wheat. One sample badly 
bolted ; five samples were all of choice quality. 
and deserving of special commendation, and each 
worthy of the brand of Extra Family Flour. 
The Committee reduced, by careful comparison 
and tests, the five samples, marked A. C. E. F. G., 
down to three, C. E. F., and after comparing them 
for a half hour, finally decided to mix up the 
three samples into dough, which test reduced us 
to two samples, E. and F.; and. though unani- 
mous in our judgment that E. was. m all respects 
the best flour, and accordingly decided that that 
was the premium sample, and entitled fully I" 
the award of a silver cup, we feel convinced that 
tho three arc worthy of special merit. 

After declaring the award, we proceeded to 
open the key to the initials, and find that ''Horn- 
er's Mills," of San Jose, was represented by "E.;" 
that the '-Benicia Mills." J. F. Honghtou,' agent, 
was "F i" and tha^ "C." represented the "Wash- 
ington Mills," W. Van Court, of San Francisco ; 
"G." represented the "Happy Valley Mills" Fitch 
&■ Co.; and last, though not least. "A" represent- 
ed the "San Joaquin Steam Mills," Calvin, Paige 
& Co. proprietors. 

Since making our award, wc have called in a 
fourth New York flour dealer, and to whom the 
eight samples were submitted ; and wc arc happy 
to say, that the gentleman without hesitation 
threw out the three inferior samples as unworthy 
a place in the Exhibition, and of the remaining 
five samples, his opinion, in all respects, corres 
ponded with our own, which, to himself was a 
surprise, though to the Committee, a very satis- 
isfactory test that wc had decided righteously. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

H. Channino Beals, 
E. T. Pease. 
Wm. S. Alton. 

P. S. — Since making our report we have been 
authorized to say that Messrs. Warren & Son have 
placed at the disposal of the Committee, in addi- 
tion to the Premium Prize offered by them, the 
following Special Prizes: 

A silver cup for the second best, and three first 
class silver medals to the proprietors of the four 
choice samples of Extra Family Flour, presented 
to us for competition, and which have a special 
notice in our report. 

The Committee beg to remark, in conclusion, 
that the live samples of Flour were all of a high 
grade and the specimens do infinite credit to our 
State and we are free to say, cannot be excelled 
in an , respect, by any mills in the United States. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

H. Ciiannino Beals, Chairman 

Anatomical Curiosities. 

As 'he subject of Petrified Bones has been given 
a gen. I al attention, from the recent exhibition ol 
them at the late Agricultural Fair, the following 
speculations of Dr. Coit in regard to them cannot 
be ui iteresting. 

Mi jsrs. Warren & Son— Gents : In com- 
\' ] ' Ml request, I write you the con- 

:it which 1 have arrived, touching the 
,nk "' action of bones now in your 

Exhil nil. With the exception of some frag- 
ment vidently canine— they are human bones 
marly the same state of preservation 
■ in that particular according ir. the dif- 
ages of the individuals of whom 
*c parts, or tho accidental circumstances in 



which tliey have lain, and which were more or 
less favorable to their preservation. 

The; crania, though differing from «ach other in 
shape;, all present the distinctive characteristic »f- 
the North American Indians, namely, the high, 
broad check bones. They are generally in a good 
s tate of preservation, as also the long bones of the 
fore arm, still presenting a polished surface; and 
the fragment of the liead of the tibia or leg bone, 
quite undecayed. showing the cells of the cancel- 
lated portion unbroken and perfect. 

The teeth comprise both human and canine. 
Of the human, some are large and strong, a few 
being likewise much worn ; these are doubtless 
of men of different ages; others arc more delicate 
yet evidently adult, and are those of women ; and 
others still are small, and in some instances want- 
ing the bony fang — it having completely wasted 
away, leaving only the crown ef the tooth covered 
with enamel. These are the teeth of children. 

There are quite a number of canine teeth, both 
large and small, and in a perfect state of preser- 
vation ; also a portion of the upper jaw of the 
dog, with the alviolar processes slightly crumbled. 

These bones are all more or less incvustcd with 
carbonate of lime, similar to the ealcarous deposits 
common in limestone caverns. In some cases, it 
is arranged in layers or successive deposits, while 
in others it is arranged in large clusters of crys- 
tals, and in some instances both occur. 

The similarity in the stage of decay presented 
b}' those bones, indicate that the persons to whom 
they belonged in life perished at about the same 
time. From their position and arrangement when 
discovered, they appear to occupy the places where 
the victims met death. The confused state in 
which a large number were found, an if the re- 
mains of many persons who crowded, npon each 
other when dying; and in other instances the 
bones ef an individual were found apart by 
themselves — all conveying the impression that 
they were found precisely where the individuals 
of whom they were parts met their death. 

With regard to the length of time that these 
bones have occupied the places where they were 
discovered, we can only judge from the- state of 
decay that they exhibit — I think it was less than 
a century. It is impossible to* arrive at any just 
estimate,from the calcareous deposit that wnerusted 
them, nor from the crystals of limestone that were 
upon them, as these deposits were the result of 
chemical action, requiring many or few years, 
according to circumstances. How they came to 
be in tho cave is of course conjectural. It was 
evidently a small tribe or family, probably of the 
races of Indians still inhabiting California, who. 
with their dogs, took refuge there, perhaps to 
escape from a hostile band, and were there incar- 
cerated till starvation destroyed the whole. No- 
thing appears to have been found indicating that 
it was a place of sepulchre 

Yours. Benj. B. Coit. 



Consolidation of Sandy Soil. 

The importance of consolidating the land in 
the vicinity of our city, has of late been fully 
appreciated. To my knoweldge. no propositions 
On this subject have as yet been made, and 1 take 
this opportunity to submit my views on a matter 
of such general interest. 

The simplest way to make compact a moveable 
sandy surface, is the establishment of a suitable 
vegetation, which, once created, connects Un- 
loose masses by its interlaced roots, and at the 
same time, by its formation above the ground. 
breaks the power of the wind and lessens its 
destructive influence. 

By examining the original vegetation of our 
"downs" in those places '.'.here they are now 
covered with verdure, wc find a flora, which is 
particularly distinguished from that of the fertile 
soil by its ramifications. Small and scantily de- 
veloped Khizomata sustain a multitude of shoots 
which extend in all directions and rather resemble 
groups of vegetation than indrf idual plants. Ex- 
amples are. Chorizanthc, Polygonum, Nepcta, 
and several Oenothera and Sihierostigma, 

These ramifications arc not always above the 
ground, but often deeply below it ; and the tourist 
will sometimes find, with astonishment, Ilia' in 
endeavoring to extract a plant from the ground, 
several oilier plants in different directions will be 
moved, and provided the connection is strong 
enough, will follow the one pulled out, although 
they hud the appearance of being separate and 
disconnected. Examples of this ease are fur- 
nished by the genera Polygonum, Eriogonum, 
Abronia, etc. etc. 

Another peculiarity of the ''down" vegetation 
is the preponderance of succulents over the ligne- 
ous property of plants, anil which with apparently 
scanty resources, acquire and support a vast 
amount of organic moisture. I refer to the 
Cactus Family of plants. It will strike every 
spectator, how diminutive the roots are. which 
sustain such an enormous mass of vegetable life. 
In our "down" flora we have but a lew and less 
remarkable forms, developed in such proportions 
above the ground. I recollect, only one - Mesem- 
brianthenium.'' and one " Ehevria," which might 
be placed in this category. Formations below the 
surfaCoare furnished by "Sicyos" anil "Abronia" 
whose colossal routs have frequently astonished 
the newly arrived fanner, when breaking up the 
ground. 

Concerning shrubs and trees as well as annual 
plants, there is little difference between the veg- 
etation of our "downs" and that of tho fertile soil. 

A remarkable feature of this scanty and un- 
seemly Bora is its great vital power, which in 
mosi instances produces a pormanenc - of organs 
usually perishable in their nature. 'Long after 
the flora of the fertile soil is burned to dust by 
the rays of the sun, and its remnant carried away 



by the winds, the vegetation of our sand downs- 
has lost none of its freshness of appearance and' 
grows with equal life and strength, as it did in 
the favorable season. The peiiennial plants push' 
their stems and blossoms in. the fail as well' as in 
the spring, the foliage of the shrubs remains nut- 
changed, and some- genera, for instance "Flriogo- 
num" Graphaliunt, retain even the colored' parts 
of the inflorescence long after the seed protected 1 
by the same has been matured. Nor is this diffi- 
cult to account for. Organic life in its contact 
with inorganic matter always uses the most suit-' 
able weapon, and whilst, individually, death and , 
destruction appear to predominate, yet collectively, 
life and developement obtain the victory. 

It is true the process is a slow one, and as j 
regards the "downs," ages upon ages might 
elapse without ourco-opcrtttinn. before the organic* 
kingdom could eclohratv its triumph ovor tile 
crystalline frigidity of the quartz sand. CaJifor- 
nians will hardly take much pleasure in observing 
a development whose single phases arc centuries. 
Let us hasten, therefore, the coin-sc of nature, and 
arrest the course of the sand.. Tho advancing, 
over watch li d enemy, has conquered already many 
a beautiful tract of land. 

In- selecting the proper remedy, let us adopt the 
way pointed out by nature ; let us enter into an 
alliance with a vegetable kingdom. 

A first bulwark and protection for- our proposed 
greensward, would be found in the jremu cactus, 
several species ofwhibft thrive w«ll :n this climate. 
This plant is satisfied with the poorest soil, and 
rows of it planted lo windward would protect the 
growth of lower herbs, which, in return by their 
shoots, would hold together the loose sand near' 
the cactus hedge. Well qualified for such a pur- 
pose are the grapes, " Polynogan and Elymus." 
also of their families "Abronia and Trameria.'* 
To render the hedge more dense, yon mav plant 
Artemisia, I.upinus, and other shrulw. and where- 
ever the soil is moist enough, willowsand poplars. 

Some circumstances contribute mneb to facili- 
tate the- growth of such parallel hedges, and to 
Improve the intervening soil. The most favorable 
one is the proximity of Mir large growing town. 
The influence of animal exhalation upon plants is 
usually much nnderated. Professor Liebig draws 
oar attention to the importance of the ammonium 
contained in atmospheric fluids, for the growth oil 
plants, and everybody, who like myself, for 
several years has attentively observed the condi- 
tion of our Downs, will have noticed a marked 
difference in their vegetation, as it was and as it is. 

I have thus briefly sketched the fundamental 
features of a plan which, when suited to each 
locality must be attended with favorable results. 
1 shali feel proud to behold with the bodily oye 
the realization of ideas, which long filled my 
mental vision, and lu rejoice in the -Hit of happy 
dwellings and verdure on those barren :• 
that now oiler their sandy surfaces to the furv of 
the wind. 

Citizens of a gnat country, which has been 
more powerful in creating than all tin- nations of 

I'tiqu \ 111 lies r , 11 .,;■ here 16 8 worth', II'- ' : f !: 

California energy. .Make a paradise out of this 
desert, and you will build for yourself a nobler 
monunxtlit than ever was sculptured in m.nlil 
or reared by servile bonds; for he is the true 
benefactor of mankind who makes two blades "V 
grass to grow, where formerly grew l.ut one. 
■ On. Herman Bebb 



We republish the following most excellent 
article from the Evening Journal, on account of 
very just tribute it pays to the influence of agri- 
culture upon all other interests in a community : 

Agriculture— 77>e Future. — it is a well- 
known fact that agriculture is the main I l 
in the success of every civilized country. Upon 
it must the superstructure of an extended com- 
merce, nourishing trade, and all the varied suc- 
. -esses ofa community or people he built. It is a 
foundation stone proven by the experience of past 
ages lo he linn as tin- eternal hills — not to lie 
Bhaken by any adversity. No country has ever 
failed of success that has paid proper attention to 
this the greatest of all resources, for the reason 
that upon it depends cwvy other branch of em- 
ployment. The merchant, mechanic, miner and 
professional man are all mainly dependant upon 
the agricultural resourcesof the country in which 
they reside, fur whatever of enduring success they 
may enjoy. In proportion with the extent of soil 
cultivated and the number of inhabitants engag- 
ing in the peaceful and honorable pursuit of agri- 
culture, will be the rise and progress — the pros- 
perity of a country. To the cultivation of her 
soil (hen, must California, the richest mineral 
country in the world, look in the future for her 
success, and not to the yields from her mines. 
The population of an agricultural country is 
stable; its members are fixtures, whose whole 
influence is brought to bear in sustaining and 
furthering the best interests ofthe community of 
which they form so honorable a body. The soil 
of California is one upon which nature lias 
showered plenteous gifts: il is rich in native pro- 
ducts and susceptible of higher cultivation than 
any other in the wide world. Within her soul h- 
ern portion rich tropical fruits and t&6 Staples of 
the southern Atlantic Slates can be raised in 

abundance. In her northern and middle districts 

the adaptation of the -nil to the raising in tre- 
mendous quantities the cereal grains, the tobacco 
plant, and the lines! vegetable growths in the 
world, has been demonstrated beyond tho possi- 
bility of tho slightest doubt, Evidence of the fact 
can l«- witnessed in quantity in this city at tho 
exhibition room ef Messrs. Warren & Sun. 

There must be some arrest bo the mineral 

resources of this as well as any other country, but 

to the agricultural there can be no bounds. 



Chemistry has come to the aid of agriculture of 
late years, and now not only tells what the soil 
of any particular district is best adapted to thc- 
growth of, but by analysis demonstrates truth- 
fully — unerringly, the subsistance to be mixed 
with it to increase-its nutrition or power of pro- 
ducing ; hence millions upon millions of years can 
roll by and yet no fimit to the richness of Cali- 
fornia soil, or to the yield of its harvestings be 
found. When the people of this State think less 
of the sudden accumulation of fortunes, and in * 
connection with it. their own personal pleasures, 
turning their attention to the encouragement of 
a^ricidtuyal pursuits, and the sustenance of agri- 
cultural interests, then, and not till then, will Cali- 
fornia exhibit to all nations a success hitherto un- 
approached and thereafter unapproachable. To a* 
knowledge of this fact some of her inhabitants 
seem to be awakening. Merchants in our cit\ 
are seeing the necessity of establishing some sure- 
foundation for their future success in trade. Those- 
who feel an abiding interest in tin's State, who 
care for her future success, and look npon her as 
henceforth their only home, are endeavoring to- 
advance the cause of agriculture in even- way. 

Whatever has a tendency to increase the num- 
ber of the agriculturists, and whatever tends u% 
thrmv light upon the yet hidden resources of our 
extensive valleys and plains, is worthy of tlit- 
deepest aiti aad attention from ail class in the-- 
Sftttc. 



California State Agricultural Society., 
In. pursuance of a call issued in a circular by 
Warren & Son, and signed by many ofthe prom- 
nent cultivators of our State, a Convention of 
the Farmers ami others interested in Agriculture* 
was held in Musical Hall, 0>r the purpose of form- 
ing a State Society. The Convention met IV- 
cember 6, at 3 r. ml, whsa- Jaiius K. Kose, Esq., 
was called' to the Chair, and Wm. Ne/rloy Thomp- 
son, Esq, appointed Secretary. 

The Chairman said - The object of this Con- 
vention — of this meeting, which, should have been 
a Convention — is to organize an Agricultural 
Society on a permanent basis, fo" the purpose of 
Treating an interest among the people in all parts 
ofthe State- in the Science of Agriculture. There 
are only a few of us here totday, but I know that 
the greatest results flew fr-sm. small beginnings 
such as this. 1 would! reeommend to this meet- 
ing to proceed to nominate a £onmiittee for tho 
purpose of drawing up a constitution and by- 
laws, and recoinmendin- permanent officers for 
the Society. I know that i£ this course be pur- 
sued, the Society will shortly have a decided in- 
crease, ai'd- will receive ace u all pares 
ofthe Slate. We can lenea Society b'Te as 

res] tble as any Agricultural Society m tho 

Union. The subjecl gseal importance 

particularly I this ■ a id i Be on which 
it> ul; • : rity will deji ml. The 

cultural fntej lly equal k> 

those of any Stat [hope the 

gentlemen present will proceed to take proper 
action in the premises, 

Mr. C. V. Gillespie said he fully concurred in 
the remarks of the Chairman ed to 

appoint i ttce to draw 11 istii ution 

and by-laws. 

iht motion, it was res (he abovo 

Commitl 

The i 1 '' following named 

gentle a such Committee: C V.. Gillespie. San 

Francisco; .1. Bryant Hill, Santa Cruz; Win. 
Neely Thompson', San Francisco; J. J -\. 
San Diego ; K. I.. Beard, AJame 

Mr. Gillespie moved Unit the name of tho 
Chairman la- added to that Committee. The 
motion prevailed. 

On motion, the Convention then adjourned. 

Agreeable to adjournment, tin- Convention met 
in the evening at 7 l-l! o^clocK. 

The Committee which had been appointed re- 
ported a constitution, which after Bsmc debat* 
was unanimously adopted. 

The Society then went into an election of offi- 
cers, which resulted as follows: 

President — F. W. McCOHBKAY. 

Vice Presidents — One from each county: J.M. 
Horner. Alameda; Mai. John Bidwell, Unite; 
Mr. Chipman, Contra Costa; Abel Stearns. Los 
Angeles: Jerome D. Ford, Mendocino ; Gen. ('. 
J. Hutchinson, Sacramento; C. M. Weber, San 
Joaquin; Dr. J. B. Clements. San Luis Obispo.; 
Wm. F. While. Santa I Yuz: Maj. I'. I!. Heading, 
Shasta; Hen. li. M. VaMejo. Sonoma; Mr. Ryan, 
Trinity; lien. John A. Suiter, Sfuba; .lau.es K. 
DeLong, El Dorado; rapt.. I. A. Morgan, Marin; 
J. Bryant Hill, Monterey ; .1. W. i Isborne, Napa; 
Judge .1. Judson Ames. San Diego; S. R.Throck- 
morton, San Francisco; J. F. Kennedy, Santa 
Clara; Pablo de la Guerre, Santo Barbara; Jef- 
ferson Hunt. San Bernardino; Simpson Thomp- 
son. Solano; B. Linoberg, Tuolome. Vacancies 

in olhel inties will he filled CUtiVO 

Committee as provided by the Constitn 
Recording So retari — i'. V. Gill 

surer — lodge David Chan 
Corrcsponding'Sccretarj — Col. J.L. P. Warren. 
Executive ' tommil tee B. IV Board Uomeda 

county ; Julius K. Rose, San I nutv : 

D. W. 0. Thompson, Sono . ELC.Ma- 

lono, Santa Clara county ; N\ in. eTcely Than 
San Francisco count) . 

iftersome remarks by < !ol.Warren,Mr.Thomp- 
son, and Mr. I 

thanks t" I lol ality in fur- 

nishing the Society with a place of meeting ftc, 
which was passed unanimously, 

The Society being fully organised, and there 
appearing no further business the Convention 
adjourned tine die. 



$)).* 3fl!U$&ffin$<a §mntt\ti 



3 



PROSPECTUS 

•CALIFORNIA' FARMER 

And Journal of Useful Sciences. 
We commence the issue of this J 
Agr,« ■ , nd kindred Sciences, with jtho be- 

ginning of the New Year. 

. , isundcr the charge 

■of Dt. -J. V. M >r«b, ef Siicramente, (fermerly 

ditoi "ftlK- Union |- agisted by Col. U'auiu:n, 

of the firm of Warres A Son, whe will nd in the 

teiculturaJ and Market Reports, and V'mth,.. 

"and domestic data. 

It will h<- thi- aim af the priblishdrs to furnish 
<o their readers, -1st, The most useful data fin- the 
•practieul Agriculturist, and to pnve-nt £ them 
all the most important practioaJ results, oUu.mwI 
from authentic sources, in our own Stale, 

2. To present the latest and most important 
•facts from our sister States iwd Europe, W«chfclg 

Agriculture, hi all its .nunches, 

3. To furnish familiar illustrations of vatatble 
Agricultural Implements, together with remarks 

•explanatory of their character a*nd success. 

4. To furnish complete Gram Tables and Mar- 
ket Reports, and ethnr data 'cortweoted therewith. 

5. General and Critical Notices of the various 
Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of our 

•■country -and of Europe, Sufficient to guide oua 
<jwn Oultrvators, and keep tfheni advised of the 
progress of the Science. 

(i. A portion of the JieftjRNAL will devoted to 
Select Literature-- the aim of which will be to 
exhibit the purifying influences which .low from 
the pursuits df Agriculture, Horticulture and 
.rural life. That kind of Literature which tends 
to a morbid excitability of the mind— which 
superinduces a species of sickly sentimentality, 
•■and degrades instead of elevates the character of 
man— -as well as politics and sectarianism, will 
be rigidly excluded from its pages: our aim 
being to -cultivate a love for and an interest in 
those useful Sciences which must ever add to the 
happiness of mankind. 

Cultivators of the Soil, and all who feel an 
interest in these all-important and fundamental 
sources of our prosperity and happiness, are cor- 
dially invited to communicate with us freely. 
Their valuable aid is what we earnestly desire. 

Advertisements in this Journal (of which a 
limited number will be inserted) will reach a 
circulation hitherto unattained, extending to the 
remotest Agricultural Districts purtirubirly — thus 
making it of the highest interest for all matters 
pertaining to Agriculture. 

AH communications for the Editorial columns 
should be forwarded to Dr. J. F. Mouse. Sacra- 
mento.or may bo left at the office, on Bush street, 
two doors below Montgomery, San Francisco. 

Communications on Business, Reports on Agri- 
culture, and advertisements, should be addressed 
to J. F. Morse & Co., or warren a Son. San 
Francisco. 

Terms of the Paper — $>8 peranuum, in advance. 
Persons wishing to act as Agents, will please 
forward their names to 

.1. F. MORSE & CO., 
(Publishers California Farmer.) 

Mush street, below Montgomery. 
San Francisco, Cal. 



Eastern News. 

liv the ni-runl vf the 

....■■ . Co . ■ ■ . , . 

port on BaturdN] i] 

Nort Orleam la thi 
■,. lama Ai on Thiiion, imd y ■ ■ \ . idi 

fin.l Hinl-iun 
W ( - gjvi rtnww, from tho N. V < [ ■'■■' ! 

WjMiAwet^H; Cons, mei to-d«y 

c! mii'ii-'.'ii trerc preccutiuclio Hjuh ol Kcpresontatives, ol 
which number 148 fdteflfor L-ynn Boyd, who woe tlpclnred 
didy clectod SpwJrer. J. W, Fomei wns then olsotod clerk. 

Tin- s-'uiitr wAa'Oo&ed i" ortlcr by Mr, Atchiaon, president 
pro ■'■ >■■■ 

Mttesra. Johiuon <»i Arkim-ue, Bell, of Tcnneavee, and AHen 
pf RhodoMi*.!. •presented Ifceir ercdratinls. Mr, Baynmin, of 
i.nui.-iimm, anDoanoed die election of John Slidoll, an Senator 
from 1,oui^]'.niL, it. place of Mr, Senile. Mr. Slidall and the other 
iipw members wfljre then sworn in and Cook their seats. Com- 
mittees were appointed to wait upon the President of the United 
sinrps. to iiifiinn him of the organization, and that the two 
houses were ready to receive u messuue from him. 

The PreeMentB'a Message had not been delivered up to the 
7th, but a correspondent of the New Orieans Pamyune tore- 
ported to have ubtnuicd a copy, and telegraphed it to New 
Orleans 

President's Message.— We copy the following outline of 
President Picrce'e forthcoming Message, from the Wmbington 
correspondent of the New York Times : 

Washington, Sunday Night, December 4th. 

The Message of President Pierce may be communicated to 
CopgresB ttKOOrraw, though probably not belore Tuesday. It 
will not be us long hh those which have lately preceded it Its 
statement of our existing relations with Foreign Powers will be 
marked by that terseness and explicit brevity which character- 
izes all ot the President's speeches and writings. 

The Message will briefly recapitulate the facts in the Kosztn 
cose, announce the principles laid down by our Government in 
connection with it, and proeluhn that the President is determined 
to stand by them 

It will lay before Congress the present status of our relations 
with Mexico, and the favorable aspect of existing diplomatic 
negotiations with thut nation. 

It will ijive iin olhrinl statement of the recent difficulty at the 
Chincha Islands, and probably an announcement of its satisfac- 
tory adjustment between our Government and that of Peru. 

Nothing seems to be known ub to what will be said about open- 
ing the Amazon, but the President will probably press the im- 
mense commercial advantages which will accrue to our country 
if Brazil can, by some means, I"' induced to throw that truthful 
and wonderful river opeu to the Iree competition of the com- 
merce of the world. 

The Message will give n statement of the present aspect of the 
Fishery Question, and show that no treaty has been matured in 
regard to it. It will call the particular attention ol Congress to 
the importance, at the present juncture, ol defining, with more 
accuracy, the boundary line between the United titutes and the 
British Possessions on the North, 

It will suggest the justice ol the Spanish claims for indomiiity 
in the cum' of tin - schooner Amietoa— aoiiiuuih erl b itii severity 
upon the oonduct of the Spanish authorities in Cuba towards 
American citizens in that Island ; and will Intimate ber Catholic 
Majesty that such proceedings must be stopped wid i delay. 

A large Increase "I the Navy, runi a irinilitirntiitii ul the \t\ii\ 

according to die suggestions of the BecTctary of War, will he 
recommended. 
An extension of the land system, with Bome moduli 

over the trr r'lti in> — I'liili mi. I NftW MeXlCO : and in i i\j;ini hi lln' 

general system ol the Public Lands, alterations In fhvorof actual 
settlers and extenslan of the pren met ion principle. 

luiportanl ImprovomonlB in the Patent Laws, designed to on- 
courage ai ul protect .\ :un Inventors, "ill !"■ pro ■ 

A change in the presold Judicial system ol the United States 
will lie recommended, on the ground that the pi 
lion ui courts Is madequAto. 

Iji regard to Internal improvements the PreaUI^n) irOl not sub- 
mli any estimates for appropriations, and will base Ids reasons 
for w ithholdinn them upon tin in i 
LnefKcinncy ol the prosenl system, and Its Ini di 

the demands "i" amerce, and afford accessary security and 

protection to human life and to property. 

In regard to the subject of Slavery, the Pn ildenl will retiffmn 
the Compromise and union doctrines of] 

ith an explli li and em| 
for li'iuM , loon. He will sbi 

he always stood, the champion nnd defender otthM' i -ntuhonal 
ri L 'lit« of each nnd c\ erj our i»l tl ■■ ~' 
no ninii' i 

null Dixou'i Line, nnd show thai the i 
dear to him as tl ' 

Ami lu the ipecbi] measunv ho will >.: ■<-** will 

be, I inn 

the addii 

Tbr qoeaSi<m 
nt li-iK'Ju m«l « '■ 

_ 

■ 



\'<'ll. 'Mil-, lllllt 

the Turks from it; 
I continued through 
hundred killed or 



The Turkish War. 

Ky ti:' : mei Europn, at Hnliiiix, w<- 

have Eurajican totclUgcnco ta ih<' 19th November. Ti .• inv 
between Rutetn nlid Turkoy, occuplee the public attentiOQ, to 
the'aieliulOD al almoel ovorj oUier topic. We extract r .<■ 
following detaua ol the battle o( ' lltonltaa. 

On the 2d and 3d in tanl tlio Kuastan General Pauloff endea- 
vored to prevent the Turk, from establishms ll eelvea In 

"dvn i Olwnitia, on tbe VVaUaehienslde of the Danube. 

The On ana n tainad their poairiona, and conaed the ttua- 

aiuna the looa of aix hundred men, at ig whom are eighteen 

olh'eers. Thopoeltlro of Oltomtzn, aituated aboul lit 'riyi-alit 

mdcafrom Bucharest, which ia the boius of their operutfons in 

Wiuiachia, appeared hh important to itf Ri 

they r.'.-nltnl to nuOre n fresh etfurt It. drive 

Tin: attscB was recommenced on tie 4th, i 

part of the 5th. The Russians had twel 

wounded ? and it i^ stated ny certain timr the Otton 

armed with the Vlncennes carhinesi nuule terrible havoc in tin: 

nuiktt of rhf otHcers, Almost -.11 we commandera t.t" corps 

have fallen. We will admit that we nave no details of the con- 

sequencea of the set 1 engagement, but from the bmnmone 

' le to Prince Gorteohakorr bv Omer Pncha, to deliver np nil 

the lortiii.-tl |:l:ir,:^ into the hands of the Turks, nnd to evacuate 
tin- Principalities as prompflv n* possible, there is reason to 
in in that tin' troops of the Button have assumed a real attitude 
ol superiority. 

Timt then: should be some discrepancy in the accounts 
is natural enough ; but they nil agree that a battle has been 
fought, and that the Turks have hud the best of it. Prince 
Gortschakolli tbe eonnimndcr-iii-chiel of the Russian forces, has 
left Bucharest, and advanced his head-guartera nearer the 
Danube; tin: nest feat of arms will probably he the battle, or 
siege, or storming of Bucharest. 

The Russian Government has officially announced that after 
the 23d of November, nil Turkish vessels iu Russian harbors 
will be seized ns lawful prizes. At Odessa the greatest activity 
prevails in the corn trade. Four hundred vessels entered that 
port on the 10th of Oetoner. and double that number was 
expected. The corn deposit can fill them all ami more. 

As yet there ore no BVmptoms of the commencement of a 
rising in the Italian provinces of Austria. The third corns d'arimr 
in Poland was ordered to march to join Gojtschakotf ; but on 
the representation of Prince Pnskiewiewitch, the Russian com- 
mander, that such a step would be dangerous, the order was 
countermanded. Tbe Czar will, it is said, proceed in person 
to the theatre of war. The eventual position tbnt Austria will 
assume is anxiously discussed. As yet she as well as Prussia 
remain neutral, or at leust profess neutrality. But can they 
resist the tbrce of circumstances V The Porte had promised 
nut toemploy Austrian subjoots (refugees) in Kurope inner 
nnnies. The liisr telegraphic despatch from Vienna suites that 

Gen Klnpn, the unlltiut defender of Comoro, hns received a 
coimunud. 



From Sonora. 

The following Interesting news from .Sonora was brought by 
Mr. Goodman, wlioeiimr passenger in tile VlBurgis, which ar- 
rived at this purl tin the 1st hist, in :!-t days from Mnzntliin : 

Mr. Goodmnii left here ns passengeroo tin: bark Caroline, 

being ignorant at tile ti i the uusuiess she was engaged In, 

lie owned a taiderable pari "i her cargo, which was destined 

for Guaymss, all ol whlchhelost He was on board tho Caro- 
iin' st tin' time is tin' ongogemenl at Ls I'nz, and witnessed 
the affair from the deck which be represents as a sharp tight: 

tin- "Filiilinstei-" lust fonrmen ami thaltesdcolu seven, I 

quite ii number wounded. 

Mr. Goodman subsequently felt tor Mention. The British 
ship of war was ol Uszstlan when he arrived, but when hor 
eon nander heard ol whatwas u-oinu' en in Lower California, 
begot anderwtrj atones, to protect the interests "i British 
subjects In I G nans neonlo took 

refuge in the Vtas in- arrived at La Paz,amrjDB 

whom wns Mr. Robinson, ectin liainand 

the United Stores et that place, Tin- rjooplo were desperately 
. to murder Mr. ReMnson, rmder the 

'1 « itii the Filli- 

busoera. TheVhesn then tailed for Mnitstlsn, having e horse. 

Dumber 

numder celled oi tins aiwl wam«l 

In: limy rein.'.lll in H.ijn 
Calhornls or tsonom, unlrss tiny sctuany tosik up *nn* aesinnt 
tioieut. 

In MexarjBii, a fleet of tour n 



Enterprise. 

It is frequently remarked, and it is sis 
admitted, that in no place on earth has ll 
such instances of individual enterprise, ivoi 
energy and almost superhuman exertions made, « 
in California. Twenty years since, had snch en- 
terprise been prophesied, they would have prompt- 
ly been pronounced us fabulous — impossibilities; 
and yet, if we look around and note the changes 
that take place suddenly, we see daily evidenct, 
that in California there has been given to the 
mind a will to plan and execute, almost beyond 
human belief. We are led to these remarks by 
facts that came under our own observation very 
recently. The splendid buildings recently erect- 
ly erected by Messrs. Maynard, Peachy, Halleck 
& Billings, on Montgomery street, the stores of 
the Hon. S. Braunan, and of Lieut. Maynard, on 
Sansome street — these with many others that ar» 
an honor to the proprietors and to the city, are 
surely indubitable proofs of California enterprise, 
worthy of note. We note also with pleasure 
that indsfatigable Mr. Winn, with whom to plan 
is but to finish, announced that he would be 
happy to see his friends in his new saloon, on 
Friday evening last. Passing that way in the 
morning, about 9 A. M., and supposing our friend 
was nearly ready, we were surprised to find that 
the masons were but just commencing to break 
away the heavy arches of masonry that opened 
into the new saloon. Supposing the opening as 
announced, to be almost beyond possibility, we 
passed on. At 2 p. M. carpenters, painters and 
masons were making a scene of noise and dust, 
hardly compatible with tho usual style of Mr. 
W.'s saloon. Passing that way again at 9 P. M.. 
a gay and numerous company of ladies and gen- 
tlemen were thronging a spacious saloon, amid 
columned arches, richly Curtained — seated at the 
tables beneath superb mil rors— and enjoying "ice 
creams," "cakes," and confections ; and this too, 
ii a Milnon now superbly furnished, where even 
lix hours previous the walls were unfinished. 

It is gratifying to notice such instances of that 
enterprise in our citizens; it is such energy and 
tact, that has made California what it is, and with 
tin- same dispositions among our wealthy citizens, 
to erect such specimens of architectural beauty, 
and those who occupy them to display equal skill 
in gratifying public taste, California will ever 
maintain her ascendency among the wealthy and 
Influential staies..i' the Onion. 



. K.us uaii.nl 

■ 
: nnort train at cars was nssaensl 

rhe UVei 



Washington's Interest in Agriculture. 

The Washington [ntclligencer, speaking of the 

lerest evinced by Washington to improve the 
ockof the country, alludes to the work pub- 
lished some time since, entitled " Washington's 
Letter on Agriculture;" from (hat valuable work 
(he follow Ing record is made : 

Hen-. Washington's Molesu- Upon Wash- 
ington's first retirement in is;."., he became con- 
vinced of the defective nature of the working 
animals used in the agriculture of the Southern 
States, ami sel about remedying the evil by the 
introduction ol' mules instead of horses — the mule 
licine; found to live longer, he less liable :-. <lis 
case. v. aire and in every respect to be 

more valuable nnd economical than a horse, in the 
agricultural labor of the South. 

l'p to 17 any mules Hire to I* 

found in (he American Confederation : a t. ■ 
been Imported from the West Indies, hut the] 
were of dimunitjve sin and of litti. 
soon as the views of the illustrious farmer of 
Mount Vernon were known on this subject, he 
received a present from the King of S|rain of a 
jack and two jcinn I from (he royal stud 

at Madrid, 'the jack, called the Royal 'iilt 
was sixteen hands Inch, of a gray color, heavily 
made, and of sluggish disposition. At the same 
time the Marquis de 1 . 
end jennies from the 1-1 

■■ ,, . ,- , , , , nunaofs ere vsimu at tt twi a sdb mm as wo 

called th- Knight ,.t Mai ipcrb animal, p^,^-^,,. ^. cahfonn. tnde » uw «,. 

black color, with the form "t a stag and tie 

city of a tiger. Washington avaiud himself .f 

the best qua 

breeds, ami hence obtain 

Compound, which animal united the size 

strength"! the tiill with the 



California Cotton. 

Wf. have Inen shown a sample of cotton raised 
tanto, by Thomas Selby, Esq. Al- 
though the staple is slmr! yet it is \ery tine and 
.ill lV i ul would probably 

tnirably ada] ultura of this article, and 

• yen if no I- d than 



Bai RAJHMTO City.— Never was there exhibited 
a more magnificent enterprise by any community 
of individuals, than has hern manifesting itself 
in this city during the past twelve months. We 
question whether it will ever he surpassed, and 
we know that it has never as yet licca equalled 
dor entire cit\ has bean regenerated and im- 
proved in a manner thai Hiding 
in contemplation than enduring in all the (ba- 
in the lir-t 

.,. grade Of our streets. 

,.| litb-CTsduring impulse 
to the city, that n mpart- 

ed. Now onr principle thoroughfares or. 
OI ,lv r. I with a b OasTst, 

but th '" cx " 

anil 

therefore not 

then for a 
,1 and really 

ly oc- 

wonder and unar. -cond 

and Ti 

nd ol 



HoajMei.*: trr*ia.— On Saturday. IV- 
kii Irwnmau, eraptoyru at R...1 , Inwrt, snB lorn a .at n 
rainimt two huudrru barrels ot hnfima; berr, and an i 
daMuverrd until U.r -• hour. .it. r All rbe 1 — r ra turned 

Reason are current in Boston of tbe aniMnre of two or tA 



from the able annual 



artiviti oft 
Vernon in 17- 



t,eneral hrod >. 



hi 



Iphia 



5 coach 
for the 



Superior mi 

them from I 

fcw year - 

with • 

heigh' 

uscf ■ ■ 

a* the • for V 

no p>" : M ts an. 

unpi ( .yrti,-,i 

larly entill 

in the uttrod c 










me mt 
-r<ak more in 



Bpfaen BVrrae, she nuuu Baresm 

'1'W- .1 Sir R.--i.-.' 

aaer, and M .:- • I - storm an. r»»i '....I ton . 

>urr ISi-m. by a von m : i- : . ax. i. .- 
edgre IN r, . i . :. C III Peek aari r*kmi « • 



,-.-nOy iliMianul. eaa] 
i i »i ia i l rVn.. anal Bar Mk of au nrunrrrj 
UOeU so to wise and coana. 




antmesst yessr leas bsasa ii 

■oin-i 1 r. 



Imports of Lornber. 
Some idea of tbe unrnrtanee of this branch of 

aajaj h*Jaaal -_-..- aeejj ^r hi (..rtni-1 I'r-ui ibe- 6wt that fpun 

sM arrived from 
r] to ctnmmaari hi gh prteea . and L^^^ ^ pogel 5^^ twentTJlf- ,«*.U, 

„ a . n . ^ am ,'„,;•.. ;.' • • . ". .. ■ .■,-,- ,n ail twcnty-s« hundredan-l t,r\?+** 

v H „^Dd feet, srr-i fmm Uuml-ldt and K..l.ne- 

.11 the easae time there arrived thuitra 

^ro^d;^^ 

artc>-m«.,t >. ,.-... tr^nared ton of loneAer, aaahag an au<*S>>i « 



Tata lliafls- 1 
ber the cmbm 




a riii 

nai'jp.- 



U v .r ,ng »it U IsM 



- 
six or eight iiiisfjttsa 



•f the ai tn«» ...»r 



Q%$ QlztUivzwA® &mw$%<i 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 
Thursday, January 5, 185a- 



In the beginning of an enterprise of so m uch 
importance as our title page expresses, we di;sirc 
to make a clear and candid statement of the 
principles by which we shall be governed. We 
arc confident tlsat the very nature of the work 
proposed will excite a sufficient interest to secure 
to us an extensive circulation — a circulation, too. 
amongst a class of readers whose habits are much 
more favorable to a close and scrutinizing system 
af reading than is generally found amidst the 
hurried and excited dlenizcnship of cities. To 
meet the wants of such a circulation m ust be the 
most pleasant employment in which the mind can 
be enlisted. It Is <# all intellectual fractions the 
most exalted, from fchevery fact that it is complete 
in proportien as it is imbued with truth and 
utility. N» man can write to suit the views and 
expectations «f * ramd devoted to any of the 
■departments of Agriculture, unless he confines 
himself, iia a great degree, to that which is pro- 
minently useful. Such a declaration, however, 
dees not prohibit his indulgence in everything 
that is truly beautiful.- for a farmer cannot con- 
-ccive of anythrag that is truly beautiful unless it 
be beautifully true. The mind that is developed 
under the auspices of Agriculture, becomes too 
strongly wedded to the realities of life, and to 
the consecrated truthfulness of nature, to turn 
wftih a rigorous Telish to the fictions and follies 
of an artificial, and not unfrequently fantastic 
state of society. 

That which contributes most directly to the 
substantial happiness of mankind, that which 
really advances and elevates the science of Hus- 
bandry, of all pursuits the most productive ; that 
which holds in constant revelation the purest com- 
minglingsoflife and nature; that which is the most 
honest and unaffected in its teachings, is the kind 
of "information — the kind of literature or science 
which is received and cherished by a competent 
farmer. And this is the kind of information 
which we desire to communicate. To collect and 
present in agreeable portraiture the ever varying 
suggestions of science — to record the progressive 
developments of Agriculture, and submit them to 
the consideration of our California Farmers is, or 
should be, the peculiar object of our work. This 
is at any rate the course we shall adopt. Eschew- 
ing all partyisms in politics, all the affectations 
•of society, and all the cant of religion, we shall 
devote ourselves to the improvement of Agricul- 
ture, to the embellishment of Homes, and to the 
elevation of Human Character. 

The science of Farming has been lamentably 
neglected in California: — and yet enough has 
been done to demonstrate the agricultural re- 
sources of our country as equal to any section of 
the world. The soil is found to be of the most 
tortile and exhaustless character, varying in its 
adaptations according to topography, the seasons 
beautifully divided and appropriated, and the 
o'imate so combined as to afford all the advan- 
ces of a temperate or tropical zone without the 
respective evils that attend their separate applica- 
tion. 

With such advantages in our favor, there is 
nothing too useful, too extensive or varied for 
California Agriculture to achieve. But to make 
; icccss certain, men and mind must be zealously 
engaged in the devclopement of this immense 
• iepartment of wealth. The grand and extensive 
area of tilablc land within the borders of our 
.State should be improved, and when improved, 
ihould be known. It is true that within the last 
wo years considerable attention has been paid to 
.rming. But it has only been in the improve- 
ment and cultivation of the choice garden spots 
of the country — land which nature has so en- 
riched and prepared for Agriculture that outlay 
i id trouble hardly attend the cultivation of it. 
tut now the public mind is becoming impressed 
■ ith the great importance of Agriculture as a 
chief reliance in the more substantial and perma- 
■nt growth of the Commonwealth. Husband- 
en are beginning to appreciate the advantages 
of securing and improving farms ; but the differ- 
ence in seasons, in climate and the peculiarity of 
Boil, are matters about which men of intelligence 
ure seeking information. They would like to 
have the advantage of consulting the experiences 
of those who have already engaged in Horticul- 
ture and Pomology ; they would like to know 
what encouragement can be offered for the raising 
stock — to what extent men may engage in the 
iiairy business with a fair prospect of success— 
whether it would not be profitable to convert our 
kind, into Rice fields, — whether many of the 



productions of China from which immense reve- 
nues are realized cannot be transferred to Cali- 
fornia and cultivated with profit ; these and a 
thousand kindred subjects upon which reliable 
information is desired, offer a sufficient indnce- 



A Splendid Yield of Wheat. 

We are informed yesterday, by a Mr. Petit, 

whose farm is located upon the American River, 

just above Brighton, that he sowed 160 lbs. of 

wheat last year, and that it yielded 170 bushels. 



ment for the establishment of an Agricultural This fact, nnder any circumstanees, would be 
Journal. These are the reasons that have urged most interesting to the mind of a farmer but it is 
us into the enterprise in which we have now ] especially interesting to men who arrived in this 
fairly embarked. To the consideration of such ; part of the country in '49, and passed by this 
subjects we now dedicate a journal that shall be same land. It is situated upon the western bor- 
second to no other vehicle of useful information , der of an immense prairie, fronting upon the 
in the State. American River, and so elevated in its topography 

But to redeem such a pledge, we must receive as nevcT to be subject to inundation- This soil is 
the liberal support of those who feel an interest dry and sandy, and for a number of months in the 
in any of the departments of the science of Agri- 1 year presents so barren an appearance as to chal- 
culture. In no country are there more intelligent lenge confidence in its capacity to sustain vegeta- 
farmers than in California, and it is from these i tation. The trouble of tilling is almost nominal, 
that we expect a most essential support ; not from ' and yet when plowed and seeded, ft will produce 
subscriptions and advertisement alone, but from a crop of wheat or barley equal to any soil that 
the innumerable and thrilling sources of infomia- [ can be found upon the face of the earth. As the 
tion which are opened to individuals, and which, farm recedes from the river, it is marked by slight 
when recorded and published, become of invalu- ; undulations, until it loses itself in an expansive 
able benefit to the masses. I plain which extends to a distance of twelve and 

We earnestly solicit farmers to communicate ; twenty miles. To what extent this land depends 
with us in respect to the number of acres they upon the river referred to for its nourishment and 
cultivate; the quantity of grains and vegetables . fertility, has not yet been given an adequate test, 
raised; the kind, number and quality of stock ;! nor will it until the demand for an agricultural 
the quality of soil improved, how ploughed, , era becomes much greater than it now is. But 
planted and irrigrated ; the fencing best adapted I so far as previous indications are concerned, there 
to the country; the topography of farms; the best is ample reason to believe that in many seasons 



kind of dwellings, barns and farming utensils; and 
an infinite variety of useful matter, with which 
we can make interesting our journal. By respond- 
ing to such a wish, we will be placed in a position 
in which we can infinitely benefit Agriculture, 
and through Agriculture advance all the depart- 
ments of usefulness and improvements in our 
State. 

If the votaries of farming will take a little 
trouble upon themselves in affording this kind of 
support, we will engage to furnish a weekly jour- 
nal that will be a credit to the cause, and an 
interesting visitant to every household in the 
commonwealth. 

As long as we control its columns, so long shall 
it be devoted to the useful and sublime office of 
elevating the husbandry of the Eureka State, of 
improvement in morals, and to the rational and 



that which is most remotely situated from the 
banks of the stream, could be made to yield an 
excellent revenue to industry. The indigenous 
growths, whether upon the river or in the centre 
of the prairie, present the most thrifty and luxuri- 
ant array of foliage and flowers every spring ; 
and the probability is that nothing would be 
required to substitute grains for the wild flowers, 
except an adaptation of seeding to the season of 
rain, the grain being deposited in the ground early 
or late, as the studied indications of a wet or dry 
season suggested. But as this opens the questions 
of seasons and signs, we must postpone further 
thoughts, until we can obtain an accumulation of 
data. 



The Grape, 
There is probably no country where the Grape 
sound entertainments of pure and living liter- ■ produces so abundatly from slight culture as in 
ature. As soon as we feel that our effort is sub- California, and this profuse return is working in 
stantially seconded by the public, we will make I a measure to the injury of the cultivators, by 
arrangements for presenting original matter that \ retarding that attention to a right cultivation 
will be fully worthy of the science and interests which would produce astonishing results. Some 



to which we devote the Farmer. 

With such aims we open our record, and most 
earnestly invite a liberal co-operation. From the 
press around us we know we shall receive an en- 
couragement fully equal to our claims, and this is 
all we expect or demand. 



California State Agricultural Society. 

We shall ever be happy in giving an impetus 
to the advancement of the cause of Agriculture 
and its kindred associations, by presenting the 
interests of the " State Agricultural Society" to 
the citizens of California and our whole country. 
Now that a "State Society" has been organized, 
we feel it to be our duty as well as our pleasure 
to keep its interests and claims before the com- 
munity. 

We are happy to announce that three gentle- 
men have come forward voluntarily and signified 
their desire to donate one hundred dollars, each, 
—to form a fund for the Society — provided twenty 
names could be ofl'ercd. We feel confident that 
it only requires these facts to be made known to 
secure not only twenty, h\\i fifty, or one hundred 
names. By the constitution recently adopted at 
the organization of the society, one hundred dol-l crops ami fine fruit, the cultivator 



of the most singular and foolish systems are 
adopted in the planting of the Grape that the 
mind can conceive of. We have seen what men 
called vineyards, where a long cutting had been 
put into the ground by means of a crow-bar— for 
we could not call it planting; the persons sup- 
posing all that was necessary was to make a hole, 
and insert the cane about two feet, and they would 
shortly have a vineyard. 

Again, we have seen those who suppose it suf- 
ficient to plough the ground, and then plant the 
vines the proper distances apart, and leave them 
to grow, occasionally mowing clown the weeds 
and high grass which would grow between them. 

To all who desire to raise grapes Jit to eat, we 
say most emphatically: "Nothing great is ever 
accomplished without great labor." And most 
emphatically would we urge this upon the grape 
growers and fruit orchardists of California. By 
this we do not mean to be understood us advising 
expensive or extravagant labor. We mean judi- 
cious and well-directed effort. 

Every variety of fruit needs appropriate soil 
and culture. The Grape needs peculiar soil and 
skill in its cultivation. If we would have large 

ihould undcr- 



lars constitutes a person a Life .Member, with all > stand the wants of the cine. If he would become 
the privileges of the Society, and without further I a successful grower of it, he should know not 
assessments. only how to plant the vine, but how to grow it ; 

We sincerely trust those who feel an interest j how ripen the wood, how to prune it; the quantity 



in so valuable an institution, and reflect upon the 
good it can accomplish so soon as it has the 
means to operate with will not hesitate to step 
nobly forward and commence the work. 



of Grapes each vine should bear without injury, and 
when the fruit sets, how to color them ; how and 
when to thin the bunches ; all these duties should 
be well understood by the cultivator. Men may 



By the reported list of officers it will be ob- ! grow what are called Grapes by an easier process 
served that David Chambers, of Page, Bacon & but they will bo such grapes that "if the fathers 
Co., is the Treasurer of the Society, where the eat them, the children's teeth will be set on edgo." 
money can be deposited. We trust tnege remarks wffl ^ prcyent a 

single person from planting this valuable fruit, 
but rather induce them to desire that knowledge 



We would call attention to the communication of 
Dr. Herman Behr, which appears in another col- 
umn. It is upon a subject of essential importance 
to the inhabitants of San Francisco, and the 
Doctor has exhibited a commendable interest, in 
the suggestions he has thrown out for considera- 
tion. 



A new fashioned brick machine, at the Ma- 
ryland Agricultural Fair, with the aid of one 
horse, "turned out" 16,000 bricks per day. 



by which they can be numbered among the suc- 
cessful. To all such we commend "Hoare's 
Treatise on the Vine." This work has met the 
approval of the most scientific cultivators of the 
old country and the United States. 

In future numbers we shall, as far as possible, 
give practical results of the cultivation of the vine 
in California, and we ask of all wdio are interested 
to favor us with their experience. 



The Peach. 

The cultivation of the Peach will form a new- 
era in the history of this most delicious fruit. Its 
rapid growth, its early fruiting, the immense crops- 
it wiir produce — if we should judge from its early 
and hasty advent— give us the assurance that 
ere long the markets of Francisco- will be as 
noted for the Peaches of celebrated orchards in 
Nappa, Sonoma, Suscol, Santa Clara and Los 
Angeles, as are the markets of New York for the 
famous orchards of the Jerseys, &x.. 

What think you kind reader of, beholding, as 
you visit the markets of Francisco, in 1856, each 
morning, long rows of baskets of the luscious 
" red cheeked Melacaton^ " Crawford'searly and 
late Rareripes, " Royal- George," " Old Mixon," 
and many other celebrated Peaches; upon which 
you have luxuriated in years gone ?>y. Does not 
your mouth water, gentle reader? If you will 
but help us with your pen and your Influence, we 
will not keep you waiting till 1855 ; give us your 
looks and words of cheea; and we will reward you 
with a portion of the crop of 1854. 

The Peach can be easily grown from the pit, 
and in some cases will produce fruit the second 
year from the stone; in California, easily, the 
third year. By careful attention and study of the 
nature and characteristics of this fruit, and by 
securing choice seedlings, a person can secure an 
orchard of the very finest fruits, without the 
trouble of budding; many of the most delicious 
kinds being original seedling, although it does not 
always follow that " like produces like." 

The Peach, as well as all other stone fruit, 
sport greatly, particularly when grown amidst 
their species of different varieties. Fruits change 
in their varieties from many causes; they change 
by the process of hybridization, by the seasons. 
by the character of the soil, and when grafted 
or budded by the nature of the tree to which they 
are transferred. For instance, the graft of a sweet 
apple, united upon the stock of sour variety, or 
via versa, will more or less change the character 
of the fruit; so the luscious melting pear, when 
placed upon harder, breaking or baking species. 
changes the flavor to some extent, and this change 
goes on in a more or less susceptible degree, 
through all the ramifications of pomology. 

Here, with a genial clime and a luxuriant soil 
that secures a rapid and at the same time a healthy 
growth of all seedling fruits, we look forward 
most hopefully for the benefits arising to pom- 
ology, by a list of valuable seedling fruits, the 
productions of the earnest and skilful cultivators 
of the Eureka State. 



Is California a fit Place for a Home ? 

There is a strange conception upon the minds 
of the mass of people in the older States particu- 
larly the Middle and Western, as to the character 
and condition of this State, and as to its ever 
being a permanent place of business or a lit place 
for a "Home." 

Many who now visit this city for the first time 
are struck with wonder and astonishment at the 
extent of her populous streets, the magnitude, 
finish and durability of her warehouses and the 
splendor of her general appearance. A large por- 
tion of the east have but a feeble idea of the 
advance she has made in the arts or the wealth 
she exhibits in her agricultural resources. 
Strangers who visit us now have so little idea of 
her advantages, that when the evidences rise 
before them, they are lost in wonder. There has 
propably been no one thing more beneficial and 
conclusive, or that has had an influence so great 

in inducing people to become permanent citizens 
and purchase land and settle thereon, than the 
display of the agricultural products recently ex- 
hibited in this city. This exhibition was the 
more wonderful from the fact that but few persons 
have ever engaged in the cultivation of the soil 
as permanent citizens — the greater portion doing 
it to realize profit for the time — a mere matter of 
speculation — and not as a science or a permanent 
business. 

It is a matter of great satisfaction to know ' 
the Agricultural Exhibition of the present ye. 
has been the means of inducing many who were 
yet unfixed in their purposes to become satisfied 
with California and to make up their minds to 
emain with us and become members of this 
growing commonwealth. It is also very pleasing 
to know the fact, and it can be attested to by 
hundreds, that the products of this season that 
have been seen by new comers, have been so con- 
vincing, that many of them have sent back at 
once and ordered their families to join them, feel- 
ing safe in their choir -.and convinced that a coun- 
try that could in this brief spare of time rereal 
such productions, was a place to be called Home. 



@j).$ <S(8lWtS®81B$t9 i?1J3 , 3Jj:>;3< 



Rural Cemeteries. 

Op all tlic subjects that wake up the sentient 
elements of the soul, this is the most touching in 
its sacred, its pathetic appeals. In the reservations 
of ample ami beautiful grounds for the resting 
places of the dead, and in their legal consecrations 
to the offices of burial and undisturbed repose. 
there is something not only sublimely good and 
beautiful, but it constitutes the only true criterion 
by whieh to judge Individual, family or nation. 
In proportion, as we honor and protect the gravis 
of the loved ones departed, just in such a degree 
will we cherish the sentiments of affection and 
esteem for the living. No man with honorable feel- 
ings; no man that ever nourished and sustained 
an ennobling thought ; no man that has a recol- 
lection extending from one day to the other, can 
witness the desecration of a grave, or a violation 
of the rights of the dead, without a sensation of 
honor like that which the coils of a snake would 
impart to a naked body. Everything in the 
human soul revolts at a barbarity so gross, a 
beastliness so depraved. 

There was a time, we can remember it well, 
when a grave yard was. a source of fear to our 
Blind. But we had only then contemplated such 
places through; the medium of a vision that was 
filled with gloomy burial scenes, that affected 
other and strange households. We did not then 
associate the mournful and plaintive interest 
which bereavement induces, and which hallows 
the sacred resting place of a departed friend. We 
had not then been told that memory and the 
grave were the only remaining relics that bound 
us to a fondly treasured companionship. The 
earth had not yet closed over the form of a father 
or mother, brother or sister, wife or child. And 
yet we could not then have marshalled up a suf- 
ficient stock of courage or thoughtlessness to 
rudely step upon what we know to be a grave. 
We had at that time an undefinable, a gloomy 
veneration for all places of interment, and since 
death with its inexorable decrees has made us 
painfully familiar with their uses and value, we 
cannot too earnestly invoke their beautification 
and consecration to all the sublime and hallowed 
purposes for which they are designed. 

This indeed seems to be a feeling so generally 
prevalent in our country, that nothing short of a 
consecrated ami beautiful rural cemetery will an 
ewer the demand of public opinion, in proof of 
this, we refer with unutterable pride, and with 
feelings of the most profound satisfaction to the 
present efforts to open and set apart a proper 
cemetery in the environs of San Francisco. Suoh 
a movement is worthy of that great metropolis. 
It is worthy of the American people, worthy of 
California. We hope and trust that all the powers 
of art and nature « ill in- brought into operation 
to adorn and perfect ii. There is no reason why 

it should not be one of the most loaul il'ul placet 
in the world for interment. An enclosure, sub- 
stantially protected, ornamented bj nvemr 
lawns, beautifully I with plant 

llowci i, i i embowered in the 

perennial foliage of the symbol™ Oypp 

shaded bj the dl lUghs of the 

Babylonica, will become a feature of interest upon 

the Pacific, that, more than kughl else, will de- 
mons! mobling progress of tin 
Baa people. In su 

indulge i;,s melancholy reflections, and chi 
memory of the dead, without a fear t!. 
avarice or s! „.,. „f „,au v , j 

disturb the ream a i r whom it mourns. 

Nothing but a beautiful cemetery. — a place that 
is embellished with sun-welcoming monm 
with.sculpturcd tigures. w ith grass-covered mounds 
and the varied little head-stones that hold up the 
record, "sacred to the memory of" — can i 
to the wants of surviving affection. 

We only hope that wJ 
noblj lly imitated in the 

inland cities :ito may not only 

have;! ad its hurying-ground, but that 

it may take I0 have an entrain 

can and will 

milch importance should pay more attention to 
protecting the graves of her cil 



Agriculture at the Sandwich Islands. 

By the reports received from the Sandwich 
Islands, we learn that an increasing interest is 
felt in all branches of this science. Froift the 
transactions of the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural 
Society, kindly furnished us by the President, we 
note the prosperous condition of that society. 

By the annual report of their treasurer, wc 
learn that they have one hundred and twenty- 
four paying members, yielding $620 annually. 
In 1851 $500 was raised by voluntary subscrip- 
tions, and instantly the Government of the Island, 
by an act, voted the same amount — $500. 

The society have now $1,500 funded property 
drawing interest. Their income from; annual 
members and receipts at their exhibitions onablo 
them to award this year $900 in prizes and books. 
A very able address was delivered by their cor- 
responding secretary, John Montgomery, Esq., in 
June last, at their annual meeting. Wc note 
important features in the address, wherein the 
speaker urges with earnestness those who desire 
the prosperity of the Islands to these facts, and 
the same features exist in California, and can be 
urged with the same earnestness. The address 
calls upon the Islanders to look to the following 
productions that could ho easily cultivated, and 
yet specie leaves the Islands to pay for what could 
be raised upon their own soil. 

The article of Rice, — indispensable to the nu- 
merous Chinese, who form an important item in 
their population, and soon to be increased, — and 
yet $12,(100 is annually paid out at Honolulu for 
for Rice. 

Barley, Wheat and Flour, which could be easily 
raised and manufactured, have been sadly delayed 
and neglected, while $75,000 is annually paid for 
them. 

Corn — $3,000 worth could be also successfully 
grown. 

Tobacco will grow most luxuriantly, and for 
this $30,000 is annually paid ; making a total of 
$120,000 for articles easily produced upon the 
[glands. 

If the Island of Honolulu take so deep an inter 
est in agriculture, and receive the aid of Clovem 
nient, shall not California awake to her duty, and 
enlist the interest of the government to her aid in 
agriculture ? If the influx of the Chinese to tin 



The Agricultural College.. 

We give elsewhere the "Memorial to Congress" 
upon the subject of a College for California, with 
the earnest hope that our readers will give tbo 
subject that thought and interest that a matter of 
such moment deserves. 

Wc trust also that the citizens of the several 
counties will take up the subject, and conferring 
with their senators and representatives, will bring 
the matter before our Stats' Legislature and' have 
their voice go forward fn support of the wants and 
interests of California. 

With an Institution of this kind liberally en- 
dowed in a climate like ours — with a soil so 
fertile — with the material at ready command and 
boundless as it is wondrous and beautiful, for 
scicncc in all her departments to revel in — these 
facts surely should induce every friend of Call 
forni'a to urge this important subject home upon 
Congress until a portion of the vast wealth now 
idle almost, should be dispensed — whereby incal- 
culable good cotild be made to flow back again 
upon all and every State of our glorious Confed- 
eracy. We do not desire an institution of this 
kind to be confined in its benefits to our own 
State — but to be " A Great National Insti- 
tution," where by the aid of Science theoretically 
and practically applied, the vast and wonderful 
products of this entire country might be perfected 
in their culture and thus distributed by seed, 
scion, plant or tree, to every State and portion of 
our country and the world, and thus by a mag- 
nanimous example let our Nation commence a 
system of generous distribution or exchanges 
with other Nations upon the plan of that noble 
and cnliglicncd philanthropist, Yattemairc, who 
has done so much to benefit mankind. 

With these remarks, introductory, we leave 
this great subject in tho hands of those who 
ought to see it accomplished — the People of Cali- 
fornia. 



J. E. Teschemacher, Esq 
We deeply regret to notice the sudd h of 

this distinguished fi-iend of horticulture nice. 
Mr. Teschemacher died in the cars while on his 
vvay from the city of Boston to his residence in 
Medford, Mass.. In the death of this gentleman, 
science has lost one of its truest votaries and 
ablest expounders — and it ean truly be said of 
him, be loved the science, not for the fame or 
wealth or influence it would impart to him alone, 
but for the good it would diffuse and the happi- 
ness it would confer upon his fellow men. 

Mr. Teschemacher was one of the early, most 
earnest and devoted friends of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, and his able letters and ad- 
dresses to and before that Society have done 
much to advance the interests of that influential 
institution. We remember well his noble enthu- 
siasm in the cause of Horticulture and Floricul- 
ture, and remember too, listening with the deepest 
interest to his recital of the " History of the 
Fuchsa," at the "Annual Festival » of Flora in 
Faneuil Hall, Boston. As an amateur florist his 
collections were always rare ; a eomnoiscur of the 
highest order, he only cultivated the best — '-a few 
and rare," was his word. He loved to. gather 
together a few of a particular kind at a time, and 
study them — the Fuchsa, theCactus, the Tulip — 
and we remember the interest he felt in watehing 
their development, and his modes of treatment, — 
his great object in view being to find the treat- 
ment best adapted to their natures. 

In the year 1842, Mr. Teschemacher was elect- 
ed to deliver the annual address before tbe Mas- 
sachusetts Horticultural Society. It was delivered 
before tho Society on the 10th September, to a 
large audience, and won for him derserved honor. 
From the printed copy published in the Society's 
Transactions of that year, which we preserved, 
the following extract will best evince his earnest 
love of Horticulture and his desire for its univer- 
sal advancement: 



The Plough. 

We commend tbe attention of the fanners of 
California to the "Report on Ploughs." in another 
column. This is the "great implement" of the 
cultivator of the soil. Land well and thoroughly 
ploughed is like a victory more than half won 



" How happy for millions had Horticulture 
with its rcUneinents, been in former times more 
universally disseminated amongst mankind. 
What would have been the pages of the history 
of South America, from its discovery to this day, 
had 1'izarro and the ministers of religion who 
mpanied him, associated the cross which they 
bore ill one hand, with the spade, the rake and the 
\ poor plough ,s the worst kind of waste; a waste | „.,„„ li „ ; , ,,,„,;. „„tcad f ,i a . I„ m ,,. th , Bword 



and the gun, in the other ? How different would 
been the existence and fete of whole genera- 
tions of natives who passed lives of misery and 
wire finally exterminated. How different would 
lie at this day the face of immeasurable plains, the 

(retched forests in such a heavenly climate ! 

Her history would have been one of peace and 

rfty, instead of one of blood and desolation; 

■ ins would have been covered and adorned 

with swarms of happy and industrion b 

iiiory of the-i 



Islands induce the cultivation of Rice at the of money, a waste of tine- in the use of it. and a 

Islands, why should not the same results be pfO- waste of strength for man ami beast. 

dnced hen I If it is wrong in |K.liiii- s | economy piouph in the hands of a skilfiil ploughman is 

1" import what could be raised at Honolulu, is it ,|„. „ -j si ,. t all ,i i„.. ( economy HOOD the farm : with 

not wrong to do the sane thing in California') S , K .], u implement work will be well and quickly 

[f it impoverishes Honolnlu to pay 975,000 anno- ,|,, n ,.. Thai the Peoria Btsol Premium Plough, 

ally for Barley, Wheat and Flour that could be I of Morgan ,V Co.. is that implement, the names 

home product, does it not impoverish California f t ) R . able committee is the best guarantee. Mr. 
in import millions I If Honolulu iiniHin 

worth ol Tobacco : what does California import ? ;1 ,„| ],j s m pa i icu ce has been oi.iain.il by tl ,.| elvilizcm would have "been venerated 

lor all to consider, and we „f ,| R ..,. ploughs, having used them b; i. like lhat of Mango Capac who 

commend them to all. D |, grounds, Mr. HID, of tin 

The cntirt address of Mr. H Valley, is I DM has 

honor upon the author. n j.,, , lsc ,) t |„.,„ i„ i ar j;,. cambers. Mr. Thoi 

Of the s.H-iety an — lion. W. I,. Lee, ,,f Suacol Valley, also uses the same in preference 

President; six Vi —and thus not only from sight, but from actual 

.1. Montgomery. Corresponding the commWee have decided anon the 

cording Sec; ._.(, 

Williams. Treasurer. -|| ie report of the committee i- of moment to all 






To Correspondents. 
: pennit our first number to 
iting coniniui 

I and Literature. Any 
iiemical Am 
forwarded u- 

ions upon in 
ted with husbandry, health or hapt 
r prompt at 

atitude waii 



Weather in the Sacramento Valley. 
Tin 
much cold weather in one winter as we ha. 

ly during the present s« 
frost* and heavy and humid fogs as mark oar 
forenoons, we have never exper ;'..rnia. 

rain, however, ha* been below 
the average of previran wintei 



Arts of 

.... a| 
ion. which h Itetl in their 

intry." 

- and other 
the advancement of the pursuit 
and Hi irks : 

"Bui If Horticultural S c done much 

have done more. 1 

lirsl of lh 
and I hod with much 

p: HM and .'Sets of that and the other 



ould not no 



- 

an to turn over tie - . 
State r- 

f interests with ' malignant disease , result ing 

wbichi fromtheneculinratmoa^ericeawditionrenOT^ 

. -h an appar. 

h«s Stesunboat Comforts, 

wav 



<.f a taste for 



f these 
nd that 

t the ta 

in nlture, 



rheumatism*, and general 
■u. re"* e whirh these publications have mainly contributed 

Itut ra the forep- 

I were the sentiments of this noble and ear- 
nest friend of Horticulture, and he but gave utter- 
ance to sentiment* as nobles* his heart na truthf-il 
and pure in its love of this science. Mr. Teacbe- 



Beports on Agriculture. 

Wr. commence with the first number 
Farmer, to publish the Rep 
Committees connected with the Utc \_ 
Kxhlbition. believing the fact* 
give a ma 

of Agriculture, than the isolate! facts when pre- 
sented singly. Coming as i dor tbe 
. ■•■ - 

data that can be relied upon. 



v in the way of We, certainly, travellers on the Sacramento mK j ta WMt fa^ jh, corresponding secretary of 

amngv - and eijualiaing varied sources river, have as many cornfbrta and huraries even ss the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and his 

:h. And t! ,oe in the travellers upon any river; and there is no daw itetwtgave an impetus at 

men who of boats that can surpass them for courteous at- ^ t(me ^ nhp^d that soon won for that society 

.;»ns of truth. A few : rhile we speak of their many L pemMnent place before the * 

it-scTiption would not d 4 tbe pleasure we enjoy in our 

ntal resourcesof an individual. f *nd down tbe river, we cannot help <ui- 

1 add to and vastly benefit tbe general geating that some of our crack boats would do 

- rr.,,1 they would provide stoves in tbe ladW' 

. . ored in t^^ par: and •vereby save themselves few tbe 

critirfcana of the fair travel* : 
-sefwd the letter ol 

wptxamwed fcwetbought in tbe previa*-. 

«a pen. whether dealis? T)t ''"'• 



death was caused by d i e t s s a of tbe 

loss will long be felt, his death long 

beriahed in 

. «, as kag a* tbe human bean 



and good. 



6 



l(j)S ^iilUmm^ii J<B»ms< 



A Happy Hew Year. 
i . i-iod of time more opportune to commence 
anew enterprise, and no theme more appropriate 
than the one we have taken, and with which we 
desire to greet our readers as \vc meet them for 
the first time, with, each and all, "A Happy 
New Year," and could our wishes accomplish our 
desires for those whom we now address, it would 
be that they should ho blessed in bosket and in 
store; that a smiling .Providence should shield 
them from sickness, sorrow and affliction ; that 
" troops of friends" should gather thickly around 
them, and their pathway be one of peace, prosper- 
ity and happiness. 

The year 1854 has indeed opened upon us most 
oheeringly ; a cloudless sky, a bright sun, a mild 
and balmy atmosphere, ushered in a season that 
is marked in the calender of California hospital- 
ities and friendships, as a " red letter day." This 
is a day of cordial greetings, of social reunions, of 
new pledges of friendships, and of kindly remem- 
brances of those dear to us, and such as the one 
just enjoyed, give us the pleasing and most grati 
fying assurance that here in California the love 
of gold cannot obliterate the love of that social 
enjoyment, without which, even wealth is value- 
less. 

We will venture the assertion, that in no part 
of the United States could the day have been 
more honored or more appropriately or delight- 
fully observed than it was in Francisco and Sa- 
eramento, and we presume other cities also— we 
speak only of what we know. In Francisco and 
Sacramento the banking houses and principal 
mercantile houses were closed and business gene- 
rally was suspended, to give place to a custswn 
that is most truly commendable. On this day 
the " lords of the creation" pay due homage to the 
u fairest of creation," and it is a homage justly 
their due. We devoutly hope this custom will 
ever continue. 

In a country like this, where business requires 
such constant application, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that seasons of respite from care and labor 
should occur frequently, else the physical man 
would be utterly prostrated and his social nature 
be disqualified from appreciating his higher duties. 
We have been informed that there has never been 
a more delightful season of New Year's enjoyments 
than the present in Francisco. The most exten- 
sive preparations had been made throughout the 
city, and the anticipations of the thousands upon 
the last day of 1853 were more than realized on 
the first day of 1854. Nature smiled propitiously 
and generous hearts were made glad. It would 
be invidious to particularize the many instances 
of boundless and magnificent hospitalities that 
have been made known to us, where all have done 
so nobly we arc happy to praise all ; suffice it to 
say, the " fair " knew they had the day, and the 
victory was justly theirs. 

It was our fortune to be personally present in 
the "city of the plains," aud we know it will ex- 
cite no jealous thought if we speak earnestly and 
proudly of what it was our pleasure to note in 
this truly famed city. When we recall New 
Year's Day of 1853 in Sacramento, and remember 
a city that but a few weeks previous hud been 
a blotted out in a night," and yet assumed her 
place among the cities of the land again. When 
we remember her too, so braveLy bearing up 
under her trials ; the opening year finding her a 
"buried city." submerged by the melting moun- 
tains, and the overcharged clouds of heaven, and 
still rising superior to all these ills ; then too 
when we remember her, Venice like, pouring out 
her citizens in gay Gondolas, upon their accus- 
tomed joyous New Year's greeting, we do not 
wonder at her present proud and prosperous con- 
dition. New Year's day in Sacramento will long 
be remembered, on account of the associations 
connected with the seasons of fires and floods. 
Sacramento will also long remember New Year's 
Day of 1854, and we can most truly say that no 
city ever presented scenes of social life and enjoy- 
ment in a higher degree than has just been wit- 
nessed in that city. 

It would be impossible for a stranger to con- 
ceive that Sacramento had been ever afflicted, 
The bankers and business men generally yielded 
the day to social enjoyment, and a generous strife 
to see who could make the greatest number of 
their friends happy. There was a general or 
round of visiting, from morn till midnight. Every 
countenance was cheerful ; every heart spoke of 
happiness; and the ladies of Sacramento have 
rarely won laurels for the general joy they dif- 
fused throughout the community, by the brilliant 
taste they displayed within their homes, and the 
very happy reception they gave their friends — 
we cannoi dare not, individualize. We remembe 



them all and wish them all in return a full re- 
ward for the great happiness they have conferred. 
To the readers of the Farmer we would tender 
our best wishes, our kindest hopes for their com- 
plete success in the noble science of agriculture 
ami we trust they will find pleasure and profit in 
perusing the columns of our weekly visitor, and 
that we shall receive from them that cordial sup- 
port and generous encouragement which we ear- 
nestly desire, and so much need, to make our 
enterprise so successful that we shall, at the close 
of our first year's labors, say it has also been to 
us as well as -our readers, a "Ilappy New Year." 



Fruit Trees. 

There is now ne theme so interesting, certainly 
none more important in agriculture, that the sub 
ject of planting Fruit Trees. 

There is a very great want of practical know- 
ledge upon this subject. It is of the highest 
importance that a surgeon should understand the 
use of his instruments, lest he wound himself 
and bleed to death. Now, a person planting 
trees may fear no danger of wounds in the 
planting of trees, and yet, unless he docs under- 
stand what he is about, he surely will be wounded 
and he will bleed freely — in his pocket. 

It is of the highest importance to any person 
who wishes good fruit, to makehimself acquainted 
with the nature of the tree he is planting — the 
kind of soil it requires for its nourishment — the 
time of planting, pruning ic. The growth of the 
wood of the tree is very rapid in this country, 
and if the proper nourishment is given to it, so as 
to cause it to devclope fruit spurs instead of too 
much wood, then we have fruit. If the cultiva- 
tors understands these wants of the tree, and can 
supply them, he will be completely successful. 

The months of December and January are the 
best time for planting fruit trees. The manner 
of planting is a science of itself. The time and 
manner of planting, and the wants of the tree arc- 
so little understood, that here men bleed more 
freely — in their pockets — than the unskilful sur- 
geon would if he cut himself ever so badly; he 
can bind up his wounds and cure them, but the 
man who has destroyed valuable trees by a want 
of knowledge in their care, cannot bring them 
back to life, nor bestow the luscious fruit they 
would have yielded. These are lost forever, aud 
that is not all — his ignorance aud want of skill 
produces the belief that fruit trees will not thrive 
in this country — and thus a check is given to 
the planting and growth of trees. Here is a 
more serious injury done than is first anticipated 
— he not only has wounded himself, but a whole 
community, by retarding their enjoyment of 
luscious fruits. 

There need be no longer a single doubt of suc- 
cess in the growing of Fruit in California. We 
have all kinds of soil, all varieties of temperature 
and all positions and exposures in our climate. In 
our beautiful valleys, we have the deep, rich soil 
for the pear, plum, and fig ; on our slopes we can 
plant our grape, peach, apricot and nectarine, or 
we can bud the three last upon the plum, and 
plant them all in our rich bottom lands. Upon 
our mountain sides and slopes the apple will 
luxuriate as well as in our valleys ; the orange, 
lemon, lime, date, prune, and olive, all love and 
will luxuriate inourdeep, alluvial soil with proper 
drainage and nutriment. 

What is now needed, imperatively needed, is 
a propel- study of the various fruits, in soil, nour- 
ishment, and proper training, and success is sure 
to follow such well-directed effort. Wc hope our 
citizens will give more care to this subject, and 
not despair of success because every tree they 
plant does not live and thrive. Look to it care- 
fully — the fault is not with the tree ; itwas, more 
likely, the planting, soil, or care. Try again — or, 
if you have never tried, try now. A law should 
be enacted that every young man arriving at the 
age of 21 should plant a tree annually, under the 
directions of the authorities of the town or city 
where he resides — thus our cities and towns would 
soon become beautifully ornamented malls, parks, 
and walks, reflecting alike beauty and comfort 
upon the citizens and those in power. We trust 
California will not be behind other places in 
beautifying her great marts of trade and commerce 
— but rather in advance in all that appertains to 
usefulness and beauty. 



The California Farmer will always be found 
at Solli van's Newspaper Stand, Kearny street 
and at other prominent places in every city, of 
which due notice will be given of places and 
agents, in the next number. 



Magnificent Plants. 

The Floral world, i. e. the American part of it. 
has, within a short time post, been most deeply 
interested and gratified by the introduction and 
successful cultivation and flowering of two or 
more of the most wonderful plants known. 

To Caleb Cope, Esq.. of Philadelphia, belongs 
the honor of successfully introducing into our 
country these valuable acquisitions, and much 
credit is certainly due to his gardener, Mr. Thos. 
Meachain, for the care and skill displayed in 
flowering the beautiful plants. 

The Victoria Regia has excited the wonder and 
and admiration of many thousands of visitors at 
the Museum Hall, Philadelphia, where this gor- 
geous plant opened its first bloom, and the muni- 
ficence of Mr. Cope, in introducing this plant was 
enhanced by contributing the income arising 
from its advent blooming to the noble cause of 
charity. It was exhibited at the Museum Hall 
in 1851, and was visited by nearly ten thousand 
persons, and the handsome sum of about $6000 
was placed as a fund for charitable purposes. All 
honor to such munificent liberality. 

The Nchnnbium Speciosum has just been as 
successfully introduced and bloomed in the gar- 
dens of C. Cope, Esq., at Springbrook. Philadel- 
phia. The plants that bloomed were raised from 
seeds brought from Calcutta by Mr. Ezra Bowcn 
in 1852. 

The Espiruto Sancto (an orchidens plant,) 
a rare and beautiful one, though previously 
bloomed in the States, was brought from Panama. 
(A plant was exhibited in San Francisco recently, 
in bloom, at the residence of the late lamented 
('apt. K. Knight.) This also opened its beautiful 
(lowers the same evening with the Nolumbiuin 
Speciosum. 

In noticing these rare and beautiful plants, and 
in perusing the many interesting descriptions of 
them, and the interest felt by so many thousands 
— we are induced to remind our California readers 
that it is far easier for us here in California to 
enjoy these glorious exhibitions of nature's 
handiwork than it is for the citizens of tiic East- 
ern States; and if we will but improve the oppor- 
tunity so near at hand, and spend a small portion 
of the (iold we are so anxious to amass, we could 
soon witness in greater beauty and pcrfectness 
the queenly Victoria, the gorgeous Nelumbium, 
tha magnificent Espirtuo Sancto and a host of 
other rare and wonderful plants, (and we could 
add fruits also) that the Celestial Empire will 
soon unfold to us. From that vast territory, and 
from the numerous isles of the sea. California will 
have opened to her a field as glorious for science 
as it is illimitable in resources and extent of 
territory, and we trust we may here find many of 
our wealthy merchants who will take a pleasure 
and secure happiness by advancing the sciences 
which beautify and adorn, as well as those which 
are more strictly needful or useful. We shall 
make it a point to keep our readers constantly 
advised of the most important discoveries in each 
branch of our labor, and shall look for encourage- 
ment in seeing the sciences advanced. 

A more particular and detailed description of 
the blooming of the twe first named rare plants 
will be given in the next number of the Farmer ; 
the blooming of the Victoria Regis and the 
results are given from memory only — any error 
will be readily corrected. 



Oitr Prospectus will be found on the third page. 



We must accord to Mr. Wm. 11. Burgess, (for- 
merly of the "London News" corps,) the credit 
of furnishing us with a beautiful and appropriate 
vignette. The idea of making "Ceres" and 
"Agricola" the outside sentinels and supporters 
of a central exhibition of Commerce, Navigation, 
ami Mining, is, to our mind, particularly happy. 
This is precisely the relation in which these tun 
splendid and lovely characters should be contem- 
plated by the internal interests referred to. And 
the artist has done well to present them in so 
favorable and legitimate positions. It is right, 
and an absolute necessity, that Agriculture, in its 
comprehensive claims, should be regarded as the 
boundary and abutment of commerce in its gene- 
ral relations. This is essentially its destiny, and 
will inevitably be the result of its development. 
We are therefore delighted to have the title-page 
of our journal ornamented in the manner in 
which Mr. Burgess, — in conjunction with the 
well-known and talented engraver. Mr. Anthony, 
— has presented it. and we take great pleasure in 
recommending these artists as men of good taste, 
and a facility in the execution of work which 
must secure them an ample degree of patronage. 

Our printing materials arc front the establish- 
ment of our prompt and enterprising friend Mr. 
K. Pelouze, on Washington street, who is the 
only man in California that can lit out an oilicc. 



Meeting of the Fifth Legisiat ure. 

Both branches of the Legislature were organ- 
ized at 12 o'clock, on the 2d of January. In the 
Senate, Mr. Lyons of Nevada, was appointed 
Chairman. After a prayer by tho Kev. Mr 
Woodbridge. the roll of the last Senate was 
called, and six gentlemen answered to then- 
names. 

The roll of the present Senate was then called 
and it was found that twenty-three members 
were present, to whom Judge Winston adminis- 
tered the oath of office. 

The rules of the previous session were adopted 
Until otherwise ordered, and a committee ap- 
pointed to digest a code of laws for the govern- 
ment of the Senate. 

The Senate next proceeded to the election of a 
President pro tern, in consequence of the illness 
of Lieut. Governor Purdy. Dr. B. F. Keene was 
unanimously elected and accepted the office with 
appropriate remarks. 

The Senate then adjourned until the next day 
at 11 o'clock. 

The House having been Called to order Hon. J. 
M. MandcviIle,of Tuolomne was chosen chairman 
pro tern, and, on calling the roll, forty-six gentle- 
men answered to their names, and were sworn In 
by Judge McKinistry, after which the Assembly 
adjourned until the next day at 12 o'clock. 

Our Legislature is now fairly organized, and 
although wc may expect a certain amount of log 
rolling and wire pulling, such as usually accom- 
panies the session of a Legislative body, and 
Which has in former ycarscspecially characterized 
that of our own State, yet wc hope for brighter 
times, and trust that the members of the present 
Legislature will be true to the interests of tin 
State, and serve their constituents, honestly and 
to the best of their ability. 

Wc shall present our readers from time to time 
with the most important results of the delibera- 
tions of our Legislative- bodies; but, as we shall 
observe a strict neutrality on political subject*, 
shall abstain from commenting upon party ques- 
tions which may arise during the session. 

We understand that an early removal of the 
seat of government from licnicia to Sacramento 
will take place, and, as we are always in favor of 
the good treatment of our public men, we con- 
gratulate them on the prospect thus presented of 
an agreeable winter residence. 



Land Titles. — There is at the present mo- 
ment no one subject that has so important a 
bearing upon the real and permanent welfare of 
California, as the speedy settlement of the Lawl 
Titles, The long delay in the adjustment of titles 
to large portions of territory, has prevented many 
occupants from making the improvements they 
would have done, had the titles been adjusted, so 
that all would know how to act. W e presume 
the Commissioners are doing all that can be done 
at the present moment. There are, however, 
some highly important cases before the Board! 
which, if they could be decided, would accomplish 
a great deal of good. Among them, wc may 
allude to the " Sutter Title." at Sacramento city. 
It has been delayed so long that men arc becom- 
ing discouraged. They have had their property 
taken away by squatters, ami the Inn- owners 
wait patiently as they can. in the confident hope 
that ere long the matter will be finally judged 
rightly. Large amounts of money have recently 
been paid as taxes, to hold the titles, as it is con- 
fidently believed that justice will ere long be 
done to the citizens and the - noble old Pioneer ■ 
and his last days be made happy. 

Public Health— Damaged Flour and Grains. 
We are pleased to notice the condemnation 
manifested by the press generally upon the frauds 
perpetrated upon our citizens by tho vile admix- 
tures of quantities of damaged Flour, with smal- 
ler portions of good grain, and thus palming it off 
after grinding, as a new or superfine article. This 
practice has continued full long enough. The 
public have submitted to it more from the diffi- 
culty in detecting the sources from nhicb it raim 
than pom any acquiescence in such abominable 
impositions. That which could not be effected bv 
pul.lle censure will be reached by other mean? 
— interest. The present depression in breadstuff* 
and grains generally has reduced the prices of the 
best brands so low as to leave no profit to the 
manufacture of spurious flour, and soon, present 
prices ruling, the cry will be "Othello's oocupa 
tions gone." We must rejoice at the- result, al- 
though the grain grower and the manufacturer of 
(Hire breadstuff's may sulferfor awhile by the pre- 
sent depressions of the market. 



&%& ®tibU®m$Ai 3inmrx< 



Firk in Sacramento. — An alarm of fire on 
Tuesday evening, says the Stato .Journal, pro- 
ceeded from the burning of acamphenohctory, 
m-ar the levee, in the pear of some Ohineae houses 
on I street The Rro department were promptly 
on hand and succeeded in arresting the progress 
of the flames by pulling down* number of ad- 
jacent shinties, as well as the one that was on 
'tire. For a few minutes Ilie danger of aft exten- 
sive conflagration was very Imminent. The sur- 
rounding le. uses were of wood, and very inflam- 
ablc. Fortunately these was no wind stirring. 
The building and woTTcs were owned and occu- 
pied by a Mr. Moors, but there was only a small 
quantity of eampheno on hand : loss about three 
hundred dollars. Such a manufactory should 
never be near dwelling houses or slal.les. as was 
this, as the manufacture of such an article is at- 
tended with considerable danger. 



MARRIED. 



' Inlh».ilv. Jan. 9d, liv Re>'. Mr. Rolliuson. Mr. 0. 1.. Hill to 
( S June A., i-.-i'im.! ilme.hter of Mr. S, u ,mel Brodflmret, both 

U Sfs,!'rt,"','','l'.i'. 31«, Mr. Sita BorttoMta Ellraboth Kerr, 

t c£*»0», 164, * Ilev. Willi, t.or.1, V D E. R 
DHwley, of s»„ Wteco, to ftlu Mnry J. Blgtaiii, Sang*" '>< 
the late David Btagtam. of Hamilton, OWo. 

I„ Sm-mmraf, ■». the 20th ult., Mr. John Gnle ami Miaa H. 

"■|!;'"s'!::,™„.ii.n. „n the Htll ult., Mr. W. W. Bum., of San 

r rs:i*'.n',":::' i :!t« f .'n <■*<■■ »•*- 

E 'l'' n ",r,'» ( , r i'rv°J,iuu»rv 1st, l.v BOV.C. B. W,,tt, Mr. Allien G. 

At Calapooyn, Linn <'-., O, •!., Hov. I'JUi, Mr. Z. 1. Moody 

fSSaatSlf? W J* , O* Point, O. T., Nov. 

nth. Mr. Charlra Mncsmire and Mi»a Minerva Mllum. 



DIED. 



prOswv ti.f tnuii' in llii- inl.'fnd t«iw /■.•*, Mini tin- i . 

felt bores, The Aejicultural Interest b bJm sen ■ 

dTwta of th] ' ■ i by (In- price tpl 10 1 

they suffer also, ae the dry weather prevents then iPlov, 

ing and plantJagi m.<i other important woi 

« KOI nULl PBJFOtB. 

AGRIOTLTUR U, IMPLKMElfTS— 

Shovels, Ames long handled, bi [hi $16 — ^ — ■ — 

•in do short bandied, 19 50 '.? 

do Fields', long handled U — .. i . 

do do thoi i bundled, rn i 

do Rowland's, long bandied 12 — 

do do short handled. 8 — 

do King's, lone bandied IS — 

Spades, bright c, b. betl moke liT — 

do Iron in — 

Coul and Groin Scooj s; cast Btecl SO — 

>io do iron 10 — 

Axep, Collins', nae'd handle 17 — 

do Hunts', do l~ — 

Picks, Collin.--, ju to 6 H>, solid eye 14 — 

do other brands ' 10 — 

Helves, heavy hickory pick, turned 4 — 

do do do axe 't — 

Plows, best make 14 — 

do steel 30 — 

Tlire^hiin; Machines and H irse power, Hull St 

Pitts', no sale, nominal, $fiim to |800: other 

makes $400 to $600; Emmery's, with thresh- 
er, separator, and Ian mill, $$50 to $400. 

Straw Cutters, no sale, nominal 20 — ®65 — 

Raltes, horse and revolving, no Bale. 

do bund, wood do 

do do steel 12 — -3>20 — 

Pitchforks, 'P' doz, no sale 

Hoes, Steel, gOOse-neek handle, per doz 6 — ® 8 — 

Crowbars, heavy steel pointed ]>cr Hi — 15 ® 18 

Firm Mills, Noyew' |500 ; Brown's, 30 in. $450. 

There probably has never lieen u time when nil thenhove 
enwncrnted articles hung more heavy upon the market, thim 
the preretit. 



»ia 





a 12 


Ml 


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,i ie no 


S 19 


(HI 


■,,-M 


— 


9 is 


— 


,/ — 


— 


»— 


— 


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— 


a— 


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SO 


,i 30 


— 


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— 



~tatt£ cir^rhTmornia? oi the 'JWh ult., Hon. N. C. Read, 

*ESK ^StSrOlRSSSS^k **»*»*> 

Ijfc, aged 4 yen™ mid 6 month.. New Orleans papers pieaae 

"g£ the 15th nit., in Portland, O. T„ Mr.. Elizabeth, conaortof 

°& Nevada, on the 27th ult, Mr. Bryan W. Halaoy, aged 27 

Trowned from the nchr fien. Lane, on the Saeranwnto river, 
m the 19lh ult , Cnptaili Oihillin, oi mud nchooner. 
to Saenuueim;, o^n the 26m ult, Mr.. Marietta Woollev, wrfe 

"tottScte SSfe. •> h« re.i,l-.„re, Mary Loui™ wife of 
n in^ ChmniuK Beala, and UaugUtor Of the late W,„. Joho.on. 

"X^Z'vS:^ *$Z. inuii, HangWerofLaura 
J. and Cupt: H. I». Waller, U. S. Army. 

OBITUARY. 

"DHATII LOVF.B A BHINIWO MARK." 

How truly has dentb been colled the "King of Terr, ^n.' 
Come when or whenco ho may, Us presence is ever an 
welcome. No age, sex or condition, hoi insurance against 
this ruthless destroyer of human hopes. The most lovely 
infant, bearing the impress of heaven's own purity- 
Woiniu) i i the swoel raJatloufl ol aooiol Bfc, daught. -,ai ter, 

,,,;,, mother, marldng ber pathwaj us ai i ■ ■ 

„;:.,,!, i, briRhl and hopeful— YoutJi afc pph | forward « th 

.,..,. | ! . ■■ ood, with all the ■ 

■MociadoiM ol life con LgKng— the i tei - 

bopoiul.thci 'eltr ilj th. i -oil ' .tlw chosen times 

nidplncea whore tbo Destroyei B ' '" ; Mow. 

Tnecilg ol Son Fnuwdsco, wlthta ti ■ 
c trutliB, "i all ■■: 
been felt the dcalth-dcalmg blow»nnd I 
mourning those dear ouei that aie | 



ouleadar, noi < ><*■>■ ] " pun roi "' '» ""■ 

beartsoi kindred and Wond tb i the 

IC&S. Hkmh CiiANMNt: BltAXS. In till lh« I 

■ho was in.ti.ioi, iiiiMinii. dovotcd— over them eO b i p 
Itirovf a daw and brighter charm ; bul i 
uitrini' ii tian, and loving bi i rl i pntli i tnmd, the 

,i,..,i'i m.ia was dealt, and thj 

..... the (irmamenl of pl« ■ ■ ■ 

fomi tun ■ ■ 

. 

■ ■ 
■ ■ ■ . 

By toJ ' l vetu 

BHmbei ; avoid haibtvni 

rtng kindred, that never cm be 

flll.il. To the ! ■ 

can ev.'i knou » 

: strikes " 
n and appreclo* 
Appropi ■ 

•'In Ci 

an tritls ■. '■'■ ■ 

■ . 
■ . ■ . . 



FLOWR- 

For Gnlle^'O and riaxnll, 

we quote the i' bbinj; 

rnte.s .13 ".I I * J 4 00 

Chile 11 00'® 

Itenacked 10 OOaiO 26 

Hope -Mill-. Ci in- 
side brand)... .10 00*11 00 
Golden Gale Mills, 

(domestic) 12 50® 

Santa Clnra Mill-, 

(domestic) 12 501? 

We note hir^e ntneks on 
hand; and siilen heavy ; holders 
anxious to realize. 
Menl, inbbls .... (J 50® 7 00 

do Mf hbls..-. 3 :i 7r> 

Bran,? K ©— 2 

GRAIN— 
Com, Eastera.ets.^lba ©2Vi 

do CalUornia....— ®3is 
Barley, Chili — -8>2 

do Cul. lee,Iinu' . -J'.i a 'J-"' 8 
Buckwheat, for need 10 ® 
Outs, California 4 o '• 

do Oregon, none in mk'r. 

do Eantoni :!' 334q 

Wlieat, Chili 5Vft'®6 

do Cnliioi in.'i.ior 

milliii''....:{'i."' t 
AuctTftlia, ewA -I 1 

We muei note a beavinen bi 

nil POlea ; no demand. 

LUMBER— 
Timber, Oregon Pine. 

*n, W M ..: $45® 

rin nk mid Scantling, 

Oregon 503 55 

Plank Eastern W. P, 

elear IW 

Plmik, Enstern on 
Boards, Eastern clear, 

1st quality 

do 2d quality ....", 



till (Hu- 
ll 

do Onji 

raugfa 






A CARD. 

FREE EXHIBITION HAM..— We dedre to announce,, and 
wedoso *t rcspeetfullr, t'i«r hereafrer, during our 

irl p, our Hall, rontaiolng all the mn^uiflcent spechnens 

of the A rricultuml Rxhibldon, together with flic choice Paint- 

.■' Knibrolderins, and many rare and beautiful specimens 

and curiosities from thr "Islands of the Swi/'wiHlw npm to 

thovidtiol oil who wish to oxoininc-Uiem. PAKE OF rilAKdi; 

IVo wi uid also Him men tti Artists that our Hull Is offered to 
thorn, PttEE, to exhibit thoir work for exhibition or sale, and 
wo further anuounce to nil ppraonfl who have Pnintiisga, Statuary 
Works of Art, Curiosities, or extra speciniena ofanythineoT 
domestic manu hcture, that here is a plnce the most appropriate 
for its exhibition or salp, and where the most extended notice 
can ba fllven to it, All who bave works of art, or any of the 
curiosities of the country, or wonderful specimen of the Airri- 
culture of CnHfornis or tin- Pacific coast, will find this Hall the 
most am ropriate place for tin- exhibition of the etune 

We desire also to state that all the Agricultural papers and 
periodicals of the United States and the princitiol publications 
of Europe upon the subjects of Agriculture, Horticulture, and* 
Flo i a- ult me, ink I oilier scientuic subjects, and to our patrons, 
ioid to the cause of Scieucc, they are ever open, and we tender 
our Is st ni'l to developing to flie utmost of our power the good 
resulting from them. 
I WARREN & SON. 



SELTM & EDWARD FBANKir 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS AND AUCTK 



OfflCC and Salesroom, 102 M*'rvh<tv! 
AlontgomeriJ street and tfte Pla 

Real estate nf all descriptions sold ai public s« li 

Particular attention ^ivan to sales for Auministi 
Receivers, K[ortgagees, ami others, nccorUing to law. 

Monies invested nnd rents coHectn il tor parties "t n distance, 
boans eff'ected on Bonds and Mnrtgngns. Titles examined niwl 

Btirveys nuuln by compotent rarti* 1 * in ti ffice, and the Nota- 

rialbusiness exected by WILLIAM A. CORNWELL, Nota»y 
Publle. 

A regisBBr open to ," blic inspection of property for eale. 

The S] nnieh and French lone^uoges spoken. 

Improved ami unimproved Ranches and lands for sale fa 
arious parts of the State — Spanish titles. l it 



PREMIUM PLOUGHS. 

WE invite the attention of farmers to the assortment of 
" Premium Steel Ploughs," now at our Store at Exhibhion 
Hall. Tliese are the celebrated " Morgan & Cn.V Peoria 
Ploughs," pronounced by the committee the verv best Plnughin 
the Chitted States, WARREN 6c SONTSf 

1 Agricultviral Store., 



SHAliE AMD ORNAMENTAL TREES. 
1,000 Beautiful Shade Trees., 

NOW is the time to plant Treai. Persons in want nre invited 
to cnll and see our Cotton Woode, Locust nnd other Trees, 
now open and for sale- at WARREA & son, 

1 Exhibition Hull. 



do redwood 60® 65 

Floor Joist 50® 55 

Shingles, Eastern, best 10® U 

Clapboards, No. 1 80® 8£ 

Lailie, Eastern — ® If 

do California — ® 9 

Doors, Enetern 3 75® 5" 50 

Boshes, window. ...3 75JE5 00 

Very heavy stocks, yet good 
demnod, and large quantities 
arriVinp 

PROVISIONS— 
Beef, Mess^bbl $17®— 

do Mi bhl ex. family. .149 — 
Huron, extra clear sides, 

ctf. K? IB 15®. 

do Mess 10®12 

Cheet'e, (scarce) . . 33^ -7 
Eggs, fre-sh Cal ..87^«U DO 
Butter, choice. ..Sfi w 99 

do Inferior.. .10 ® 20 

do Culiforuia,$l 
Hflinp, ordinary . . 14 ® 15 

do extra — ® 17 

Lard, in kegs. . - . — ® 14 

do ID- lb tins -16fc® 17 

do 15— SO do.15 1 *.® 16 

fork, clear, i> bb!....«35 i«i 

do do febfal.... IS i«) 

do mess, ^ bbl.... 1!' mi 

do do I'jclo.... 19 mi 

.,.\\9. e\- 

.. . Lull; pi 

I 

VEGETABLES— 
Beans, CI 

in moj 
Beans, I 

do JO H ■: 

; . .il,.- Hi ■ | 

' 
Carrots, ci lb .— fl S 

i . — 

-■ 
i' 



Osage Orange, Raspberries and Currants. 

Gyf\ C\f\(\ P' ,ulte of strong prowth, just received. 
JU.VVU 500 extra size Raspberries, the tar famed 
that produce in such Incredible quantities, 
For sale by WARREN &. HON. 



TIME. 

ARTICULAL attention paid, as usual, to the cleaning and 
i epairing of Watches, by 

BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 



A, Ai. SELOVER. B. H. 3INTOM. 

A. A. SELOVER, Auctioneer. 



SEL0VER & SINT0N, 

RKAL ESTATE AUCTIONEERS AND AOENT& 

Office and Salesroom, 130 Montgomery street, 
between Clay and Commercial. 

MePBrs. 3*2.0 ver & Sinton respectfully Inforra the pubris 
that tliey have aesocinted themselves together for the purpoaa 
of conducting the Real Estate Business in all itn branches — 
for the prosecution of which they deem themselves purticnlarry 
well qualified, having been intimate with Bhebnsinesj in this city 
since July, 194ft 

Particular attention given to all qnestione affecting titles, Ac. 

Greatf care will be taken in complyinp with the law, in sales 
of Assignees, Admimstratorn, and other les,'iifcfln!e». 

A Register for property,-"!, public or private n..U>, always open 
at their office. 

Terms of Sat,e. — Titles satisfactory, or no sole. Acts of 
sole at purchaser's expense. Ten per 1 cent of the purchase 
money will be required at time of sale from nil parties net 
known to the Auctioneers. 

The services of n gentleman of on? experience have been 
secured tor the lull and complete search and examination of 
-'ties. 1 4t 



City Observatory, Montgomery St. 



4t 



® 60 
A glancsj at the > ■ ■ 
Farmers are 
than ever Doted bi rore In tl 

to ship to Honolulu, from 



NOT THE ONLY ONE! 
ANOTHER MAN IS IN THE FIELD 

Prepared to cut Quartz Rock into any form 
desired. 

I will nay to my friends and the public generally that I «m 
prepa red to work into any form they may desire, Quartz Rock, 

WITH A POLISH EQVAL TO THAT OS A MIRROR. 
N, B.— -Quartz Rock purchased at the highest |irieen, 

J. W.TUCKER, 
135 Montgomery street. 

There are Three Thing3 I Do Not Do ! 

1st. Mo not get a gentleman to leave his Watch, and when 
he calls for it. charge him Twenty-Nivb Dollars for cleaning 
ir, ami have it scop two hours after 

SM, I dn rci ask PlWv Dollars for a chain, and cell it for 
TiiiHrvHiv Dollars, and warrant it Fuie Cold, when it b 

Hied with bun solder, and have to take it back and pin Fifty 

DOIXAI another ehnin. 

:t. tdon l teU aCaptadnbeoahleBTehisChroi 
i ths and of right mo 
j . nithoot b ■ rv-Fivc 

: ■ 

Id a 

i it 

SUPERIOR FTTRmTTJRE. 



WAINWRIGHT, KANDALL & CO., 

REAL, ES TATE AND STOCK AUC TIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom, 100 Merchant Street^ 
between Montgomery and Kearny. 

Messrs. Wainwright, Randall & Co-, respectfully an- 
nounce to their friends and the public generally that they have 
made this business connection, and re-established themselves, 
for the purpose of transacting the Real Estate business in all its 
branches, for the* successful mflnagemeiit of which they deem 
themselves well qualiliecr, having had upwards of tour yean 
experience in this city. 

They will give especial attention to making public sales ot ai) 
kinda of property for Administrators, Assignees, RecaTers, 
Mortgagees, and others, according to law. 

Particular attention paid to preparing "Rancho" property 
for sale, and every facility will he afforded to the holders of such 
property for the transaction of their business, Mr. Randal 
Ming conversant with the Spanish language (bavin!: resided 
several yean in Booth America,) will rive his personal attention 
to the trnnslntion of title paoers, when required, 

Apracdcal Surveyor and Draughtsman will be in constant 
attendance at the ofnoe, 

a large amount of property ;<t private ■ 

c invevaucmg, under tlio sui>crviinon of A- G. RANDALL, 
Notary Public, under, the lai slonerfor 

the State ol New Etatnnohiro. l 4i 






H. W, BRADLEY'S 

National Da^uerrean Gallery, 

CORNKa or 

Importer* and I 

Every Artclo required in the Bnuncsja. 
Portraitp, In 

PICTURES, 



■ 






D iniel !>. Page, I Dai Id Chomb ncis W. 1'nge, 

i i :■ i i i. j '■ii-.LtoCiry. 

PAGE, BACON & CO.. 

I act, Son 

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Miners' Exchange and Savings Bank, 






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DR. A Aoeht. 



New Dnifr Establishment. 

AT. McCI.I 
• Bre-pn 
ofTers (or sale n - 
of extra quality, r 

Cuuntry orders 



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QUART- Sl'F.I i Ml \> Pol ISHJ |i. 
Seals, Rings. Cane Heads, Snnff Bos covers, 
■ 
r,ARl:i:TT\ 8BERWOOD, 

Moittgohkkv nmr, ora poos nasi oosoobm 
The only Lap*d*ry " 
workmen on the Pacific roast, are now 

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FAMILY FLOUR. 

nm» :ttt mills 



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FRANK BAKJ 

Carpet, Paper HMurin* and Upbolstcrr Stpot, 

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.yr cccntaac sd r*v«ratioti of bebss; tbr 

Tfce B**t T'.ovt in th* Lasd. 
Ord ' ovr iitonswp, Bros* 

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PATCH & CLAYTt 

•* PMMd «M .-.-•. u aba ct , «. t.nrau Tntmt 



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MARKET REPORTS. 



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100 Oonu Title Spcoas. 
9i Dor?a Ti>k Fortai, 



JEWELET AT J0HH W. TUCKEil S. 



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From fiarper'a Magazine. 
THE HERO OF LAKE EEIE. 

BY HENRY T. TUCRERMAfc. 

On I green knoll, in yonder field of graves, 

Wliare the rauk gross o'er mound and tablet waves, 

A granite shaft allures the vagrant eye 

To whore the ashes of a hero tie. 

This briny nir, in its perennial sweep, 

Nerved his young frame to conquer on the deep ; 

Around Uie.se shore.';, ji boy, with sportive ease, 

He trimmed his shallop to the wayward breeze? 

A fearless athlete, in his summer play. 

He clove the surf of this finrivalled bay ; 

Trod lue lone clifl", where storm-lashed billows foil, 

To see the rocks their "bniUed rage control* 

Or watch their serried ranks majestic pour 

A ceaseless tribute on bin native shore ( 

The snowy fringes on each leaping surge) 

Like victors* wreaths, heroic purpose urge'; 

In their wild roar the deadly charge he hear?, 

Feels in their spray a grateful nation's tears ; 

The mallow sunsets, Whose emblazoned crest*, 

With purple radiance flushes all the west. 

Like glory's banner, to his vision spread, 

To guide the living, consecrate the dend^ 

His boyhood thus by winds and waves begUiledj 
Here Nature cradled her intrepid child t 
Won his clear gaze to scan the horizon Wall) 
His heart with ocean's heart to rise and fall. 
His ear to drink the music of the galej 
Hie pulse to leap with the careerins sail, 
His brow the landscape's open look to wear, 
His eye to freshen in thie crystal air ; 
Braced by her rigors, melted by her smile, 
She reared the hero of her peerless isle. 

Then went he forth — not like a knight of old. 
Armed at all points, with veterans enrolled, 
But in the strength of a devoted will, 
A martyr's patience and a patriot's skill : 
No fleet was his whose guns and pennons bore 
The tested might of conquests won of yore ; 
The trees whose shadow played o'er Erie's wave 
Were felled and launched — a rampart for the brave ; 
The, oak that stretched its leafy branches there, 
And dallied lightly with the autumn air, 
One morn, a sturdy bulwark of the free, 
Floated the empress of this inland sea ! 
No gray survivors of the battle's wreck 
Manned the rude ports of her unpolished deck ; 
Destined to grapple with a practised foe, 
The will to fight is all her champions know. 

Sublime the pause when down the gleaming tide. 
The virgin galleys to the conflict glide ; 
The very wind, as if in awe or grief, 
Scarce wakes a ripple, or disturbs a leaf, 
The lighted brand, the piles of iron hail, 
The boatswain's whistle and the fluttering sail, 
The thick-strewn sand beneath their noiseless tread, 
To drink the gallant blood as yet unshed, 
The long-drawn breath, the glance of mutual cheer, 
Eager with hope, oblivious of fear, 
Valor's stern mood, aflection's pensive sigh, 
Alone declare relentless havoc nigh. 
Behold her chieftain's glad, prophetic smile. 
As a new banner he unrolls the while . 
Hear the gay shout of his elated crew 
When the dear watchword hovers to their view, 
And Lawrence, silent in the arms of death, 
Bequeaths defiance with his latest breath,* 

Why to one point rums every gracefnl prow 1 
What scares the eagle frow his lonely bough 1 
A bugle note far through the welkin rings, 
From ship to ship its airy challenge flings ; 
Then round each hull the murky war-clouds loom, 
Her lightnings glare, her 6u)len thunders boom ; 
Peal follows peal, and with each lurid flash, 
The tall masts quiver, and the bulwarks crash ; 
The shrouds hang loose, the decka are wet with gore, 
And dying shrieks resound along the shore. 
As fall the bleeding victims, one by one, 
Their messmates rally to the smoking gun, 
As the maimed forms are Badly borne away, 
From the fierce carnage of that murderous fray, 
A fitful joy lights up each drooping eye 
To see the starry banner floating high, 
Or mark their unharmed leader's dauntless air, 
(His life enfolded in his loved one's prayer.)t 
Pity and high resolve his bosom rend, 
' Not o'er my head shall that bright flag descend ! ' 
With brief monition from the hulk he springs, 
To a fresh deck his rapid transit wings, 
Back to the strife exultant shapes his way, 
Again to test the fortunes of the day. 

As bears the noble consort slowly down, 
Portentous now her teeming ounnon frown ; 
List to the volleys that incessant break 
The ancient silence of that border lake ! 
As lifts the smoke, what tongue can fitly tell 
The transports which those manly bosoms swell, 
When Britain's ensign down the reeling mast 
Sinks to proclaim the desperate struggle past? 
Electric cheers along the shattered fleet, 
With rapturous hail, her youthful hero greet ; 
Meek in his triumph as in danger calm, 
With reverent hand he takes the victor's palm 
His wreath of conquest on Faith's altar laye.J 
To his brave comrades yields the meed of praise; 
With mercy's balm allays the captive's woe, 
And wrings oblation from his vanquished foe? 

While Erie's currents lave her winding shore 
Or down the craigs a rusliing torrent pour, 
While floats Columbia's standard to the breeze, 
No bhght shall with laurels such as these ! 

* Just before the action, a flag, with the motto — " Don't give 
up the ship ! " was hoisted. 

t Perry Baid, after his miraculous escape, that he owed his ife 
to his wife'* prayers. 

J " It has pleased the Almighty to grant to the arms of the 
United States a Bignal victory," &c. — Persy's Dispatch. 



Trash. 

We commend the following article, which we 
have cut from an old paper, to those who never 
see any good in their fellow men : 

The selfish and artful man will make use of 
this term, trash, to prejudice and undervalue the 
property and doings of another, who stands in 
his way, that he may thereby enhance his own. 
It matters not with him whom he injures, or to 
what extent, by his detractive insinuations. It 
is his purpose and his business to build himself 
up by pulling another down. Such an one, con- 
trary to all fairness, contrary to reason and to 
law, will divert the stream from its natural course, 
and carry it away from his neighbor's lands, in 
order that he may, by the means, irrigate his 
own enclosures. Should he take a dislike to his 
neighbor's mastiff, he will cry "mad dog!" and 
raise a mob for the poor animal's destruction. 
These people sometimes also adopt the little word 
fudge, to effect their plans of deterioration ; but 
not with the same application as when used by 
Mr. Burchill in the Vicar of Wakefield. Thus 
those that cry trash are, very often, a better ex- 
emplification of the term themselves, than what- 
ever matter or thing they would decry by this 
special use of it. Such is that Sort of trash 
which beal's the human form, and " by their fruits 
ye shall kftow them." Junius says, in one of his 
Iuttera, that whenever ft Scotchman smiles, he 
"feels an involuntary emotion to guard himself 
againtit mischief." So, when any one, wishing to 
characterize the works of another, with affected 
wisdom, a shake of the head, and a distinctive 
emphasis, cries "trash!" does not suspicion 
reply, " take heed ! there is something selfish in 
all this." 

A certain widowed lady, wishing to purchase 
some hard wood, went to the market herself for 
that purpose, for she was not ashamed to do her 
own trading. As she stood examining a load of 
small-sized walnut, a woodmongcr came up and 
inquired very significantly, "are you going to buy 
that are trash?" She replied that she was 
u thinking of it." ""Well," said he, ''before you 
trade, you'd better look at mine." So she went 
with him and viewed his load, composed of very 
handsome hornbeam. "There, woman" said he. 
if you want a right down clever load of wood, 
there's the article; and I'll sell cheaper than any 
one on the stand ; but if you want trash, then go 
and buy the other." Being a fanner's daughter, 
and acquainted with a wood-pile, she smoked the 
trick in a moment. "I will take the wood at 
your price, sir," said she, "but according to my 
custom, you must procure it to be sawed and split 
up fine, and I will pay when the work is done." 
Those who arc acquainted with this kind of fire- 
wood, need not be told, that here was an end to 
the bargain. 



The mind of the greatest man in the world is 
not so independent but that he may be subject to 
being troubled by the least jumble which is made 
around him — it need not be the noise of a cannon 
to disturb his thoughts ; it need only be the noise 
of a weather- cock or pulley. — Pascal. 



Night-watch with a Dead Infant. 

Moorest thou thy bark, still voyager? Through 
those infant eyes, with a prophet's vision, sawest 
thou life's great battle-field, swarming with com bat- 
ants? Fell upon thy ear the far-off din of its angry 
strife? Dropp'd thy head wearily on the bosom 
of the Sinless, fearful of earth's taint ? Fluttered 
thy wing impotently 'gainst the bars of thy prison 
house, sweet bird of paradise? 

God speed thy flight! No unerring sportsman 
shall ruffle thy spread pinions, or maim thy soar- 
ing wing. No sheltering nest had earth for thee, 
when the chill wind of sorrow might blow — no 
Garden of Eden, where the serpent lay coiled 
beneath the flowers — no Tree of Life, whose 
branches might have sheltered thee for aye ! 

"Warm falls the sunshine on thy grassy pillow, 
sweet human blossom! Softly fall the night 
dews on the blue-eyed violet above thee! Side 
by side with thee are hearts that have long since 
ceased hoping or aching. There lies the betrothed 
maiden, in her unappropriated loveliness; the 
bride, with her head pillow'd on golden tresses. 
whose rare beauty even the great spoiler, seemed 
loth to touch ; childhood, but yesterday warm 
and rosy on its mother's breast; the gray haired 
pastor, gone to his reward ; the youth ofcrisp'd 
locks and brow unfurrowed by care; the heart 
broken widow, the tearful orphan — all await with 
folded hands and closed eyes, alike with thee, the 
"Resurrection Morn." Fanny Fern. 



A Future Great Man. 
The "Wheeling Times mentions the arrival in 
that city of John Jacques, an orphan boy, aged 
15 years, from the State of New York, on his way 
to California, overland. He states that he reached 
Philadelphia, by stowing himself in a car on a 
freight train ; and remained there two weeks, 
sleeping in the market houses and subsisting on 
offal given him by servants at the hotels. Finally 
a railroad conductor allowed him to ride on the 
platform of a car to Baltimore, where he staid for 
more than a month, serving as an errand boy and 
newspaper carrier after which he proceeded on 
foot to Frederick, begging enough to eat from the 
farm houses on the road ; here he engaged as 
ostler at a tavern, but left in a week on the top of 
a buggy wagon for Harper's Ferry, where he 
accidentally picked up a five dollar bill, and took 
the cars for Cumberland ; a gentleman there paid 
his way to Wheeling ; at the latter place he is 
endeavoring to engage as a cabin boy on board of 
a steamboat for St. Louis, where he hopes to 
engage as herdsman or cattle driver to California. 
Persevering boy, that, and we predict that if 
years are spared to him he will make his mark 
upon the age. 



Nature, which has given us one organ for 
speaking, has given us two for hearing, that we 
may learn that it is better to hear than speak. 



PEORIA PREMIUM STEEL PLOWS. 

THC FORMER CELEBRITY OF THE PEORIA PRE- 
MIUM STEEL PLOWS, and the unequalled success of 
their introduction in this State, would eeem to preclude the ne- 
cessity of any further effort on our part to draw attention 
thereto: hut 'in view of the transitory nature' of business in 
general in California, and the prorJ nbility that some may have 
looked upon our establishment of on extensive 1 and permanent 
mini 'focture ol Plows here, in the face of such enormous im- 
portations find extravagant prices of material) as an imposed 
liilih — we believe it expedient to adopt this method of bringing 
it within the special notice of all concerned, that wo are now 
manufacturing, and will have ready for tins seusou's demand, 
three thousand of the most superior Plows ever made or used 
within fins State. 

We feel warranted in ranking this assertion, from the fact 
that all who used oiir Plows last season testify that they were 
superior; and we have studied so closely the immediate wants 
of our patrons from every section of the State, that we can 
now furnish Plows suitable to any particular kind of soil known 
in the State. 

Our material has nil been selected in the East by one of our 
tirm, und imported by ue directly from the manufacturers, 
which places it in our power to say confidently that nothing is 
lacking in quality, while we are enahled to make the plows at a 
cost greatly below that of last season) and are determined to 
sell at prices within the reach of every farmer who may wish 
to use the Peoria Premium Steel Plow. 

It should be remembered that these plows will do double the 
work with half the team required in using the ordinary cast 
Plow ; add that the work, when done, will be* well done, 

Por particulars of prices, and descriptions of plows, we refer 
you to the subjoined card The prices therein detailed are 
those established at our factory, and the only alterations from 
them that we authorize our agents to make) is the addition of 
the cost of transportation to their plnccs of bueinefs—thus plac- 
ing the plows at every accessible point of the State for the 
exact price charged at the Factory* With the necessary expenses 
only added. 

Farmers ordering our plows through mercantile houses here, 
would do well to write to us at the same time, If they would 
make sure of getting the right plow, for some ore interested in 
representing that we ore not makbig plows at all, while others 
will not sell our plows when tht'y can get off a cast plow. Wc 
therefore recommend that orders should be sent to us directly, 
accompanied by an order upon your merchant for the amount, 
which you can always know by a reference to the card accom- 
panying this circulur, 

On the 24th of June the interest of T. Adams in our business 
ceased, by the sale of his entire interest therein to ' .. K Mon- 
cjaN. Aside from thie, there has not* nor will there be, any 
liberation, as we have the same efficient and thoroughly prac- 
tised hands in every department of our business. 

E. L. MORGAN & CO., Successors to 
T. ADAMS &. CO., 
Corner of Broadway and Battery BtreCts. 

E^j?" The following are the established prices for the Peoria 
Premium Steel Plow?, at our Factory, und the only addition 
our Agents are authorised to make thereto, is the cost of trans- 
portation to their points of business : 

SIZK. DESCRIPTION. FVBBOW. PIUCE. 

No. a pinto 10 in S 30 

5^i " 12in S 35 

b' " 1-1 in 3 40 

7 " Ibin 8 -tO 

t! clipper or prairie 14 in 8 b'O 

l(i " " ltlin 8 70 

18 " " 18 in S 65 

SO " " 30 in $100 

22 " " 22in »110 

24 " " 24 in I3S5 

2fi " •' 2(!in 1150 

30 " " 30 In SI7.j 

40 ■' " 40 in x-^:. 

Subsoil Plows $40 

Cultivators , $35 

(Fur the addition of wheel and axle to any of the above clip- 
per Plows, an additional t'liarge of 830.1 

L. K. .moi«;.\n & CO., Successors ta 
1 T. ADAMS & CO. 



THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS, 

THEODORE PAYNE. BQDIHE P. DEWEY. 

OFFICE AND SALES-HOOM C0HNEH CALIFORNIA AND MONT" 
ClOMFnv BTBXBTS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 

£^f" Messrs. PAYNE & CO. respectfully inform the public 
that they have established themselvi ■ ■,<■ above, for the purpose' 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conducting of which they esteem I'mn-ih. - peculiarly 
qualified, by having riven it their special attention for over two 
years past, and mode themselves tkcnliar with ol] question** 
affecting titles, Ate ice. 

They will inve their especial attention to the public sales ol 
estate, by Administrat'irs, Assignees) Receivers, Mortgagees) 
&c., carefully complying with tho lorma of law*. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private rale, 
always open at their office. 



WARREN & SON'S 
HORTICULTURAL MUSEUM 

hall of science. 

TltE sub.-cribcrs take pleasure in announcing to their friends 
and putrons that they open their Hall us a Museum ot Ilor 
I ticulture and Natural Science*. Having now completed our 
arrangements in Europe and in this country) we are enabled to 
offer to the patrons ol tliin e*tiib1iflimeut (.the lir-v. of ihe kind 
in California) everything desirable connected with the Hcicuee* 
of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

Connected with this establishment will he Nurseri"*, Gardens, 
Fruit Orchards, Graperies, and Greenhouses ol tht 'proprietor*! 
and therefore (be patrone can he assured thnt it in much better 
for them to nend their orders to first hands than to those who 
collect here and there, at auction and elsewhere, where there 
can he no certainty ot the (mnuineness ol what they buy. 

The Nurseries' will be extensive, containing several hundred 
J thousand trees grown under the eye of the proprietors. The 
Fruit Harden win contain the choicest Fruits Known In Europe 
and America! 
j The Museum will contain specimens of Fruit in Wax, rare 
anil curious specimens Ol everything else in nature, both in was 
and in a dried Mate; Oil Paintings, Ornwiiigs and Pointings of 
Fruit.-, Flowers, tfce., together with specimens In Natural Hi* 
tory, Books on Agriculture, Horticulture and Botany; Qardentmi 
pigments of nil descriptions and of the Most approved patterns. 
bEEDS.'—A large and superior assortment of Garden and 

Flower Seeds, Comprising all the Dew and fah! varieties. Field 
and Grass Seeds of wn minted quality) wholcanlo and retidl. 
The Beeds gold at this establishment will be warranted pure 
and genuine, true to their name and preserved In ft proper 
manner. Dealers will receivoa b'beral discount. 

Boxes of Seeds for exportation at $5 and upward.-, <n packed 
that they may be safely transported t>i any part ••) the frorld. 

Packages of Flower Seed-, containing twenty vnrii d 
Annuals, Biennials end Porcnul ilsi aeAtly packed hi boxes, from 
I §:t toJ20. 

Separate Catalogues of Fruit and Pore i Trees) Vines, 
Shrubs, Everirreenp, Di Plants 

Garden ami Agricultural Seeds, imvy I"- hod on ui plication. 
WARREN & SOW, 

NoosBBTME!*, SSKDSHSfe AND I'l.onrSTfl, 

1-tf Musteal Hull Butidhi?, Buuhst, Son Pmmascft 



GEMS E0E THE PARLOR AND GEMS FOR 
THE GARDEN. 

rpHE choicest H\a< laths. Tulips, .loiupuls, etc., for the parlor 
JL and garden, 

AleO — New imd rare Flower Hee.1* mid Plants ; 

Small ornamental Plants for borders, 

Osage Orange Plants, for GARDEN HEDGES, one ol 
the safest and most ornamental b< dees known. 
Just received at WARREN St BOWB 

1 Exhibition Halt, 



WASHINGTO N ST EAM MILLS. 
WASHINGTON FLOUR MILLS. 

THE nndenlgned proprietor of the Washington (flouring 
Mills take pleasure U Offering to UVXUUbb. and thfl trade. 
Superior Family Flour, TO our nulls, we are happy t<> Bay to 
our friends, wan awarded the Silver Uedal; and We shall be 
always striving to mabitain for it B Ugh reputatiuji, BO that our 

customers can send to us in confidencej believimj they will re* 
receive the highest character of Flour the market Hfords, 

In the soma eetobUshment we have extensive STEAM SAW 
MILLS, capable of perforating every kind of work that may be 
desired, nod to thi.- branch "i our business we invite the atten- 
tion of the public. We have also STEAM PLANING MILLS. 
thin will tinish all kinds of work in the most workman-like man* 
aer, and equal to anything performed in the country, and in the 

most prompt manner to order. 

We invite all who are contracting wurk, to cnl! un ns und ax< 

amine our Mills, and we can Botisty iheua of our anility to supply 
every order in each branch of our exten.-ive esfiihlMliuent. 

D. W. VANCOURT, Proprietor. 
1 Near the Oriental. 



P0LLEY & CO., 

OF THE BAY STATE mills, would announce that for 
the better accommodation of their numerous customers 
and trade in general, that they have opened a branch of their 
business at the Fire Proof Store, No. 49 K street, between 

Bee i and Third, whore they will always keen on hand a targe 

stock of California FLOUR : also, HaM-ll and OaQago. 

Public attention is particularly directed to the " Bay State 
LOWSB Mills' Brand," an article wo hnve every confidence 

in warranting, being mode under our own bispection, from new 
Wheat] without any adulteration. 

( trnund feed of all kinds always on hand. 

Every exertion will he used to merit a continuance of the 
favor heretofore bo liberally extended to us. l-3t 



CRESCENT CITY HOTEL, 

And General Stage Office for all parts, 
Jittriii, batmen Third and FburtA, 

/X&, The proprietress feels grateful for the mcreaaed patron- 
fljfl age extened to This Long Established House. 

The Location is well known us the most central in the city. 

The Table, which is onder the management of one of the 

best caterers in the country, i* served In a manner uucurpHssed. 

The Sleeping Apartments arc well ventilated, and supplied 
with clean beds and linen. 

Htages for all the Ulterior towns leave every morning. 

L4t UR6. JAjNE COFFIN. 



SACRAMENTO CITY BANK. 

JOHN M. RHOADES, Banker. 

Fire-proof Building, corner of K and Second streets, 

Sacbamento Citt. 

Will sell BILLS OF EXCHANGE on NEW YORK, on 
the STATE BANK OF OHIO, and on other points in the At- 
lantic States ; will receive money und other valuables on general 
or special deposit, make collections, buy and sell specie, bullion, 
public stocks, &.C, &c 

GOLD DUST purchased at the highest rates. 

DRAFTS at par on Sun Francisco. 

COLLECTIONS made on reasonable terms. 

Cold Dust shipped to New York or the Mint at Pbiludclphia 
for coinage. 

DEPOSITS received, either special or otherwise; and nil 
business connected with banking promptly attended to. 1-tf 



SPECIMENS OF AGRICULTURE. 

WE desire to call the attention Of the Cultivators of the Suil, 
to the importance ol Exhibiting i»uch specimens on they 
may grow of even, variety <>t GaAtjl, tfaAM, rnthTf and V«a- 
j ET.uiLE^wi- mean all tine or e trs mechneos, 
; They "ill obsi rrt thai "Our Hall' is now opened free- j -oiid 
we shall make it a point to call public attention 1 1 every 
men und cive utl publicity t.> (hem that they m 

in the Hal] farmers win find all the most valuable Agrlcullurftl 
und Scientific Papers and ■«'■ they urc over ready 

for their use and open to those i i ernst in them hud 

1 e,i cciuib I'i the ,'v, ■■- and to scientific men and S cietita If 
. will be our aim to rurni ji a Im i t le i ■:> could ■ 
leisure boui 1 pi ifiltnbly, ani i >o FVi ■. 

j t warrj 

SIGN OF THE GOLDEN MORTAR. 

JUSTIN GATES, whol D Drogeist, WKatwet, 

Sacrami DtOiOtloil rot ■ le at great Ij reduced [rices, o large 
and « eii selected aosortmeu I 
Paints, Oils, Turpentine ■ ! i'it. Lamp Oil, 

Nentsfoot Oil, Quinine, Morphine, Opi 
Tartaric Acid, Cream of Tartar, 8 »'n. Tapioca, it •!<*, 
i Ilovesi Castile Boon, h - Water, 

Shaker's Herbs and Roots, TDaen Extntct.Sadlltz Powders, 

Supprirters, TrU-neP, Myri-i'ei, I'nteut nwl It'itiUUC Medicine 

Dental and Surgical [nanramenta. Lubin'e Extr a cts. 
Electric Concentrated Preparations, Pertumen (all lands), 
Osgood's Cholagogui Myers 1 Bern 

~ parilla, Ayerr Cberi '. Dr. June-.' fcpectarant, 

Alterative Pills, M ifiot's Bitten and Pills, 
Green Mountain Ointment, HoDoway's Ointment and Pilte, 
Wright's, Brandreth's and Cook's Puis, Davi/ Pain Killer 
Mesdcon Mustang Nerve and Bone Lmamenfc 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick, 
Superior Old Port Wine flitters. 

Agents tor Dr. Robinson's Mountain E x t ra ct; 
CURES THE FEVER AND AGUE tx OWE DAY. 
f-tT Don't forget, " 9i;rn of the Golden Mortal," 3fl K Btraefe. 
Htianunento. Mm 

PROCLAMATION EXTRAORDINARY. 

Woman's Rights 

VINDICATED AND MAI3TAI N,ED». 

"tTTHEREAS, from the creation of the world, it wan dantajiirl 
? V by the ■' Great Hurt Cause " that 

Womans's Rights and Privileges 
should be co-etjuid to Man's ; and " bexeas, aha btw b«ti treated 
by umny men m nil ages, up to the present time, n* i*n interior 
beine t" themselves : Now. iii> refore be it known timt I, Mi 
L, WINN, of 

Winn's Fountain Head and Branch, 
having expended lnr^e turns of aaoney at the FOTOtTATK 
HEAD for the gratincathi ot His appetites of Gentlemen, da 

reei aend that Woman I" hereafter allowed and pro 

with the facilities to enjoy all the urivuegofl for which she was 
by Providence designed ;■ and tor tlus purpo«e I do hereiiy prut 
ciiuni, that my 

BRANCH, 

Corner Montgomery and Washington streets. 

shall be conducted with i view exclusively to the Enjoyment 

and Comfort of Ladies, mid such Gentlemen as know and 

appreciate their worth. 

At the earnest solicitation of many Liidies and (Sentleinen. 
and turroeablc to my promise some months since to enlarge tin 
BRANCH, so as to aeeensmodate the foal increaaing pobn 
I shtdl, in b few daySrOdd Two Spacious Stores on Moutenmery 

street, to the Oripuud Branch, matin 

MOST EXTENSIVE ICE CRF.AM 

And Refreshment Establishments in California. 

The day of opening will bo duly unntiunced through the medi- 
um of the Daily Press, so that all may witness what has been 

accomplished tnrrhe QceommodOtion and COmforf of " God's liL-t 

beat irilt to man.'' In the ine.intiiiie, lots of Fun and Jollulc 

noay do enjoyed in leading the mottoes and feasdng una 
luxuries to be enjoyed at 

WIN'N'S FOUNTAIN HEAD-, 
#8 and 80 Long Wharf, and Branch, corner Washington and 
Montgomery streets; 
where Every Thiac for the Holidays maybe found, from 
Sugar Whistle to ft Bride's Cake of half a ton, 

1 M. L WINN, Proprietor. 



10,000 FRUIT TREES, 

Grape Vines, Fig Trees, Raspberry and Current 

WE invite all who intend planting Trees and fines to call 
on us before they nuike their purchases, Ofl we oon offer 
them many advantages that cannotbe found elsewhere. Our 
collections, wc know, are the most extensive, and the Quality 
the best tnnt can be bod We therefore invite all to call on us: 
we can ahjw tbem.iu our Exhibition Rooms, the umplea of the 
actual fruit they produce. WARREN & SON, 

Nurserymen and Seedsmen, 

Musical Hall BuUdingS, San Francisco, 
und 15 J etrect. Sivcnuiu-nto. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

AXD JOURNAL OF USEFUL SCIENCES, 
IS PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, ON BUSH STREET. 
EVEK1 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 
BY JOHN F. MORSE & OO., Proprietor. 



J. L 



JOHN F. HOME, Kditox. 
L. F. WAIUtKN, Assistant Kditoji. 



ADTX&TiasuGNTS, — A limited Dumber rti emooti 

will I.- in icrted m therbUowln, raw ! For oni 

Unee, per month, IS foi bn Ine tices of flro Unoi or leaa, 

pear monDO, $i. A .hylit raduoelon will Ik> mmin to ragula 

udvt-rUBLTe. 



2hiSj D®jfi»tB(Bll tu3 



SS£t!$(i SjJHiniS&.iJ* 



VOL, 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 12, 1854. 



NO. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

Aim jorny.u. of Vseful sciences, 

IS PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE, ON BUSH STREET, 

EVERY THURSDAY, 

At Eisht Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BY JOHN P. MORSE & 00., Proprietors, 

JOHN F. MORSE, Editob. 
J. L. L. F. WARREN, Assistant Editor. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of Advertisements 
will be inserted at the following rates : For one square of eight 
lines, per month, $11 For business notices of rive lines or less, 
per month, $1. A slight reduction will he nmiie. to regular 
advertisers. 



The Young Baron of Lieberach. 

A great many years ago — sonic hundreds, for 
aught 1 know — there lived a proud and puissant 
baron, named Rudolph von Lieberach. in whom a 
great many of the virtues, and all the vices, of his 
race seemed combined. His life was passed in 
his castle, in a sort of semi-barbarous retirement, 
except when foreign wars called him abroad; and 
the sudden change from the bustle of the field 
then made him sombre and gloomy for many 
weeks at a time. In his youth he had spent 
much time abroad, and had for two years served 
in the armies of the Greek emperor, at Constan- 
tinople, in whose service lie had won much honor, 
but little reward. While in the capital of the 
Eastern empire he had seen and loved the fair 
daughter of a certain Greek noble attached to the 
court, and when he proffered her his hand, her 
father and the emperor compelled her to accept 
it, because they feared to oflend the rude Frank 
warrior, though she loved him not. But. alas. 
what a change (or her ! 

About a mile from the city, a luxurious villa 
stood on the rising ground overlooking the Bos- 
pherous. Spacious gardens stretched from the 
bouse to the shore, perfumed by the surrounding 
orange groves, and shaded by the citron and olive 
trees which overhang the calm water, as it long- 
ing to kissit. A fountain played in the centre, 
and arbors, at every corner invited to case and 
retirement, while the nightingale sang nil daj 
long in the branches overhead. The rarest plants 
ami flowers of Europe and of Asia grow side by 
side, and iii every sight and sound there were 
music and beauty. The interior of tho hou i 
in keeping with the garden, Gorgeous topestrj 
— couches radiant whli gilding, mi c I covered with 
the richest, silks which Venetian enterprise 
brought from tho mysterious En I busts of the 
ancient philosophers of Greece and ol the eartj 
martyrs of Christianity— piles of manu 
richly illuminated, and written by cunning hands 
— small marble fountains to cool the hoi 
from tho desert — verandahs in which the ini 
might sit at eventide to inhale the refreshing 
breezes from the water, and hear the bark 

the dees, the laughter of children an 
lovers from the farther shore,— met the 

every side. Here the \ OU 

ed. She was the onh child of hcrfathcr, and 
lie was a -widower. She had been cat dully edu- 
. ated by an old priest, n ho had retained 
leaven of tho ancient philosophy tith the 

doctrines of the Christian religion. Plato and 
l'\ thagoras had shared bis attention with Paul and 
the early fathers. He had not fallen into 
the extravagancies or corruptions « hieh lime and 
foreign inllui :iec had mixed up in the I ... 
the church. He had too much of the line senti- 
ment of the beautiful t.> let on, iii pass 
between him and the objects of his love and a [or- 
ation; hut he had in him too much of th 
»( philosophy to become a missionary or a martyr. 
He was a priest because it gave him opportunities 
of indulging his love of literary research, without 
coming in contact with any of the common cares 
and passions of life : hut he had little of the ar- 
dor o\ devotion which reigned amongst tl, 
mon pcopli . He was in fact born em ofhis time, 
and spent many an hour in hitter regrets that it 
hud not Billon to his lot to mingle in the solemn 
groups who a thousand years ae^i ha 
in abstraction amidst thi 
lie undertook the task ol 
joy ; it gave him an opportunity of moul 
human living after his own mental 
prodi 

mind to wh 

-not to him the v 

_7>rd it. hut an art 

i ennobled. l"ndcr his 



the straight nose, the thin delicate lips, the energy 
in the lines of the month, the smouldering lire in 
the soft light of the dark eye", bridged over by 
brows black as ebony, the swan-like throat inter- 
sected by veins " like streams through fields of 
snow," the graceful, wavy outline of the figure, 
which had never known an hour of constraint, 
and the soft, white roundness of the arms, were 
all Greek. The priest Demetrius took care the 
intellect should be Greek too. Every evening. 
from the time when she reached her fifteenth 
year until her marriage, the old man tottered into 
the garden two or three hours before sunset; and, 
sitting in the arbour, with a volume of the lie- 
public, or the PheSile open before them, they 
talked over the anticipated Christianity of Socra- 
tes, sweet-souled piety of Cimon, the patriotism 
of Epaminondas, and examined the fabrics of spe- 
culation .which had in later years been built upon 
the Gospel, until the sun sank into the blue waves 
of the .i'gean, and with his last rays turned the 
waters of the Hellespont into gold. During tin- 
last year they were together, their conversations 
assumed unconsciously a tone of sadness. Dire 
calamities were hanging over them. The Turks 
had came down from the mountains, fiery and 
fanatical, and threatened to beleaguer the imparial 
city, and extirpate the Christian faith. Strange 
rumors were abroad. The emperor held councils 
by night, and from these Agatha's father returned 
anxious and thoughtful. What if their dreams 
and happiness should end under the scimitar of 
the barbarian their faith in their own doctrines 
be rudely tested by torture and violence, and 
their names adde I to the long list of marl;, rs and 
confessors! from this time their conversations, 

as well as their thoughts, turned more upon them- 
selves — upon the discipline of their own hearts — 
more upon their feelings and less upon opinion, 
and doctrine-. They were often sad and tearful. 

but ('lienor far. hopetul and coin , i I |rj 

priest had not, lived so long 

examples constantly before lnoe without 

able io rise to the level of the hi avie > misfb 

or calamity ; and the prt ec] »1] that 

:ii length am 

and misgivings whii d all hearts in the 

was the summer-house of the senator's L'anh n. 

Tims matters stood, when the sorrowful morn- 
ing arrived on which she was arrayed in bridal 
dress, . he altar to be united for 

the Latin knight, Demetrius married 
His snowy heard seemed to quiver on his i 
and In as he pronounced (he 

church 1 on their heads. His farewell 

was calm and Bolentn. 

On that evening thebrid and 1 ri-i 

rowed on board the galley i 

Agatha, standing on the 
spires .-I • lonstantinoplc and I 

above it slowly fade from her \ 

When the hone-, in her 

husband's castle bi 
not a man after her he.-.- 
congenial, flu- summer brought p 

in the woods anil ramh, 

neighboring stream, but neitl 

w inter brought back the sunn 

friends 

fhev had one -m. tiorn the - ■ after 

their marriage; and when he was but three years 

old his father duil suddenly. 

Tim- 
woman, and Hugo, In-r son, a 
hail reached his nil 

tin- martial i well 

taught in all the lore of II 

intent in his 
proud. She die I ' 

jority. When sin ith-tierl she 

called him to her 
laining a small phial, li- 
the gift of a ic had 



point- 



After undergoing various toils and anxieties. 
and passing through sundry "hair-breadth 
escapes," he arrived in Paris, and for awhile, with 
characteristic thoughtlessness, abandoned himself 
to all the dissipations of that metropolis, which 
was then, as now, the gayest and most frivolous 
on earth. But bis funds were soon exhausted. 
Those who at first smiled upon him, in deference 
to his birth and his romantic career, began to 
look on him coldly, or avoid him, and he was at 
last driven to cast about for some course of life 
that would afford him the means of subsistence. 
He was one evening musing mournfully in his 
lodgings upon his position and prospects, when 
lie bethought himself of the phial, and coming 
to the conclusion that he could never be in greater 
straits than he was then, he drank of its contents. 
lie instantly fell into a deep sleep— a sleep as 
deep as death — and saw a vision. He was walk- 
ing, or dreamed he was walking, along a broad 
avenue bounded on each side by lawns of sur- 
passing verdure. The gnarled oaks, green with 
the moss of a century, threw their broad branch- 
es across the path, and streaked it with shadow. 
A refreshing breeze sighed gently through the 
leaves, and played amongst his hair, and at a 
little distance a brook ran parallel with his 
course, and, though hidden from his view, mur- 
mured gently and musically- m his car. In 
the trees overhead birds of the rarest plumage 
sane- in strains of more than earthly melody . 
without a single pause, and it seemed to his en- 
raptured senses as if then- was hope and COUrOge 
in every note. A grateful perfume seemed to 
pervade the abnophi ra \nd far away in the 
long vista a bright lake appeared - n in the 
sunshine with waterfowl of anowj whit 
gliding gentlj and em. 

lb- was enchanted. Ills hi , hjckdj 

through his veins; his heart Hi h rap- 

turous excitement. It 

lb- walked on thus tin- greater pan of thi 
but to Ins a ... pcr- 

that In- was making no progn ss. XI 

1 still as far mini 

- oe brook murinui 

by little he found all tho 

which had at lirst given him so much pi 

begin to pull upon hie tie perfume 

I to sicken ami enervate him ; the \. 
-, and dull. 
ucarily for a l mMili side 

: - re at li 

And tlie mail 

-us way. and 

in- time he ! 
a in which he found h ; 

I 
n art trading in a pc 



last sat down by the wayside, and, leaning 1 
head upon his hand, wept bitterly. 

While in this predicament, those with whe 
he started upon his journey passed on, leavi 
him behind alone. He abandoned himself 
despair ; a black curtain seemed to hang betwc 
him and the future, shutting out all hope of rt 
and peace. He raised his head, half-mechanical 
and glanced vacantly along the road he h 
traversed. A figure appeared in the distance, n 
preaching rapidly ; a little nearer, and Hugi 
attention was riveted upon it. It was a man 
the prime of life, (all and athletic in appearani 
and bearing in his face every mark of great i 
ternal strength. A broad and open forehead, 
which thought had plowed some furrow s, w 
half covered by luxuriant hair, which wav 
carelessly in the fitful breeze that now and th 
blew- up the valley. There was tire in his da 
eyes, subdued by many a year of meditation ai 
watching; in the thin nostrils and firmly s 
month there were traces of energy which' In 
gathered fresh strength with every roll of tin 
nod now seemed to hurl defiance atthewoi 
and at I'm tune. His figure was such as t 
sculptor would love to copy. There were unit 
nil that collection of excellencies in each pi: 
which are said never to have been seen togeth 
sum- in the statues of the ancient artist— the si 
ewy limbs, tin- broad shoulders and expansi 
chest, that seemed able to fling off the heavit 
load of grief that ever fell on mortal man. -,vi 
one impetuous heave. There -was no sign ol I- 
tering in that rapid stride and linn tread whii 
seemed to claim the ground they measured i 

their own. and no backward shrinking in t 
lance thai was ever lived on the' I, iii t< 

-live wlnii he looked hastily and half cai ill 

as il to measure its progress. Onward ai 

upward he came, and at last stood for a n ic 

ilonl and il htful before Hugo. Ai [i ,. 

ovi r, and laid his hand on his shoulder; 
1 \ oung man, thou art i ■ i nd won 
mt kno thou not that d- 
death! He who lingers here backward." 

.'lli,.:,: 
tinUC thy way, llielid. li rllier," 

" Say, I w ill e ■ ,i,i been 

• 1 ai i ind ;] e 

[mined all - ngth li- strivii 

now find it holy and jo, 

i ing here. It,,, ; 

rther ; by daring I have 

pair, I have found my hop 
fulfilled. Home on with me; 1 will t 

I have done, and then tie 
-'ii-h a- I am. I in the summit of yonder hill, f 
and good, w ho h 
led lor truth and ji 
., , 
no brilliant 

tunc with tie 
hut tl 






j art not worthy of the gaol to whii 

and behold it was a dream 






-id. 






to Lover-i o 

y at ai. 



i 
i 



lofty forebe 



then 



10 



U%& %M%m®$® @mmm 



Agricultural lectures, 
mr read 5 ifiod and ni- 

ter, ■■ publi 

whit i lolii ired in Musical Hall, under 

the auspices of the Agricultural Exhibition, to 
aid in the developement of the resources of our 
country. The lectures were kindly and gener- 
ously volunteered by the gentlemen, tin- hall was 
open free to all, and the attendance was mosl 
gratifying on each occasion. We know great 
pood lias resulted from them, and a wider and 
deeper interest lias been infused throughout the 
community by them. 

These able lectures will be presented in the 
oursc in which they were delivered, and under 
the corrections of those who delivered them. 
They should be read by o\cry cultivator of the 
State, and every friend of its best interests; 
FIRST PUBLIC LECTCRE, 

BY DE. HENRY GIBBONS, 

Delivered at Musical Hull, Oct. 13, 1853. 

Tt is a blessed age in which we live. The chief 
labor of man is not, as of old, to sunder and des- 
troy; but, rather to build, and unite and bind 
together. Nation to nation is linked by golden 
ties, stronger to their shame, be it said, than the 
tics of Christianity : but let ushopenot to reman 
so forever. State t" State,city bo city, are chained 
by bands of iron on the earth, ami magic wires 
above. That oceans separate continents — as the 
school book used to teach — is no longer true. 
The interests of the human family are becoming 
one and universal — union is the watchword ! 
Some who have learned but the first lesson 
restrict their views to party or section; others 
can embrace haif a continent in their prayers and 
labors; while others, treading in the footsteps of 
the glorious missionary of Bethlehem, and limit- 
ing their vision by no horizon, acknowledge tiie 
universal brotherhood, and aim to gather into 
their union the entire heritage of God. 

Science and art have joined hands and Income 
helpmates. Not a department of human pursuit. 
intellectual or mechanical, but receives rich bene- 
fits from other departments: ail arc linked to- 
gether in a system of harmonious co-operation 
and mutual dependance. The hand helps the 
head and the head the hand. That any one 
branch of art or knowledge should stand or pro- 
gress alone, is impossible. It must give aid i" 
others and receive aid from them in return. It is 
the tendency of the age i i establish a union of 
arts and sciences, as well as a union of nations. 

It is late in the day to ask the question, "what 
have the population of a city to do with og] 
ture ? What lias the merchant to do with the 
construction of a plough ? What the physieian 
wiili the culture of wheat .'the lawyer with pota- 
toes? the reverendjdivine with oxen .'" It is late 
in the day for the farmer to enquire what his 
occupation has to do with books; what i 
the tillage of the earth has to chemistry or to 
mineralogy, or to geology. It is late in the day 
to attempt to cover up ignore I everything 
Outside of the counting bouse, the shop or 
stable, by the stale cant of minding one',, own 
business. The fact is, people who mind their own 
business are the most useless animals in the 
world, ignorant, selfish, heartless. - dlcss. if;,! 

men and women could la m'pell 

their own business, or in other words to keep 
within their own "appropriate sphere." there 
would be an end of progress ; the world 
come to a stand still, and the glories - 
progressive age would lie tarnished and effae 
When, in the history of the world, was there era 
a race so determined to attend to other p 
business, as well as their own; so obstin 
resolved to be cramped up in no particular sphere, 
as the race that inhabits the land of Washington 
and of Franklin .' What barriers do tin 
knowledge in morals or in geography ? what 
scheme of reform is beyond their efforts? what 
portion of the earth's surface beyond their ambi- 
tion? To use a term as expressive as it is inelegant, 
they are a generation of squatters ; some under 
the banner of moral reform, squatting on every 
moral field, and contending for what they deem 
right, and truth, and justice, regardless of conse- 
•juonecs. Others, under the stars and stripes, and 
"ith "manifest destiny" for their watchword 
squatting on every spot of soil, the occupants of 
i»hich are too feeble or too lazy to defend it. 

Declaim as we please against extravagance, and 
ultraism. and fanaticism, the truth is ultraistsand 
fanatics are the very salt of the earth. They 
stir up the moral and political elements and 
purify the atmosphere. An old farmer once said 
to roe at the close of a lecture on a moral theme 
that he at first thought the lecturer went too far ; 
but on second thought had changed his mind. 
"Because," he added, " in driving my team upn 
hill, it is necessary to drive the lead horses be- 
yond the top, or the wagon don't reach it. So. if 
gome of you lead horses, don't go beyond the right 
point, or the passengers who wait to be carried 
will n re." Thesimilc is a sound one. 

it is true in morals and politics. We give our- 
selves ueedie- s alarm at what we deem bold and 
extravagant doctrines. Even these have their use. 
and those who preach them may not break their 
necks. The matron of lh • po titry yard, who has 
hatched a brood of ducklings, supposing them to be 
her own legitimate offspring,' is terribly frijhl me I 
•o set them rush into the water pond, sheisa 
t.-ue conservative, a genuine old fogy, in agonies 
at the daring of radicalism. 

The attempt tocircu nscr.h • th ! range of human 
thought and action by appropriate spheres will 



ever prove futile. Many of those who would thus 
impose restrictions, themselves desire a (rid r 
range in another direction ; whil those again 
who make the most noise on the sui ieel neithei 
attend properly to their own nor to any other 
sphere. It is common to ad i ise n oj i :n who are 
found abroad talking about their rights, to go 
home and darn their husband's stockings. I am 
tin but that the stockings of such hus- 
banbs are mostly better darned than those of 
their censorious advisers. 

An eminent physician once made the remark 
to me, that he expected a change of weather when 
the moon should change. On asking iris reason 
for the opinion, he had no argument to give, but 
simply took it for granted because such was the 
general impression — addiug that he left all such 
questions to astronomers and others and never 

bothered his head about subjects foreig his 

profession. Nowit happened that this gem [eman 
did bother his bead about sundry things fore ign to 
his profession. He was a good, "whip " and drove 
a pair of splendid horses. Half the time he had 
devoted to Uis stable would have revealed to him 
all the known secrets of meteorology. He lilso 
bothered his head very materially with wine and 
could expatiate eloquently on the flavor of Sant- 
erne and lieidsick. Half the it over the 

wine cup would have given him an insighf into 
the sublime mysteries of as ivith much 

less "botheration : ' to his head. 

Such remarks however, though intended to 

impress the bearer with the exclusive devotion of 
the individual to his calling are in reality but 
ingenious apologies for ignorance on subjects 
really connected with his profession. The influ- 
ence of the Moon on disease, is truly an inti ■ 
theme end cannot be investigated without refer- 
ence to its reputed influence on the weather. 

I knew a young lady who exhibited in iter per- 
son the very perfection of the system of minding 
, .ne's own business. She had spent till her life at 
school; could talk French and Spanish an [almost 
Latin ; could pass her fingers: o\ :r the keys of the 
i eincaiin musiba coleilt?; could w; ! i ;-c,eist- 
ibly — In short, could do ever;, thing required by a 
fashionable education, and no Having 

observed the frequent en 1 le, no means 

i of lamb and peas on I lie dinner 

table tiii.- most act iplished young lady inquired 

vi:b infinite simplicity, what part of the lamb 
peas <xi_-iv taken from ' boor girl ! she had wan- 
dered for once beyond her appropriate sphere. 

In all |l partaents of human pursuit, people 
who coon themselves dp in the limited sphere of 
their calling, are fools out of that sphere and 
felly wise in it. How is it possible that 
men should dwell on this noble planet of ours 
surrounded with all its beauties and glories and 
— and till nji the measure of life on such 
a stage with eyes turned away from surroui 

objects and thoughts cramped into one u in »i 
eel — how is it possible that they should d i 
this v ; In,' their growth and falling 

short of tb f manhood? Did Uod make 

man in his own image that he should shut out 
tin' effulgent light of !i av in from his 

ise of the moping o\\ I, tit him 
only to prowl about the hen-roosts of traffic for 
a livelihood ? " Aurisac 

cursed thh I for . ild I now has il de- 
based the human charact ir. thwarted human 
i down man from heaven, en , 
md brutalized the immortal mind I 

Exhibitions like tint now on the carpet are 
admirably adapted to impress a people with the 
dentity of their varied interests am! to mm the 
1 10 ghts aide from nan- iw and s ilfish chaun lis. 
Especially is this the bearing of the series ,,t - lee- 

devised by the enterprising and enthusiastic 

itor. There is great need in California of 

ili such appliances. Whatever diverts attention 

oil- intellectual— whatever 

exhumes the mind for an hour from the mountain 

heap of day I ks ledgers, and invoices, bencatl 

which it is entombed— is a great public goo hand 
itsauthor is most undoubtedly a public benefactor. 

The modesty of the American people has nevei 
deterred them from enjoying and expressing a 
high opinion of them- Ives and their country. In 
leaving their former homes, the immigrants to 
California brought with them an ample supply of 
the spirit, of boasting. If I should say that til 
most adventurous, enterprising, and intelligent 
race of men under heaven, have commissioned the 
most adventurous, enterprising and intelligent ol 
their number to colonize this western empire ami 
■ lev dope its unbounded resources, my audience 
will perceive nothing new or incredible in the 
declaration. There is, in the recent settlers of 
this land a degree of intellectual ami moral power 
not to be found in the same amount of population 
elsewhere on I ion's footstool. 

But to what uses has this young Hercules ap- 
plied his strength? What have the people of 
California done with the ten talents committed 
to their care 1 Alas! have they not buried them 
in the earth I Are not the mass at this in . 
grovelling spiritually as they are physically in 
the soil ? HOW many lift their thoughts above 
the dust ? How many wash their hands of toil 
to turn the pages of the Hook of Knowledge'? 
The theme is not likely to lie p .polar. Men are 
not fond of being told their faults. Gratuitous 
counsel particularly is unpalatable. But tin 
physician who would cure disease must fust 
detect and expose it. As a member of this com- 
munity, my destiny and that of those dearest to 
me on earth, interwoven with its inter ists, 1 offer 
no apology for plainness of speech on this subject. 
On the contrary, silence and concealment would 
require an apology. 

Who, in California, reads a useful book ? What 
proportion of our population rise above the desul 



lory columns of the daily press, or the trashy 
works of fiction which infest, the land, creeping 
|jko the lice of Egypt, even into the dough 
troughs; oratbesl the " Monthlies," which con- 
tain as much substantia! nutriment for the miud 
as vehipt syllabub for the 

In the infant state of society, a few years ago 
there was some excuse for such habits. The op- 
portunities of improvement were wanting. The 
ameliorating influences of female society 
wanting. The blessed atmosphere of home, the 
sterling enjoyments of domestic life were waul ing. 
There was no place of rest for the weary spirit — 
no house of refuge for the troubled soul. No 
wonder then, that men looked downward rather 
than upward. No wonder then that the i'cw mo- 
ments spared from the greedy pursuit of gain 
were spent in amusenicnl and dissipation. No 
wonder that men of intellect and vigor should 
acquire habits of menial inertia, and bury their 
souls in a living tomb. 

Lot that day lias gone by. Our wives and our 
in are here, and 'a e have the fixtures of 
home around us. Is it not time for us to change 
our habits — time that our substantial and influen- 
tial men. parents especially, should find some 
other employment for their liours oi leisure than 
the theatre and t he bdliai'd-rooin — not to men- 
tion worse places ' — time that they sjiould addto 

oles of knowledge and to their vigor ol 
intellect, instead I what they mice 

■' eir energies to perish 03 

neglect.' — lini tho th v should present a dilicr- 

and surround 
rising generation with better influences .' 

Barry in the present year, a number of citizens 
impressed with the necessity of making some 
provision for lal and moral improve- 

ment of our young men, established the Mercan- 
tile Library Assuciation. It was Ushered into 
ic cistcncc under Sat ■ ring auspices, and has 
been sustained thus far with much difficulty, 
owing to the utter indifference of the great mass 
of our population. Eveu the small pittance re- 
quired to keep open a commodious reading room 
with an 1 xeelleiit. ami rapidly increasing library, 
is paid grudgingly bj many. 'lie. room of thi£ 
institution form a comfortable and quiet home 

tipplie I v. ith i 1- - and re — the 

only establishment of the kind in California. 
Here you v\ ill find, in the evenings a few indii id- 
uals availing themselves ol its benefit! — ome- 
times as many as half a score out of a population 
of 4:Mi.iii souls. When- are the merchants, the 

tradesmen, the professional and business men ol 

San Francisco to be found? They are in th 

play-house, in tin- billiard and bow! in ;sal 1a i 

■ 1 lie tastes of our people ! 
" Where the carrion is there will the eagles b ■ 
"gathered 
We have another institution, recently formed 

tl» for existence — the Calif 
Academy ol Natural Sciences of wliiohour enl r- 
ainl industrious citizens know less than 
rare institutions of .Japan. I 
-that I have named as of high ir 
1 iportanc to the t ita] interests of this commu- 
nity thi In,,!:' Railroad, or any other 
lofa mercantile and financial character. 
1 ii ■_! are schools for tlie young— to feed the mind 
and strengthen the intellect— to make of our chil- 
dren men and women who will do honor to the 
lame of I .oil,: nia ; I" divert from base and sen 
■ml pursuits to the exalted and ennobling culture 
of the rational faculties, Ii i- the dul ol 
■ 1 ol his country, e-verj friend of man, to 
aotoulyh but a h tarlyand practical 
aid and comfort to all such associations. 

Tie 1 of our city and t IC Slate. Il 

moral welfare of the population, the interest? ol 
ing geueration demand that such institu- 
tions should receive the good wishes ami ili, 

prac ieai aid of eery citizen. Tim greal objeel 

now is to divert men from sordid and sensual 

pursuits, and to induce them to look around with 

observing eyes and to think. A habit of obser- 
vation and reflection leads to perpetual enjoy- 
ment and to elevation of character. Exhibitions 
of the products of the farm, the garden, and the 
orchard, such as will be found in the adjoining 

Hall, tend to these results; especially the plan ol 
public lectures associated with the Exhibition h\ 
the proprietors. Bui I h ill turn abruptly from 
tiiis .sermonizing, which, unfortunately, 'is not 
heard by those who most need it. and' take up 
the remainder of my time with reference to some 
of the prominent features of the exhibition. 

On entering the Hall you are struck with the 

tasteful decorations and paintings on the walls. 

and the profuse display ol (lowering plants, manj 

of which are rare and beautiful. Prominent oh 

tables are enormous squashes, th" 1. : ■ 

hing 121 pounds ; onions that might bring 

tears ol delight I 1 the eye of a native of W'eth 

Id, weighing four pounds, and measuring 

from tli to 2,j indies in circumference; beets, 36, 

10, and even 5| pounds— several of the long 

variety, some of which measure two feet eighl 

'"' hes. to which another foot may be added for 
the missing extremity, which appears to have 
been pulled through by the antipodes; sweet po- 
tatoes from San Jose, a foot and upwards in 
■ ••>■• carrots. 5, 8, ahd In pounds in weight, 

and turnips and cil .,,, raised to order, of an, 

size called for. The most striking feature of the 
Vegetable Department is the potato specimens ol 
which, weighing four pounds and measuring a 

foot or more in leneth. have been scut from all 

directions— San Jose, Santa Cruz, Uameda, Oak- 
land, etc. Three years ago, when 1 landed here. 
ii was a question whether California would ever 
produce a good crop ol' potatoes ; now the soil is 
lull of them, and thousands of bushels will rot 
in the earth, not worth the digging; even in 



Contra Casta almost at the door of (bis gi 
market, the farmer will give half his crop to the 
laborer who gathers it. The productiveness i: 
almost incredible. Twelve bushels arc exhibited, 
weight Toil pounds; the prod'j 4 three po- 
tatoes grown at San '1o<^. it is a remarkablo 
fact, thai these large potatoes are alwiiys perfectly 
sound and of cxellcnt quality. 1 have heard of 
only two or three hollow potatoes in California. 
It is also remarkable that this; quires 

110 cultivation. Only plant the seed, without 
manure, and tie- work is done. Not a hoe or a 
plough enters the field iiil the crop is gathered. 
Weeds do not interfere, because the dry weather, 
which is really a blessing in this respect, prevents 
the germination of the seeds on the surface. 
There have been instances of the native farmers 
ploughing up their entire crop and replanting. 
"-■:: e of reins lading after the tlrsl planting 
and starling the weeds. It was cheaper to re- 
plant than to till. 

In the vicinity of Santa Cruz and els "where, 
the potato has been attacked by a coleopterous 
insect, which burrows in 'be eyes ami perforates 
the tuber in all directions. The Academy of 
Natural Science of this city have anticipated' the 
exigencies of the farmer in regard to the ominous 
pest, by making it the subject of investigation, 
with a view to a remedy. The ends of the po- 
tato which project from the ground are first af- 
it i qui! pr iab] thai if (he plants 
were hilled, in the Atlantic fashion, the roots 
would be protected from the evil. I am not 
rol has made its appear- 
ance on tb 

Ten or tee,; . rarictiesof wheat are 'exhibited, 
the growth of California and Oregon, .some of 
which have produced sixty to seventy bushels an 
acre ; weight 62 to 65 lbs. per bushel. The pro- 
ductive! ■ of barley is extraordinary. A speci- 
men is exhibited from a crop of one bundled and 
foily-nine bu.-liels to (he acre — the evidence being 
above dispute. Stalks of Indian corn fourteen 
feet high, ten feel totheears, from San .lose; ears 
' crop of one hundred bushels to 'be acre; 
luxuriant pecimens also from Alameda, directly 

across lb" Bay. Whether (his crop can be made 

a profitable crop in pal mains to be 

proved. The cool nights which characterize the 
climate ol tht entire country, are unfavorable to 

its inatural ion. 

Oat,- are exhibited II feet 4 inches high, and one 
specimen 10 feet V inches. Stalks of this grain 
were shown by the ardent and ill-fated Shelton, 
at his exhibition two years ago, 13 feel in height. 

The specimens of Hour are t irj no resting, 
both for quality and the beauty of tb 
showing perfection in this important branch of 
manufacture, which sprang up but yesterday. 
Specimen- are shown manufactured in various 
quarters of the State, equal in whiteness and 
ibrated brands of Gallego and 
llaxall. as I 1. trial. 

Among the fruits are an abundance of grapes in 
superb clusters, a common weight of 
to 6 pounds; peai-s, many of which ex- 

ceed one pound, a cluster of four on a stem wa |Y 
ing 7 pounds from that garden spot, Sail Jose ; 
Pound or Bell pears, tb eighing two 

pounds ; Wa its from Los 

uncommon si/.,, and beauty ; apples lion: Oregon 

and California, 1 of which is 1- inches in cir- 
cumference; three apples from a single graft a 
year old. fr San Jose; Pearmoiasanu Seek-no- 

liirthcrs .from dpi. Morgan's, the (res planted 
last year, and growing direct Ij on the coast, a few 
miles north of the Heads, in a sunny no ik. backed 
by high hills to tin- leeward. This locality pio- 
duces a spontan ous growth of the superb " Hum- 
boldt Raspberry," the fruit of which is three 
in-hes in circumference. It is highly worthy of 
ctiUivitio 1 though in its native localities it is not 
a fu 1 bearer, and the berry is rather acid and des- 
titute of lb'' rich flavor of the Antwerp and other 
cultivated species. The plant grows abundantly 
in rich and moist situations on the coast to the 
north ware. 

There are exhibited .some luxuriant specimens 
ofa noxious weed called Tobacco, raised in Sacra- 
mento Valley, In a gentleman who is about to 
age in its cultivation. The only decent use 
of this plant is to kill vermin, though men with 
perverted appetites often cram it into their mouth 
ami nose. Vou will ol. serve also a quantity of 
mustard seed, weighing live and a half ounces, 
the product of two plants, each plant producing, 
by careful computation, an increase of one hun- 
dred and five thousand. With the exception of 

tobacco, th" IllUStard causes more allien ance than 

am other weed in California, [t grows incom- 
plete forests, SO high as to overtop one's head 
when riding on a horse. It frequently takes pos- 
session of a field and ruins the crop, the stein 
growing six inches in circumference and effect- 
ually defying the scythe or sickle. The seeds 
remain in the sod an I continue to germinate for 
many years. 

(If embroidery and needle-work, there are 
specimens not to he surpassed in richness and 
elegance. The wax fruit and shell work also 
possess extraordinary merit, lint I cannot pre- 
tend to enumerate even the most prominent arti- 
cles of the Exhibition. To appreciate them you 
must use your own eyes. 1 must 1101, however, 
conclude without calling your attention to the 
collections of Alga', or sea-weeds, prepared by 
Mrs. Williams and .Mrs. Boston, of Monterey. 
It is only within a lew years that productions of 
this class have been closely studied by mil nralists. 

The specimens are arranged with exceeding taste, 
and you will be surprised to observe from Ihtse 
collections what an elegant and diversified flora 
'the dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear.'' They 
are to be found on the sea shores at low tide, and 



3 ty $ ttuXrUTirtii §mm&$< 



i 



they possess n beauty and variety of color, ami 
a delicacy of structure which might well Compen- 
sate a COllei nil to their 

scientific relations. We need a sprinkling tin gh 

the SU ladies as Mrs. Boston and Mrs. 

Williams, to rcvoli iciety and to give an 

intellectual and scientific complexion to our pop- 
ulation. What a blessing it would be 
uia it' but a Jew of o lie ould read 

the Book the Book of Fashion 

— would substitute botany for bracelets and jew- 
elry — would cultivate their brains as much as 
their curls ! 



Por iht* California Former. 

"How is business?" This is the question 
asked and answered a thousand times every day, 
among mir merchants and business men, and the 
invariable reply is — "dull ! dull ! dull !"and so we 
Buppose it is ; but what is to be done, to bring 
about a different state of things? Shall we give 
up in despair, place our hands in our pockets and 
do nothing; or shall wo rather meet the cresis 
manfully, hoping that as the approach of day is 
immediately preceded by the most intense dark- 
ness of the night, so the glimmerings of the dawn 
upon our mercantile horizon may soon be ex- 
pected to app iar. 

We will briefly enquire into the causes which 
have brought about this unpleasant position of 
affairs, and if we can discover that cause, our next 
inquiry should be for the means of accomplishing 
the desired relief, and if it is found that errors in 
judgment or in action have not been the great 
mainspring of all the stringency which has been 
felt during the present season, then we may look 
to Providence for the cause, and trust alone to a 
kind all-seeing and omnipotent power to avert the 
ruin with which we are threatened. 

Let us look back for a moment at the earlier 
stages of California trade. There was a time, and 
that not many years since, when the possession of 
property of any description, in ever so small a 
quantity, placed the owner in a position of indis- 
putable independence, when the wish to sell was 
father to the act of selling, and the dust, the shin- 
ing glittering dust came down in clouds to lill the 
hands of him who had, while at the same time he 
who had not, was never refused a liberal discount 
at the "bank of earth." Those were the golden 
days of business ; every man was ready to buy, 
and the only impediment in the way was the lack 
of goods to be sold. 

(gradually this state of things has passed away, 
the balances of trade have approached an equili- 
brium, till at the present time we have as much 
dilliculty in selling as we formerly had in buying, 
with this difference, that whereas before, we were 
unable to find the merchandise, now the markets 
are glutted with every kind, and the difficulty is 
to find the buyer, and soon we shall be on ;iu 
equality in this respect with the cities of the Kast- 
tern States. 

Due great instrument in bringing about the 
super-abundance of merchandise in this market 
has been the introduction of the vast numbers "I 
large clipper ships, which have been built for this 
trade alone. These floating storehouses earn ing 

from sixteen to twenty-six, and even thirty-six 

hundred Ions of freight, have lor the last two 

years been pouring upon us their enormous car- 
goes, at. a rate entirely disproportionate i" tha 
wants or demands of our community . afford 
they do, a, ready means for the speculators and 
adventurers, who. each one hoping to oul nip the 

olher ami bring his g Is lirst to market, havi 

shipped, vi ithoul reflecti u judgment 

great manifest injurj of the leg erchant. 

Another and most iniportaul cause of "hard 
times," has been found in "the iniquitous prac- 
tices of parlies at home, WOO have 0000 in the 
habit of duplicating oh llirir mm account, in quick 
ships, the orders of the Califoi ma correspondents, 
to whom thc\ ship the game in much slower 
vessels, thus enabling themselves to profit by the 
demand for the articles shipped, and supplying 
that demand previous to the arrival of the original 

invoice, which on arrival Bnds a market fully 

slocked, and is sold at ruinous rates, or stored at 
great expense by the merchant, who should have 
enjoyed the advantage of his shrewdness and fore- 
sight in ordering the article at the pro|ier time. 

The dryness oi OUT winter is preventing the 
miners from sending us the gold from the mines, 
and large oxpoitations of coin have been made, 
thus reducing the circulating medium in the State. 

These, with other oauaesoj a. local or accidental 
nature, have for some time past bean opsratiag to 
prpduce a tightness in the money market and 

consequent dullness of trade. Hot let us not 
despair; we have seen more Calamitous times than 
the present, and have out-lived thein, and can do 
so again, and California will yel shine forth in 
glory an example to the world of human i 
and indomitable endurance. 

[Urkcrt il»y — 

i «.-.i->t »w*j." 



Joffroth, Mc- 



California Legislature. 

AN e publish the Leg a ord 

to furnish data to those who ma; to know 

the several I lommittecs should cjn of iutei 

luiring that knowledg also the otb 
of importance. 

On Tuesday, Jan. 3, the Senate was duly or- 
ganized by the choice "i' the follovt ing officer : 

Secretary — John Y. Lind, ol Calaneras. 

Ass't Sec'y — lohu H. Stewart ol El Dorado. 

Sergeant-at-Arms — W. 11. Harney, of Tulare. 

Doorkeoper— E, C. Dowdigan, of Tuolumne. 

Engrossing Clerk — I. C.Tucker, of Sacramento. 

Enrolling Clark — Henry St. Clair, of Placer. 

Co motion, the Rev. Mr. Woodhridge was re- 
quested to officiate as Chaplain during the ses- 
sion. 

On Wednesday, Jan. 4, in the Senate, a com- 
munication was received from the Lieut. Govern- 
or, appointing the following Porters and Pages, 
which were confirmed: 

Pages — Jacob llenline. and Owen Mitchell. 

Porters — Robt. Mastre, Christopher Hanleinan, 
and Havid Hoge. 

'The Annual Message of the Governor was re- 
ceived, and 4000 copies ordered printed in Eng- 
lish, and 500 in the Spanish language. 

On Thursday, Jan. 5, the following standing 
committees were appointed : 

Claims. — Walknp, Catlin, Lent. 

Finance. — Sprague, Keene, Eager, Crenshaw. 

Judiciary. — I lager, Sprague, Hall, Crabb, 
Smith, Coffroth, Bryan and Whiting. 

Elections. — Stebbins, Mahony, Crabb, 

Public Lauds. — Keene, Hager, Coffi 
Garry, Kurtz. 

Commerce and Navigation. — Lent, Stebbins, 
Catlin, Moore and McFarland. 

Public Expenditures.— Lyons, Hook, Sawyer, 
Mahoney and McCuirry. 

Federal Relations. — Coffroth, Tuttlo and 
Bryan, 

Stale Hospitals. — Kendall, Keene, Mahony, 
Hudspeth and Peck. 

Mines ami Mining Interests. — Gardiner, 
Walkup, Lyons, Coffroth, Hook, Peck ami Liver- 
mure, 

Indian Affairs. — Bryan, De la Guerre, Mc- 
Garry, Wale and Hall. 

State Prison and Public Buildings. — Whit- 
ing, Kendall. Walkup, Crabb and M 

Education, — McFarland, De la Guerre and 

Bryan. 

Sla e l.ilna.ij. — May. Lent and Saw , 

Counties and County Bou 

Livermore ami < iarilner. 

Corporation May, Wade 

ami Bryan. 

IgricvltuTi 1/ 
De la Guerre, Qrewell, Kurtz. \\ hiting and Ken- 
dall. 

Public Printing.— Moore Crenshaw and Walk- 
up. 

Hoods and Highways.— Co\\>y. Smith am! 
Stebbins. 

Contingi ' I'. t. — Hudspeth, Colby and 

Tutlle. 

Military Ifiiir.-. — Hall. Whiting. Wade and 

Engro id llill..— \ vycr. 

Lent, Kendall and I 

Enrolled Bilts. — Smith. 8 pi 

Moore, May and IV 

Vict and Immorality.— \1& 
Kurtz and Lyons. 

Mlb.i _ 

A m 1 iron, th- 1 ' 

Friday, nominating Cha°. II. 11 
private - a 1 .1. W. D 

State; both nominations wrn rithoal 

opposttioni 

The Assembly, on W, 
i Tin- - 

ing officers; B. McAlpin, Chief Clerk ; J. w 
Vast Clerk; John Kimball, K.ngrossms; 
Clerk; K. A. Kelly. K rolling' 
int-et-Arms ; John Way 
er. Nothing of particular importance was done. 
for the remainder of the week. 



it ; fir it is a well ascertained fact that neither 
iations nor individuals can flourish 
and progress unless mil raminclled in their finances, 
fhe obj our i.8 lociation an- of such a 

iharacta i toe amend ii especially to thosewho 
cinigrati I i this fort itorj and became identified 
with its progress and advancement, at a period 
when the brilliant career of California as a Stale, 
aow only opening, but still astounding, scarcely 
found a lodgment in the fancy-weaving brain of 

the w ildesl dreamer. 

They are to perpetuate its early history, tocol- 
lect and preserve as matters of enduring record 
the stirringand startling incidents of ils youth, 
when its mountains were mere frowning fastnesses 
the haunt of the wil d untutored savage; its val- 
leys waste and uncultivated; its rivers but the 
gushing openings of looming mountains into the 
broad ocean ; its harbors unruffled by the keel of 
commerce, and uncheeredby a glancing Hag of 
enterprise and energy. More than this — we 
would collect and preserve facts for the historian, 
facts for the geologist, facts for the antiquarian, 
facts for the philosopher, to whatever department 
of science his investigations may be directed. 

Yet more : we would preserve and embalm 
the memory of those who preceded and were 
the heralds of the glorious consummation : 
the Pioneers, who, inspired by the genius 
of progress, which rccogn'z.'s no limits to its 
civilizing sphere, and acknowledges no insur- 
mountable obstacles in its pathway, dared the 
dangers of tracelcss oceans and deserts, scaled 
mountain and miasma-breathing latitudes, to 
make a home and build an empire here, which 
not only kindles renewed hope in the bosom of 
the philanthropist, and cheers the drooping heart 
of the patriot, hut bids fair to civilize the world. 

An association composed of such materials, 
with such objects in view, and with such antece- 
dents, must flourish. 

We are a band of brothers; we are associated 
for purposes the most commendable, anil the ends 
we seek to attain arc at once dignified and exalted. 

Let us. then, renew our efforts to advance the 
association. Let every annual and semi-annual 
meeting exhibit a state of things which shall 
strengthen the assurance of durability and per 
manency. Let us cherish and nourish the objects 
contemplated in our organization, and we will 
here form a society, let onl\ interesting to our- 

i as a social eompact, but useful to the world 
as a fountain where philosophy, history, poetry, 
and painting may quaff their purest inspirations 
m after \ E ITS, 

Nineteen new members were elected, and tin 
Society adjourned. 

Farmers' Items. 

We are glad 0. notice the inl ifcstod 

by tic I .illy, in the cause of Agi 

and we arc particularly glad in not i< 

\\ C -hall always lake SUi "ii ll"' JOU1 

tin- day. and shall endoavortfl 
credit ill all o. 

We are grateful indeed lor the word- of en 

nl from the PrCSS, tha! greet US from 
quarter, and shall strive to merit thein by that 
■ ii to the interests of Agriculture that its 
impoi 
I'nmiri ironHiA.-M 

i 

from the si | 






H 

;-r an 



1 



lo present to you the thoughts and I, 
deathless men as Ilaydcn, Handel 
others. 

If is indeed well I'm- this com i 

have such sources of relief— els 

men, constantly confined within thi - 1 ol duti 
that wear upon them,wouldbe disqualified from 
performance. The mind must have a respite fro 
care, to enable it to perform its obligations wt 
and no relief, no enjoyment, so refreshing as t 
one to which we allude. 

It is most gratifying to notice the deep in ten 
which is now given to the science of music; 
speaks well for our community The Musi. 
Hall was well filled on this occasion, and bj 
most intelligent and discriminating audien 
The performance was of a high order — the cc 
dueler, Mr. Herold, deserves great credit for t 
skill he has displayed in presenting this nol 
Oratorio so correctly the first time. 'Those aceo 
plishcd artists, Mrs. Jones and Messrs. TJcut 
and Smith, received well merited tokens from t 
audience, during the performance, that they wi 
duly appreciated. Too much praise could ban 
be bestowed upon the orchestra lor their very al 
achievements. The choruses were splendidly pi 
formed, and we feel proud ill the thought (hat 
a brief time, all the grand and most dillici 
Oratorios, as well as all the most select music tl 
shall lie offered, will be presented to our CO) 
uiunity, in a style and manner equal to a 
part of the Union, by the accomplished p 
formers of the Pacific Musical Troupe. 

While we record the pleasures experienced 
our citizens at these musical feasts, and best) 
well-merited encomiums upon the several perfor 
ers; while we tell of the beauty of the place, :, 
rejoice at these sources of our eujo\ incuts, let 
not forget that there are those who, thou ;h tb 
may nol come before us with the gush of ;ong 
strain of ihe .Koiiiin. yet to them should 

Corded thai just meed of praise which I. ■ 

them ; and to the originator of the 

to him who has designed, erected and 

this splendid structure, for such delightful cut 

tainments lo our minds, our thou lits 

casionally turn. To Henry M 

than any other citizen, San Frani isci 
1 i iimlc for the oi tnization of the 

Troupe, and for Hi ... , i 

iiilv offered to this commi 
and constat endeavoi o a< 

highest interest- ol in. 
efforts, should ever be th i 
minds. We 

announcement 
benefit of the Orphan 

liver will be 
ing and I 

Real Estate. 
Real Estatb in 

that wl 

line if ret 

rially. while here in San Franc 



The liras.- 
be seen within a radius often mi 
Valley, several thousand acres of cereal grains 
this fall and winter, a large proportion of which 
will he wheat— lb. 
of that grain in tb 

Tuk case 
attracted so much attention, some rmmlhit ago. 

arbitrator, who awarded the pi , ■ 

wit the defendant 
Patterson, with the costs, amounting to near 



Calilornia. Pioneers. 
Tuts Society held their regular -mi-annual 
meeting in th 

-mi-annual 

inap- 

i its present 









were SSKMSawd 

ska* -n.ov am 



The Orator.:. 






of th 

■Sams man. in a 

i> sksawJSl i* : 



who - 



sales were I 
trnfta of capital It tl 
«n iiii—j was eonrman 



ind-r tin- charge •>• ■ of '» • • 

« easaparted and paMKh* 

rt «. ihall ™»n,-iJ totfcsaUent 
- of Um Fine Arts, as worthy ls*i 



12 



%%& &0&&!®8ttft(& 3ii-x-mjt)X< 



THE V ILIFORNIA FARMER. 



JOHN F. MOR.SE, Editoh. 
0. F. WARREN, Assistant F.ditoh. 



SAX FRANCISCO: 
Thursday, January 12, 185ff 



Progress. 

We know of no word in the English language 
upon which a volume could be more easily writ- 
ten, than upon this simple. 3 r et magic dissyllable. 
As a popular and powerful element in the varying 
appeals of a partizau leader j as a compensating 
ing assurance to the moralist, ami as a congenial 
and quickening visitant to, the visionary, it is 
pre-eminently cherished, quoted and misinter- 
preted. But it is not our object to write a volume 
upon the word, nor to tire our kind readers with 
a prosaic and tedious lecture upon its comparative 
force. We only wish a reference to it that wc 
may better present a few agreeable contrasts in 
which a real and interesting progress is mani- 
fested. Tiy such a contemplation we are 
well assured that the mind may be entertained] 
at the same time that it will receive fresh induce- 
ment to esteem the principle which the word 
itself is designed to express. 

In no single department of usefulness is the 
force of progress more thrillingly portrayed than 
in the publication of newspapers and periodicals. 
To an American, whose mind has been constantly 
subjected to the vitalizing influence of infor- 
mation thus disseminated, who can appreciate 
the scope and power of a free and well sustained 
press, it must appear as an incredible fact that 
two hundred and sixty-seven years ago there was 
not such a thing known as a newspaper, in any 
sense of the word. He could not believe, without 
irresistable evidence, that two hundred and 
twenty-two years ago a French physician, by the 
name of Theophrastus Renaudot, of Paris, asked 
and obtained the exclusive privilege of publishing 
the first weekly Gazette that the world ever saw. 

In 1632 the first newspaper that was ever pub- 
lished made its appearance in England, under the 
patronage of Queen Elizabeth, and bore the fol- 
lowing heading : "The English Mercuric, pub- 
lished by authorf tie, for the prevention of falsi' 
reports." These art' facts which history demon- 
strates, and no mind c\?n fail to be surprised and 
interested by the contrast which they exhibit 
with the present. Now England and France are 
living in the very radiance itf a newspaper and 
periodical reign. If an individual turn from the 
contemplation of such a contrast, to a considera- 
tion of the comparative degree of civilization and 
enlightenment which existed before an d after this 
system of diffusing knowledge, he can th.'s appre- 
ciate a principle of progress which is not more 
unequivocal in fact, than grand and beautiful in 
effect. He can then understand our motive .'>r 
selecting (his simple word of eight letters as a 
theme for editorial reflections. 

It was with a view of engaging the attention 
of Californians to a field of progress ton inviting 
to be neglected, and too important and unlimited 
in its consequences to be sluggishly responded to. 
There is one grand fact derivable from history in 
the effects of a newspaper and periodical exposi- 
tion — namely, that in proportion as a fhf.e press 
is sustained, just to such a degree have the prin- 
ciples of truth and justice, liberty and equality, 
been made powerful and commanding; and hence, 
in our own favored, land, we have the highest 
perfection of political liberty, the most substantial 
social equality, and the most bold and insurmount- 
able enterprise that the world can exhibit at the 
present day. These arc the concessions which 
history is awarding us. And, with such assur- 
ances for encouragement, we cannot say that we 
in California lack inducement for action. We are 
just bringing into development the first federal 
State of the Union upon the Pacific. And the 
manner in which this is being done can be very 
well estimated by the population of the State, 
and the flood of newspapers which is in constant 
circulation of information throughout every town 
and county in the commonwealth. No fact is 
discovered, no principle demonstrated, no valuable 
observation is made, no danger discerned, no ad- 
vantage foreseen, that is not made the subject of 
instant record and circulation for the general 
benefit of society. 

How different the immense territories that lie 
west of us. It was but a few years ago that the 
following information was communicated at a pub- 
lic meeting, held at the American Tract House, by 
the Rev. Mr. Calhoun, from Mt. Lebanon. Ib- 
said " that in all Syria, with a population of a 
million and a half, not a single newspaper was 
published. Ami that in the entire region in 



which the Arabic language is spoken, comprising 
Syria. Arabia, Egypt, and the Barbary States, in- 
cluding a population of forty millions, there 
is believed to be only one. if indeed one news- 
paper in that language, and only three or four 
in English and French. That there was but one 
in the Turkish language in all the Turkish do- 



Right Choice of an Employment. 

Wben we reflect upon the change which has 
been made in the habits and the employments of 
men by their visit to this land of gold, we no 
longer wonderattbe success of some men and the 
want of success in others. 

By their emigration to California, old habits 



minions (includinga population of sixty millions.) are broken up and new ones formed, and in many 
and that conducted by an Englishman." "The instances for the better. Wc could recal many 
first newspaper," he says, "in the Turkish cases where men had pursued one kind of business 
dominions, as well as several of those in the j for years, yet never successfully ; continuing in it. 
heathen countries, was started by American mis- ' on account of having been educated to that em- 
sionarics." "But," he says, " they are multiply- ; plovment, and no other, although it was not con- 
ing, and it is an interesting fact, that Armenian, ' genial. On arriving in California they were corn- 



Greek, and Judea journals, as also those of China, 
Africa, and the Sandwich Islands, arc now copy- 
ing Religious as well as Political articles, from 
American daily papers." 



pelled to enter a new field of labor, and often the 
very one that in early years they would have pre- 
ferred ! Now, mark the success which attends 
their every effort. Here is a case, where the per- 



Such are contrasts that should awaken the son was in early life compelled to adopt a profes- 
minds of Americans to a sense of the most im- sion not at all congenial, or adapted to his mind, 
portant duties and lead every man to the conclu- j his taste, or his physical or mental abilities ; and 
sion that the greatest field of progress ever opened , this one case is but the type of thousands. Men 
to American enterprise and power, is the one in this country adopt new professions, new occu- 
which beckons us on to the Western regions of pations, because more congenial to their abilities 
superstition ami paganism. No department of and tastes, and hence the success we note. 



human industry should be neglected in Califor- 
nia, where impressions are being received that 
will exert a deathless ciieet upon that kind of 
progress which it is so honorable ami delightful 
to contemplate. 

Especially will the spirit of advancement and 
improvement be aided by a well developed system 
of California Husbandry. From no other source 
do foreigners derive so pleasant and abiding im- 
pressions as from the manner in which this es- 
sential and predominating pursuit is supported. 
When we can exhibit to the vast world of minds 
that people the East, a picture of Husbandry as 
beautiful in all its features and efficiency, as our 
system of communicating intelligence, then we 
will give such an impulse to the true progress "I 
life as will afford us an enduring satisfaction. 
The influence of an enlightened and perfect sys- 
tem of tilling the soil and developing the present 
enjoyments of rural existence, will be less bois- 
terous in its effects upon the extension of political 
freedom and moral elevation, but it will not be 
the less powerful nor less enduring in its effects. 
It will exert that kind of silent and invisible in- 
fluence, which nature manifests in her greatest 
achievements. Like the silent yet mighty power? 
that develope towering trees from little acorns, 
that spreads the beauty of a rain-how upon a 
blossoming rose, or that noiselessly conveys water 



We have ever believed that all men are aiiapteil 
to some particular business, and that they are 
not only bound to succeed in that, but to excel in 
it. The great difficulty in not finding out in time 
the right occupation, arises from not studying 
the chaiarler. as it gives the early indications. 

Some are peculiarly adapted for the pulpit, some 
for the practice of the healing art. some for the 
law, some for mercantile, and some for commercial 
pursuits; many as the raisers of sloclc. and more 
as the cultivators of the soil in its various rami- 
fications. 

The great want of success lies in the false posi- 
tion in which persons are placed. To he com- 
pletely successful, a person most LOVE the busi- 
ness they pursue, then it becomes a pleasure and 
all works harmoniously. 

We find, in looking over an old pamphlet, pub- 
lished long since. — title-page, name and date gone 

10 excellent an article Upon this subject, that 

we make the following extracts, and commend 
them heartily to our readers. Hereafter, we shall 
speak again upon this subject, for it is not only of 
vital moment to every community, but of tin 
deepest interest to our new country. 

'■ Every thing in life depends upon the right 
direction which shall be given in the choice of a 
calling. Nearly all the evils which have resulted 
from perverted or wasted talent, or from slumher- 
from the beds of rivers and lakes to the heavens ;„„• energies, might have been avoided, by a pre- 
fer distribution, so does the Farmer, by his in ,„ direction in the commencement ; and all 
dustry, his enterprise and his intelligence stamp might have been avoided by a settled purpose to 
the impress of dignity and grandeur upon the „.ake the most of life. "You arc a great fool." 
nation which he feeds — so does he imbue til 



history of his country with a silent charm, more 
powerful in its ulterior and final effects than all 



saiil a fellow student to I'aloy when he was wast- 
ing his early years in a course of dissipation. 

• You have talents which might raise you to the 



happiness has so arranged the various relations 
and dependencies of society, that while this is 
the main object, yet in any lawful employment 
the welfare of the whole shall be promoted. The 
farmer, the lawyer, the merchant, the physician, 
the clergyman, at the same time that he may be 
in the main pursuing his own interest, is the 
source of benefit to all the other departments of 
society. For illustration, it is undoubtedly true, 
that every man might lie his own physician and 
in sonic way prescribe for his own maladies and 
those of his family. But it is a saving in time, 
expense, and happiness, that there should be men 
regularly trained to the healing art and who 
should devote their time to it. Although the 
principle which prompted the man to embrace 
the medical profession may have been, in the 
main, the promotion of the welfare of society at 
large. So it is with all other lawful professions. 
Xor arc there any callings which are an exception 
to this, except those which involve a violation of 
the laws of God. And perhaps there is no more 
direct way of deciding on the propriety of any 
calling in life than by determining the question 
whether it will or will not advance the happiness 
of others. Any man in a lawful occupation will 
be at every step of his lib- contributing to the 
welfare of all the other departments of society. 

" It is undoubtedly true also, that the God of 
nature has fitted man to some particular calling in 
life; and that it is in virtue of this original adap- 
tation, in connection with Providential arrange- 
ments, that (he several professions are filled, and 
(hat (he wheels of society are made to move on in 
harmony. .Many a man, for instance, is by nature 
unfitted to fie a preacher of the gospel. There is 
an utter and insuperable want of ailaptedness in 
his mental powers, in his temperament, and in his 
propensities, lor such a work. And in like man- 
ner there are men who are unfitted to be mer- 
chants. There is something about their original 
structure of mind, or their temperament, that 
utterly forbids success. So many a man has no 
cbanical genius ; many a man has no qualifica- 
tion for public and official life. Willi (his fact 
we an- all familiar, alike in relation to (he most 
tcvated and to the humblest employments; ami 
the divine agency in appointing and in perpetuat- 
ing and superintending this diversity of gifts, is 

one of the most striking proofs of o controlling 
Providence. It is like the economy which has 
placed pearls in one part of the earth, ami dia- 
monds, and gold, and the ruby, and the topaz in 

others; or which has made one soil anil eiima(e 
adapted bo (he production of aromatics; another 
to the production of rich and healthful fruits; 
another eminently to plants of medicinal virtue 
that thus the world may be united in one great 
brotherhood, mutually dependent anil harmoni- 
ous." 



the radiance of military glory or the splendors of highest distinction. I have none, ami it maili a 
diplomatic intercourse and parade. ,„, t |,„,,. „, v Ulr is sl , alt .n p. lk . v t ,„,]- u „, ,,;,„ 

The Agriculture of California can do much to ^ roug y y g j Ten( ,„„i (jia Bnbscqueni course is 



civilize, enlighten and christianize the live hun- 
lrcd millions of immortal minds with which it is 
brought in most familiar contact. Progress in 
Agriculture is as beautiful as progress in the on- 
ward march of Human Freedom. 



Cultivate Timber Trees. 

The rapid growth of many varieties of our 
ornamental trees should excite more attention 

ui g our large landholders, The time is not 

distant when the demand for various kinds of 
Timber will awaken in the minds of many the 
thought of the opportunities they have had of 
laying a foundation for forest trees that would 
reflect credit upon the originators. 

Wo trust our Legislature will take early care to 
awaken the proper interest by offering a liberal 
■■bounty" for the best nurseries of Timber Trees, 
of all the valuable kinds desired for use in this 
country. The oak, pine, locust, ash, maple, beech, 
and redwood can all be made profitable to the 
grower as well as highly beneficial to the State 
and honorable to those who establish them. 

We have seen the locust, of fine, handsome 
growth, six and eight feet high the first year from 
the seed. The ash, maple, beech and many other 
line trees could be successfully grown and most 
rapidly too, and »e trust attention will be 
awakened to this subject and the right interest 
given to it. 



Flowers. — "Unhappy the man who has never 
had his eye filled with tears at (he remembrance 
of a particular flower. Such a one can have nei- 
ther a child or youth; he can have had neither 
mot her, sister or affectionate bride; he never 
loved." 



well known. There is no name in the English 
church, perhaps, (bat should stand higher than 
his; there are few in the vast circles of English 
literature whose just fame shall be more exten- 
sively or permanently recorded. And so in all 
cases of perverted and ruinous talent. The au- 
thor of t'hildc Harold might have sung in strains 
as pure, as full of sweet benevolence, and as much 
fitted to benefit men as the author of the Task : 
ami the author of Waverly, that mighty man 
whose productions are so far diffused and which 
exert now such an influence, an influence which 
most wane when the world shall come to love 
truth more than fiction— might have employed 
his talents in productions (hat should have gone 

down toremotesl times with the Novum Organum, 
the Treatise on the Understanding, or the Para- 
dise Lost 

" The first principle, therefore, which should 
guide in the choice of a profession is that the 
most should be made of life ; that talent should 
not be suffered to exhaust itself for nought ; and 
should not be expended in wild and ruinous enter- 
prises. The sir 1 which I suggest is, (hat where 

there is a fitness for cither of two or more courses 
of life, a young man should choose that in which 
he can do most to benefit his fellow men. Society 
is organized on the principle that any lawful em- 
ploy incut will not only not injure, but will ad- 
vance the happiness of the whole community as 
the movement of each part of a well-constructed 
machine will not only not embarrass, but will 
advance the harmonious ami regular operation of 
every other part. A man commonly chooses D 
calling with a primary reference to his own inter- 
est, with a view to a livohood, or to a well-earned 
reputation. And the Great Author of human 



Can we raise Sweet Potatoes? 

Tun question is frequently asked — can we raise 
Sweet 1'otaoes ? This question we are happy to 
answer by presenting the following facts. .Messrs. 
Souther ,t Covey, on the Tuolomne River six 
miles below Dickenson's Ferry, exhibited samples 
of sweet potatoes at the Agricultural Exhibition, 
weighing seven pounds each. These gentlemen 
have been successful in raising the present year 
seven tons. 

We have alsc the satisfaction of recording the 
fact that Mr. James Gillis, residing upon the 
Sacramento, cultivated the present year two acres, 
and harvested six tons to the acre! We have 
also information of other successful growers — 
among them Mr. Lloyd, of San Josfl, who ex- 
hibited G c of the finest sweet potatoes we have 

ever seen. 



Remarkable Yield of Potatoes. — W. 0. 
Council, of Sail Lorenzo. Allneda County, exhib- 
ited at the State Fair of Warren i Son. the fol- 
lowing: the produce of a single eye, l(i 1-2 lbs, 
twelve potatoes, measuring 1 bushel : two pota- 
toes, weighing 12 lbs. From four sacks of seed 
planted, there was harvested five hundred and 
twenty-nine sacks, on one and three quarters of 
an acre. The ground was twice plowed and sub- 
soiled. Cultivators will see by this mode of cul- 
tivation, the reward of doing things well. 

Another. — Dr. Samuel Murdoch, of San Jose 
.Mission lands, exhibited at the State Fair, twelve 
bushels very fine potatoes; all the product of 
three seed potatoes. The weight of the product 
was about 750 lbs. This wonderful product is 
undoubtedly the largest on record in the annals of 
agriculture, and give assurance of what may be 

anticipated in the future. 



Never tell a man he is a fool ; for, in the first 
place, he won'l believe you; in (he next, you 
make him your enemy. 



$}).$ &»\\i>)vcn\u Jdi««JUff< 



13 



The Potato. 

Tin splo of the country demands the 

mtion <>f the Farm 

of ibis country demands 
more serious attention. When the Potato m 
Brst introduced Ion-, tin astonishing crops pro- 
duced by tile simplest labor, induced the 
that i some features in the climi 

i in both, that were peculiarly appropriate to 
the nature of this universal vegetable Each 
■ling year gave new and more astounding 
Its; from the ordinary size they continued 
to increase, until it was common to find them 
weighing from 1 1-2 lb. to •'! lb. in quantities, and 
often 1. 5, and 6 lb.; and potatoes wire exhibited, 
of 7, 8, and 10 lb. One singular and gratifying 
feature was also observed. This increased size 
did not detract from their goodness. They were 
not "hollow hearted," as was customary with 
large potatoes in the Old States, but of a superior 
character and flavor. 

The high price received in 1850 was such as to 
rail the attention of the cultivators to this one 
article, and large and extensive plantations were 
planted each succeeding year. The price received 
in 1850 and 1851, gave to those engaged in grow- 
ing them extensively, ample fortunes in one year. 
Messrs. Horner A Beard, of San Jose, were the 
largest cultivators and the most succcessful, and 
the returns to them were a rich reward for their 
geucrous outlay. 

So great has been the success in this vegetable, 
and so confident have been the growers, that no 
one dreamed of any check to success, or any 
danger in planting it as extensively as they might. 
No one for a moment thought of an overstock, or 
of any injury that would result to the country or 
to the vegetable itself, by successively planting 
the same seed upon the same soil, for continuous 
years. No reflection was given to those all-im- 
portant considerations, until the effect was seen 
aud fell. 

When the " potato rot " made its appearance, 
reflection came, and when acres and entire plan- 
tations of hundreds of acres were swept away — 
then the blow began to be felt seriously — then 
and not till then, those who were feeling the 
effects of this calamity were made to see the 
cause of it. 

There can be no greater calamity befal Cali- 
fornia than to know that this disease was to con 
tiuuc here. Should no steps be taken to arrest 
this evil, and it fix itself upon us, the loss would 
be counted by millions. 

We believe it the duly of the cultivator to take 
immediate measures for their own relief, and for 
security in the future. Every leal ore of this ter- 
rible disease should be made public, and every 
successful effort, every experiment that indicates 
success, should also be known. We earnestly 
invoke all interested to this subject, and we ask 
of them to communicate with us lively. We 
would recommend to them an entire char 
seed they plant, and also of the ground they plant 
upon. We know it to be almost impossible to 

plant the same seed upon the same ground, with- 
out deteriorating the quantity and quality ol the 
article grown. We do not say this is always so. 
but as a general rule, planting in aud in. is as in- 
jurious in Hie vegetable kingdom as in (he animal. 
A change of seed from one country to another, is 
recommended and practiced by the best cultiva- 
tors everywhere. A change of soils — rotation ol 
crops, is one of the great elements of success. 

"Would the farmers of California desire com- 
plete success ? Let them observe carefully then 
lairs of nature that cannot be broken with im- 
punity, and they will remove one of the greatest 
Obstacles in their progress. Let them also closely 
observe those deeply interesting " indices" that 
lay in their pathway, and they will soon under- 
stand much better than they do now the Reasons 
is they roll.'' and the various causes of the many 
sad disappointments which have been tie 
endure. 

We shall continue this subject in another 
number. 



Sacramento City. 
Public attention is now called to this city. 
unod as the future "Cap- 
ital" of California. On Saturdaj evening last a 
committee of the legislature left Bcnloia, to visit 
incnto to examine the character of her 
" public build her with the conveniences 

and facilities that could bo offered over and above 
the present location at llcnicia. What will be 
the report of thai committee, we know not at 
prest ui— the future will decide. This we believe 

however: that they will be gratified Willi the 

reception they meel at the hands of the citizens, 
pleased w ith the appearance of the city and with 
the facilities for intercourse with their constitu- 
ents in every portion of the State, and most in- 
terested and gratified at the opportunities that 
can here be found for the enjoyment of intellectual 
and social life. 

Setting aside all partiality, all personal consid- 
erations, we consider it for the interest of the 
people of this State that our legislature should be 
provided with a locality, and with comforts and 
conveniences sufficient to make duty a pleasure. 
ft cannot lie expected that men will toil and labor 
lor the dear public to the best advantage, when 
they are deprvied of the ordinary comforts of life. 
We therefore believe, that iuthe present condition 
of Sacramento and Beuicia, the former is de- 
cidedly the best and most appropriate and it will 
be in our humble opinion for the interest of our 
State and for the legislature, to make Sacramento 
the seat of government. She really deserves the 
especial favor of the State, if it can be conferred 
w ithout wrong to others. 

Sacramento stands out before the world a phe- 
nomenon of endurance, of enterprise and success. 
She is as " a city set on a hill, whose light cannot 
be hid." As a city, she has now no equal in this 
country for broad, clean, dry and finished streets. 
Her thoroughfares for miles are proof against all 
weather, and the magnitude and beauty of her 
lire-proof buildings are an evidence of her coming 
prosperity — nay more, her present prosperity. 
That heavy, sorrowful, distrustful look has passed, 
a cheerful, happy and encouraging look and word 
greet you, at every turn Their watchword is 'on- 
ward and upward," and they will not slop until 
they make Sacramento the "Queen City " of the 
"Great Valley." 

It should be gratifying to all who love energy 

and enterprise well directed, to hear of the re- 
ward the citizens of that city are receiving ; Fran- 
cisco should rejoice al il ; Ihe State should I 

at it— for (be prosperity of " Sacramento " tells 
well upon the mercantile interests of Francisco 
and of the State; the prosperity of one is the 

prosperity of all 



Sacramento Eiver Steamers. 

Ix all the hi-tory of river navigation in our coun- 
try, where delightful sooner] and splendid steamers 

make ilicnip from city tocity speed; and pleasant, 
the Hudson has always borne away the palm; a 
tear rises in sweet remembrance as we recall the 
many hours we have enjoyed upon that famed 
river. The " Palisades " rise up again before us 
— the magnificent mansions, villas, and gardens 
thai greet the eve at every bend in thai delighttul 
river — West Point — "Break neck Hill," with 
many other interesting scenes gleam up in memory 

as we recall pas years. lint, beautiful as is 
that wide-renowned river, and splendid as archer 

steamers, have we not in California a Hudson 
too.' We have a far-famed Sacramento! "J'is 
true, we have not yet spread out upon her hills 
and banks many cities or villas, yet the day is not 
distant when, from this grand city of San Francisco 
to the head waters of the far distant upper Sacra- 
mento, upon the prominent hill-sides and the 
ohosen spots of this mighty river, whose waters 
shine with the " golden sands," there shall be 
cities and villas whose wealth, influence and beauty 
shall tell upon the history of the future. Already 
we sec the promise looming up before us. Beui- 
cia, Sacramento and other places, speak great 
things for the future, and the splendid steamers 
that give assurance of speed, elegance and comfort, 
upon that river will compare with any lines of 
steamers in the United States. That proud pion- 
eer of steamers, the noble Senator, moves upon 
the waters with a majesty that makes one feel 
proud of her. The splendid " New World" moves 
on her course like a floating palace. The beauti- 
ful " Antelope" leaps over the waters her engines 
glancing as she flies, like the shining antlers of 
her beautifur namesake. The "Confidence." 
glides on smoothly in her statelincss, like the 
brave warrior who bears in his countenance the 
courage he possesses, like as this splendid boat 
bears upon her sides, in her name, the feelings she 
inspires. The Wilson G. Hunt, last named, though 
not least in the regular lines to this city — she, in 
her quiet beauty, moves on the waters like a thing 
of life, fleet as the wind. 

In all these magnificent boats, we challenge 
the world to produce better or more complete and 
perfect arrangements. The Commanders and 
officers on each and all, are distinguished for every 
qualification necessary for their positions — skil- 
ful courteous and attentive, they aim to make the 
trip a neisl happy one. Tor Bl : inoda- 

tion, luxurious living, and prompt attention on 

Mill, .t be .-sill ] i:i 

We have also upon the Sacramento and Mary s- 
ville lines, those most excellent and well-adapted 
steamers, for river navigation — after the style ot 
the Mississippi boa's, with light draft of water — 
Bragdon." the "Comanche," and " I'rilda." 
el all most ably commanded and officered 
by experienced and gentlemanly men. who...- 
courtesy and attention have won for them universal 
confidence and esteem. These boats, as they 

sweep up the river, look like floating palaces, and 
those who travel will ever find a goodly portion 
•i these comforts, when they may take a pat 

We shall take pleasure in noting all and every 
odditioi and facilities afforded in 

these means of communication, as they aro of 
vital moment to the community. 



PROSPE0TVS 

or 

THE TALI FORMA FAR ME 
And Journal of Useful Sciences. 

We commence the issue of this Journal of 
Agriculture and kindred Sciences, with the be- 
ginning of the New Year. 

The Editorial Department is under the charge 
of Dr. •!. 1''. Morse, of Sacramento, (formerly 

editor of the I'nion.) — assisted by Col. WARREN, 
of the linn of Warren & Son, who will aid in the 
Agricultural and Market Reports, and Foreign 
and domestic data. 

It will he the aim uf the publishers to furnish 
to their readers, 1st. The most useful data for the 
practical Agriculturist, and to present to them 
all the most, important practical results, obtained 
from authentic sources, in our own State. 

2. To present the latest and most important 
facts from our sister States and Europe, touching 
Agriculture, in all its branches. 

3. To furnish familiar illustrations of valuable 
Agricultural Implements, together with remarks 
explanatory of their character and success. 

4. To furnish complete Grain Tables and Mar- 
ket Reports, and other data connected therewith. 

5. General and Critical Notices of the various 
Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of our 
country and of Europe, sufficient to guide oua 
own Cultivators, and keep them advised of the 
progress of the Science. 

b. A portion of the Journal will devoted to 
Select Literature — the aim of which will be to 
exhibit the purifying influences which flow from 
the pursuits of Agriculture, Horticulture and 
rural life. That kind of Literature which tends 
to a morbid excitability of the mind — which 
superinduces a species of sickly sentimentality, 
and degrades instead of elevates the character of 
man — as well as politics aud sectarianism, will 
be rigidly excluded from its pages : our aim 
being to cultivate a love for and an interest in 
those useful Sciences which must ever add to the 
happiness of mankind. 

Cultivators of the Soil, and all who feel an 
interest in these all-important and fundamental 
sources of our prosperity and happiness, are cor- 
dially invited to communicate with us freely. 
Their valuable aid is what we earnestly desire. 

All communications for the Editorial columns 
should be forwarded to Dr. J. F. Morse, Sacra- 
mento, or may be left at the oftic ■, on Hush street, 
two doors below Montgomery, San Francisco. 

i lommunications on Business, Reports on Agri- 
culture, and Advertisements, should be addressed 
to J. F. Morse & Co., or Warren & Son, San 
Francisco. 

Terms of the Paper — S8 per annum, in advance. 
J. F. MORSE ft CO., 
(Publishers California Farmer,) 

Bush street, below Montgomery: 
Sax Francisco, Cal. 



Planting Grain. 
The great difference in the crops of Grain, both 

in quantity and quality, is not so much owing to 
the variety of seed planted, a.-, to the season of 
planting. It is true that the variety has 
influence, and the manner of preparing the land 
has its influence, but with tie- Same seed and soil 

and same kind of preparation, the differ* 
lime has a very material effect upon the quantity 

and quality produced. More than twenty-five 

per cent, difference is frequently noted by two 

weeks variation of time in planting. 

It is of the utmost i mp ortance that «e should 

watch the operation of nature, and th 

conform to this the nearer we approximate to the 
-lid point. If any one will obeefVI 

time the wild grain begins to vegetate and spring 

forth, they will have the proper time of planting 

o( the cenais. The s,.,.uer the seed is in the 

ground after it can be properly pi 

better, and it will always Ik- found thai 

planting will yield the finest grain and th 

est quantities to the acre, and the grain will be 

clear, bright and plump. Whereas, that whi 

planted at different points later in tie - 

be more or !■ r ami 

quality, as well as deficient in quantity. 

We would most earnestly n- . ulti- 

- to note these facts and 

of their cxperima ippy to 

C.Rtxr Turnip. — We have received from the make the Farmer Ihe medium of any in 
editors of the ■Pioneer" Washington Tferi 

a splendid Turnip. It is one of the 1 : ,,„1 we will all en- 

mens yet exhibited, and we think one of tt ,le. 

largest ever grown. We are very grateful for this 

kindness on the part of our friends of th v.— We hav 

office and shall lie always prompt in acknou 
in ■ i , 

•i, evidences of success. n«>l we 
fcctililv 

■t buckwheat 
the Pioneer— thank; , and r 



Buckwheat. 
Tin 

nt j-uaranteo of the ratal 
ded in the I 
hold lux 

Until the present time it has been four: 
difflru m anv 

.ratifying fact 
I hereafter 

v heat and r '• 



The Egg Plant. 

The most wonderful specimens of this very 
valuable fruit, that we have ever seen, was exhib- 
ited the present autumn at the annual fair. The 
plants were grown at San .lose, upon the grounds 
of E. L. Beard, Esq., by Mr. Henry l!ae. One 
plant in bearing with seven fruit, weighing 25 lb. 
Also, six superb fruit, averaging 5 lb. each, and 
one weighing 7 1-2 lb. These were undoubtedly 
the finest specimens ever exhibited in the United 
States. 

This most delicious fruit, usually classed among 
tie- vegetables, should be better known, and its 

qualities better appreciated. There are two vari- 
I this fruit, the purple and the white. The 
white is grown but little, being of little or no 
value for culinary purposes, yet very beautiful as 
a border ornament in the garden. 'Ihe purple 
One of the very flni 'hat can be 

produced. Various fancy dishes arc prepared by 
the artists like "Raphael." This fro 

■ ■ ■ ; and 
when well pi 

We trust our cultivators will give this plant 
more attention, for when well grown it will yield 
an ample reward. 



>p- ■ 

Mr. i 
plowing and i 
rather - 



Astonishing Tield of Barley. 

Thi i of larley. sinco 

ui our 
1. Bryant Hill, 
Mr. 
Hill exhibited one sack 

,d per- 



Fair. from Mr. 



I of barl 



brant; 

neacre of land b 

r sandy and acre of «nal dun 

re wasK 



of May. Twenty pounds of seed was put upo 

upon the rough sod ; a slight harrowin 

and th* work was d. ■ rop was harTeMc 



< above, and know and can 



and pro 

. •*- one acre measured, reaped 

r) sacked. They selc : 

rnained 
Vnd the 
>re our readers and challenge 
e an equal. I 

aad a-half buahda> 
ic bii-hel. That there may 

ictrhant- of Has 

mentioned 



■ -is I we niak 



14 



fc$6 (SftUl^i? -ji-lU $<a«5«mg< 



To Our Patrons. 

To Adyebtisebs. — We would call the attention of those who 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
tbe pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will reach sources of trade entirely new and 
unattainable by any other means, and thus securen large and 
immediate profit to those who desire to make known (heir 
busmeBB, By a glance at our advertising columns, it will hepcr- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have spj.ee for but one or two of each 
branch, these will lie the most prominent bouses, and thus giu 
more influence to them. 

To Odr Subscribers on the Pacific Coast. — We lay th 
two first numbers of the California Farmer before you, for 
your examination, sud, we trust, your approval, hopiu:r it will 
be our good fortune to be received in that kindly spirit which 
shall secure your interest, so that we shall have the pleasure of 
enrolling your names upon a list alreudy most honorable and 
gratifying in this new enterprise. 

We feel proud to notice upon our list of subscribers, thus 
early, many of tha names of our most extensive and influential 
cultivators and citizens, for several copies each. It is such 
evidences of true interest that will urge us on to great exertions, 
that we may testify our appreciation of their regard. 

We tender our sincere thanks to our friends for the prompt 
manner with which they respond to our prospectus, and for the 
generous list of subscribers already Bent in. Let (hem continue 
to come in, kind friend-; such tokens from yon will be like 
"good seed sown in good ground ; " it shall spring up and bear 
gpnd thoughts from natures purest streams, ami yon ahull reel 
ua refreshing wave roll back upon you, bearing precious fruit 
and fragrant flowers, di 1 goring the taste and sweetening the 
senses. 



To Subscribes rx other States. — We send the first and 
second numbers of the paper to many of our frieuds in the old 
States, and those who have long distinguished themsel 
nrrn friends of Agriculture and kindred sciences. We do this, 
feelins confident they will nail with pleasure the establishment 
©f an Agricultural journal in CalifOTUft, not only as a menus o! 
diffusing information in California, but also as a medium 
through which they can communicate with up, and receive 
valuaole aud reliable data upon this all-important source 
of wealth. We believe also that a large number of the A.- 
riculmriats abroad, who have bee una interested in the won. 
<Jerf"l products of California, would desire to receive the 
California Farmer regularly as subscribe] 

We would say to idl who desire so sustain us in this enterprize, 
tbat we shall cuanavor to present, from rime iu rime, tin most 
important features of the Agriculture of California, and shall 
prepare particular reports that will be interesting to our friends 
in the older States. 

It will be gratifying to have the columns of the Farmer made 
t'ft medium of communicr.tion between our distant co-workers 
and ourselves. Our be^t energies will ever he tivt-u to sjitisiy 
every enquiry from those who address us — particularly the 
practical farmer. 

Iu order to make it perfectly convenient to remit to U* the 
aiuuuut of subscription to our paper, we will receive bills on 
any of the State Banks that ore Usually current in New York — 
these can be remitted by mail to us at our publishing office, and 
the receipt will be acknowledged and the paper regularly mailed 

We can assure the friomls of Agriculture, abroad, as well as 
at home, that every token of their approbation, even - evident 
of their generous support, shall be met with a corre.-punilin- 
evidence on our part that we will merit their kmdne a. 



News from Lower California. 

By the arrival of the steamer Southerner from 
San I>iego. we have the .San Diego Herald of the 
15th inst.. containing some very interesting intel- 
ligence of the Filibustermovements in Lower Cali- 
fornia: 

We take the following interesting news from 
the Herald: 



Carriage Hire. 

V7e have noticed frequently the gross and dar- 
ing impositions upon strangers when arriving at 
our wharves upon the steamers down the river 
from Sacramento, and suppose the same evil exists 
elsewhere. Not only do they impose upon stran- 
gers, but the manner in whieli they rush into the 
cabins of the steamers, and their rudeness, is fre- 
quently beyond endurance; added to this, their 
coarse and rude language to one another, and to 
towards and others on board the steamer.-, 
d imands immediate redress. 

We have frequently wondered at the forbear- 
ance of the officers of the steamers. On the arrival 
of the boats, such is the rush over and upon the 
steamers, decks, that one unacquainted with this 
rude fashion would apprehend that some accident 
had happened. Beyond this intrusion and rude- 
ness the heavy tax of the ride a short distance. 
and the very exorbitant price exacted when no 
agreement is made, now requires interference by 
the authorities of our city. It frequently happens 
that a person takes a carriage for himself and 
friends or family, and agrees to pay the price for 
it, alone for his own use. Even after this, the 
driver will say he lias a friend who wishes to ride 
a few rods, and thrusts in others, and thus exacts 
a double fee. receiving pay twice over. 

We have some cases on hand, and we shall not 
fail to note them until this evil is remedied, and 
strangers and all can pass in safety. In this 
effort we know we shall be sustained ; having suf- 
fered, we know the evil. 



We commend the lectures of Rev. Mr. Spear, 
now in course of delivery in this city, as most 
worthy the attention of our citizens at this par- 
ticular juncture. No one in California is so well 
qualified for such a course of lectures, and none 
surely that would interest an audience more. 

Report on Vegetables. — Owing to the 
crowded state of our columns, the Report of the 
Committee on Vegetables is unavoidably deferred 
till our next number. 



The California Farmer will always be found 

at Sullivan's Newspaper Stand, Kearny street ; 

at the Bookstore of Mr. .Murray, Montgomery 

and at other prominent places in every 

eity. 



" As we were going to press we received further 
intelligence from Ensenada. The bark Anita had 
arrived with two hundred and thirty men as an 
additional force to the co-^uand of Colonel Walk- 
er, on the 20th inst., ancSwi mediately landed her 
troops. At this time the natives had fled, and 
nothing more had been seen of them after the 
new forces had arrived. The day after the arrival 
of the Anita sixty-five men were ordered to 
march on the town of Santa Tomas. under the 
command of Captain George A. Davidson, who 
effected the taking of the place without a light. 
Mellendrez and Negrete had fled, but the property 
belonging to them at La Grulla was taken and 
appropriated l'<>v the use of the expedition. This 
was principally horses and cattle, and are all se- 
cured in the valley of Ensenada. '!'!- ,; ip rl 
-•!' Mellendrez had been declared confiscated by 
tin- .Mexican Government, he being outlawed by a 
decree of the military commandant. A new gov- 
ernment has therefore taken possession of it. in 
right of the old. lie has endeavored to regain 
theproperty which was declared confiscated by 
order of Santa Vnna, by trying I'' drive Ok- ex- 
pedition from the country ; and in order to do so, 
! e has forced the natives to fight against if. The 
inhabitants of this part of the country refused to 
aid him, but have been obliged to do so in order; 
to save the life of Negrete, commandant of Santa ' 
TomaSj and also of the Judge of the First In- 
stance, whom Mellendrez had taken as pri-oniTS. 
and threatened to put to death if the inhabitant - 
did not enroll themselves under his command. 
They reluctantly did so, under the promise to re- 
lease his prisoners. They besejged them Beveral 
day-, keeping up a constant and ineffectual lire 
upon us on the first day of the seige. The gallant ! 
McKibbin met his death while taking deliberate 
aim at the person of the outlaw. Mellendrez. The 
heroic Capt. Grilman was also severely wounded. 
With these exceptions the men are without scathe 
or injury md in excellent condition and sj^i ..■ 
On the 5th day our boys made an attack upon 
their camp, routing them completely, killing 
eight, and wounding several more. We also took 
possession of their field piece, ammunition, stock. 
camp equipage. &c, since which time Mellendrez 
has not been able to make a stand. The flag of 
"Two Stars'' now waves triumphantly over 
Lower California, and the wealthy Kancherosare 
in exstaeies. and do not fear to express their joy 
at our advent. 

There have been but two deaths in the expedi- 
tion, Lieut. McKibbin and private Bernard Mc- 
Cormack, the former of whom was killed at En- 
senada, and the latter at La Grulla, being alone 
when surprised and surrounded by the enemy — 
he was shot in four places, being offered quarter 
but refused it, and fought to the last. It was 
afterwards ascertained at Santa Tomas that lie 
killed three and wounded several others before he 
was overcome. 

A decree has been issued by the President con- 
demning to death all persons guilty of plundering 
the property of the friendly inhabitants. 

The party embraces men of every profession 
among them some surveyors) who are engaged in 
.surveying the town of Ensenada. with its harbor 
and approaches, laying out the ground in Streets 
and blocks, and superintending the repairs, forti- 
fications and buildings erecting by the new Gov- 
ernment. 

The following are the names of the persons at 
present holding office in the Republic oi Lower 
California : — 

Hon. W. Walker. President. 
Gen. II. P. Watkins, Vice-President. 
Major Fred. Emory. Secretary of State. 
Capt. J. W. Jarigan. Secretary ol War. 
" H. H. Snow, Collector of Customs. 
K Win. Mann. Capt. of Navy. 
Major Oliver T. Beard, Q. M. General. 
S. S. Richardson, M. D. 
Lieut. Samuel Rutland, Adjt. Acting. 

Lawrence, Commissary. 

Capt. Chas. II. Oilman, Co A. 
" Wm. E. Cuttrcll, " B. 
" Geo. Davidson, " C. 
" D. W. Chauncy, « D. * 
" Norman Douglass " E. 
Negrete and Mellendrez have both fled, the for- 
mer to San Diego, where he has taken up his abode, 
and the latter to the lower country, without arms 
or followers, and in a destitute condition. 

A call has been made upon the inhabitants to 
unite in a convention, for the purpose of adopting 
a constitution suited to the requirements of the 
people, and to establish such a code of laws as 
may be found adequate to preserve peace and 
order in the community. 

The President is indefatigable in his devotion 
to the welfare of the people and his army, and his 
time is employed constantly in the labors of his 
office. 

The defences at the port of Ensenada are now 
so far advanced that it is deemed impregnable to 
any force Santa Anna or anybody else can send 
against it. The supplies for the troops are abund- 
ant, and are well protected, so that even a siege 
could be resisted with success. The men are in 
the highest spirits at their recent achievements, 
and arc ready for any emergency that may occur, 
and more than anxious for another opportunity [ 
to measure their prowess with that of the enemy. I 



Irrigation. 
To the first immigrants to California the ques- 
tion of irrigation came up as a sine qua non^ not 
only in respei t to the high lands that presented a 
dry and barren appearance, but in respect to tic- 
low intervals that margined our rivers. They 
were viewed under a disadvantage, and they ex- 
cited an idea, than -which none could be more 
erroneous. The first experiments in tilling the 
lands have completely exploded the conclusion 
referred to. Indeed, the tests to which they have 
been subjected have established a principle that 
was comparatively unknown in the practical de- 
partments of farming. The experiments already 
made show the farmer that nature has other 
methods of supplying soil with necessary mois- 
ture than obtaining it from rain clouds or dews — 
that there is a force beneath the earth's surface 
that in this country can be relied upon in almost 
all cases for an adequate quantity of water. We 
mean the capillar)' power by which a circulation 
is maintained independently of the ordinary hy- 
draulic forces with which all are familiar — a cir- 
culation arising from the loose and permeable 
condition of the sr.il itself Although this force 
may not be scientifically understood by all who 
ha ■ discovered the fact, yet it has not failed to 
suggest the value of the principle and to direct 
ii mers generally into a fair appreciation of the 
ad van t d8. Hence, there is now a gen- 

eral impression amongst husbandmen that deep 
subsoil ploughing is essentially necessary in Cali- 
fornia, and that in proportion as they succeed in 
rendering light and loose the soil in which the 
seed is deposited, just in such a proportion will 
thej succeed in securing the supply of moisture 
needed. In the first place, the seed sower has 
the rainy season to prepare and mellow thoground 
and also to germinate the seed and sustain the 
plant until the descen ling roots have made it less 
necessary for the soil upon the immediate surface 
to be kept moist — the roots themselves becoming 
a more perfect link in the capillary circulation 
than that which is created by the loose and spongy 
texture or condition of the soil. 
* But this is a matter as _\ ct very imperfectly 
understood in its application to farming purposes, 
[thas been sufficiently recognized to convince 
cultivators of the soil that the first impression in 
respeel to irrigation was erroneous, and to no 
small extent mischievous, iu its influence. 



hope that when these claims are announced, all 
will yield ready acquiescence to the decision. 

The Sutter claims are now the next most im- 
portant, and we look with the deepest interest to 
the decision, as it will affect more in number 
than any other claim yet presented. 

We are under weighty obligations to the gen- 
tlemanly messengers of Messrs. Adams & Co.. 
for the prompt delivery of packages, letters, etc. 

MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, Jan. 11, 1854. 
Wehnve no new fenhirein the muring j„ observe ; a contin- 
ued apathy, pervading the whole routine of trade and com- 
merce. Yet we fire glad to notice a cheerful spirit, and a re&dh. 
nees to bmr patiently that which i& beyond the control nf man 
— for no one can doubt bat thata portion at leant of the hiiic- 
rivity of trade results front the want of rains. 
WHOXESALB FBICES. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— 

Shovels, Ames long handled, bright $16 - 

do do short handled 1 2 50 

do Fields', lone handled 14 - 

do do short handled, do ?&]& 

do Rowland's, l> ag bandied 12 — 

do do short handled B - 

do Kuie*s, lone bandied 12 — 

Spades, bright e. s. l>eet make if! — 

mn in — 

Coal and Grain Scoopsj cast steel 20 — 

dn do ir'in 10 — 

Axes, (.' Ufa*', ase'd handle n — 

■l 1 Hunts', do 17 — 

Picks, CMHns*, 41 1 to 6- lb, solid eye 14 — 

dn 1 1' ft brands '. in - 

H Ives, heavy 1 Lckory pick, turned 4 - 

do do do ' axe 3- 

ike 14 ■ 

do Btnel 30 . 

Threshing Machines and B ■■ ■■■ . Hall & 

l'itt-', ri-. hi le-, n it.nl, SCllu r, s-eu: uit.fr 

I inn to $000; En u ery's, with thresh- 
er, se- arnf r, and 'an mill. .t:i."u to $400, 

Straw Carters, no pale, nominal 20 — ®C5 

Rakes, horse and revolving, n<. Bala 
do band, woi 'i do 
do dr. pteel 12— -3-20 — " 

Pitchforks. B* doz, no wile 

Hoes, steel, g< oee-neck handle, per doz fi — Tp h — 

Crowbars, heavy Bteel nninted 1 ex lt» — IS ® 18 

Flmir Mills, NnveV |500; Brown's, 30 in. $450. 

There probably has never been a time when nil theabovt 
enumerated articles hung more heavy upon the market, than 

the nn 



<S 

a 

a 15 

^irt _ 

..■ !■ 00 

s 1:1 m 

31 1 8 00 
2)12 00 
* 24 — 

2 tS — 

•i- 

7> 



W 

3 S — 
ffl •! 50 

a 30 — 

r al~i — 



Shooting Iffair. — Mr. Baugh, ofthe ii. 
Sweeny & Baugh, was shot on Tuesday, al Point 

LoboSj by a German named Fred 9 ano1 but 

very little hopes are entertained of his recovery. 
Messrs. Swe< ney & Baugh own a tract of land 
near Point Lobos, which they purchased some 
time ago, and where they have erected their tele- 
graph light-house. A short Linn.' since they sold 
a small portion of the land to a gentleman named 
Chambers for $500, and took his note for that 
amount. When the note was matured, Cham- 
bers, ii is said, refused i" pay, and they .sued him. 
ami then the debt was Liquidated. 

Within the last few days certain gentlemen or- 
dered Sweeny & Baugh to have their property 
ro-surveyedj which they <li'f. anil after getting 
tines from the surveyor, employed laborers to 
make a fence around the ground, and men were at 
work there since Monday. Chambers came yes- 
terday afternoon a!. out 4 o'clock, with two others 

and a German named Fred , and as Mr. 

Baugh was looking down tbe hole where the post 
was to go, Chambers ordered his man to "shoot 
the d — (1 money-making son of a b — h ;" he tired, 
the liall taking effect in the left cheek, and carry- 
ing away a part of the jaw-bone. The ball has 
not yet been discovered. Dr. Todd was sent for. 
and was unable to find the ball. At p. M. he 
was insensible. After being shot Mr. Baugh was 
enabled to walk several yards towards the light- 
house. After shooting Mr. Baugh the German 
followed the other man for about a hundred yards, 
saying "he wanted to shoot that fellow in the red 
shirt."— Herald. 

Chambers and Mayo were arrested yesterday 
morning. Chambers asserts that he did not give 
the order to fire. The parties arrested have been 
held to bail in the sum of 2.000 each. Mayo, the 
German, is in prison — not being able to find hail. 
Mr. B.'s wound will not probably prove fatal. 



Land Claims. 

These all-important questions are exciting a 
deep interest in our community at the present 
moment, and it will be well for our community 
to have them settled ; and although some must 
sutler, settled as they may he, we desire for the 
good of the country to see them speedily adjust- 
ed, and we have faith to believe it will be on a 
fair, just and equitable principles. 

The Fremont claim, confirmed by the Commis- 
sioners and appealed from, has been rejected by 
the higher courts. 

The Peralla claim, which now involves large 
and important interests, is upon the point of set- 
tlement, anil much feeling exists. We sincerely 



ent 

FLOUR— 
For Gallego and HaxalKwe quote 6be fobbing 

rates 13 r>n s 

Chile 11 (mi a . 

RepacltPd JO no ?, w 26 

Ho e M !'- (outside brand) in no ? f \\ oo 

rTorner'e Mills, (domestic) 12 .v> 7, 

Bi oic'n Mills, du 12 50 Ti 

— We note large etoekson hand; and atdes heavy; holders 
nnxiou* tn realize. 

Meal, hi bbhi c, 00 % fi so 

'1" ' ■■ hi 'Is n 3 75 

lb ft— 2 

GRAIN— 

Corn, Eastern, ^ lb — 2 ri> 

■ in Calilomia — 2%B — 3'% 

('■in... „— S 

do Cat feeding — B>42 — 846 

Buckwheat, for seed — in ,i 

. I " "N ., — 4',^ — 4'i 4 

do Seed — r> a 

do Ore ■ 'i Htk't. 

i Ewoera — 3' 7/— 3% 

Wheat, Chil'. — 5ty4 — 5 

do- Cnli bruin, for seed — "> ?/ 

do do for milling — 3%!s — -1 

Australia, seed — v ,.■ — 7,' . 

— We miui note n i earfni -.- in all ulee : m> demand. 
Li MBE&— 

Timber, Oregon Plnei Fq, V M 45 00 3 

3confl i ■■. ( Ire \ a 5(1 00 355 00 

W. P dear mo im 0)20 00 

Plnnkj Boatera >mk 115 00 » 130 00 

Eastnra Blear, I I j 1'fi no a 1 10 00 

-I" do 2d quality 75 on 3 BO 00 

Georgia v. P. flooring. 75 00 19 80 00 

ill. Oregon pine, rough ur 60 00 

do -'''I rood WW 00 a III 00 

Floor Joist. GO on a 55 oo 

, Eastern, best. in on „. j i no 

Clatibrards, No. 1 BO 00 3 B5 00 

Baatcrn S 10 00 

1 1" California 3 ;i no 

in, Eaatara :t 7.". 9 550 

window 3 75 9 5 00 

— Vary heavyai i lantitlea 

arriving 

PRO VISIONS— 

Beef; M'--. V i'i>i ifi on 3 

du lfj hlil pxlrn luinilv 13 50 3 

Bacon, extra clear sides, ■£>' ig 13 3 14 Wj 

do Mew, nominal, no r-tilp. 

1 lecsa (scarce) 

Eegs, fresh Cnl 

Hullir, riinu-p'. 

do .1 ordinary 

do ' lalUbrnia 

IJimif, ordinary 

do i stra 

Lard, In kegs 

do tins 10-tb 

do 15—20 do 

Pork, clear, 8> hbl 25 00 <t 

do do Hjbbl 1500 " 

.1 US, V hbl 11' 'XI a 

do do to do 19 00 -a> 

— All kinds of Pfoviatona, exceedingly dull ; pric&= nominiil. 
RICE— 

( laroUna, In bbis 6 @ 6*to 

China, No. 1, in mats G @ 7 

Oo No. 2, do ® 7 

Manila *» '«' 5 

VEGETABLES— 

Beans, Chili Bayoe, 7c, few in mnrket 

Beans, CaUfiimla '- ,1 ■«■ :('3 

do do Red 5 W 

f tun 20 00 a— J — 

Carrol 9 — 

Oni ne, prima P 1 "t 9 4 

Turnir- — V a> 2 

Potatoes — 7 b* 1 

Peas, i none In market.) 

Squashes, f lb — 'j» lto 

RETAIL VEGETABLE MARKET. 
In presenting tbi- R-'im! Market ol Vngetables, we ilo this 

la show tliL- wre'Jy value tmd list ol' tiimily comlo; r.« ntnl lOJCU' 
riea (for good vegiittibli'-o nr<' ilnU-f) luxnii'-) llitd iif oflbn I 

to us in our murketn. Very few markots In tbo United Stntoa 
can present such luxuries bvctj week, and have mem fresh 
arden every day. 
It will he i"-n thai caHfloworsi celery, 
; n \"-' j conun md : 

... fuel ■ pay m [I— lor A a quantity nd e I i 
portion of laud almosl 
ibb p . p hi nd 9 30 



■:n , 


32^ 


BT' ia 


0(1 




30 




aft 


1 Ml) ,,_ 


. — 


13 a- 


. — 


1 1 a 


15 


— a 


14 


i, a 


17 


■ • „ 


ll> 



nets, \> lb 

mip i 4 

3 

Marrowfat snuahos 4 

Celery, t v du 4.". 

CauliHowen, p head.... 50 

pdoi i oo 



Ltoos r Ib.$ l-i 

•-' 

i inioni , ordinary i 

Garlic 27 

. >.fi«ih 1 (» 

warca . - 31 

u roil do 37 



3))).s $QBi!j98 tBil) ^Ji^iJJiJis?. 



i win a smile from itgclf 

hrongcd with | -. who 

■ii'.'lilv iiulmcd with tl 

■1 bj a liahn; to and 

— Ere. Pic 

A I iw. — Mr. Win. Ward 

nil I ivi'tity-thrc« pi 

litter within twehra months, 
mother us proliBc sow in tho world. 

A Literal-} Society called the Sacramento I.y- 
Sacramento on the 7th. 



Messrs. Adams & Co., are authorized to re- 
ceive money for us, and receipt for the same, at 
anv of their offices throughout the State. 



MARRIED. 



I ..'.•■ inn Church, by l; ■■ 
p, T. Oruy, J, R. R I) d, Esq.. Dl the B rnkii] ■ Eion e ol R ib- 
K itn Anderson. 
'i on, by Rev. H. Kroh, Mr. Samuel 

lima i, L.:\ niuler. 

(tn s m ilny, 7i i inst., ni Sr, Francis Chapel, Virilejo street, 
he- K ' lesby, Mr. John M loreand Mies Ellen < Jasaj . 

!. i ,. 

< i,, rhi 7tl ii st„ bj the R ;v. C. K Hyatt, Hall McAllister and 

■ in hter oi Samuel Hermann, Jr, 
[ ..ii . .1 ii. S ( H the residence n C. T. II inpkine, Esq., 
■ ;. .. ■ . T G ay, Charles H. McLellan, ol Bath, Me., and 

I ■ ■■ Kendi ick, ol New Y i !■; cil y, 
A* Smi. i ..■-.. i>\ Rev. Eli Corwln, Mr. A. D. 

t Cai oline B, Hick-'. 



DIED. 



[n Sacramento, Jan. 8th, Geo. Byron McDoniel, of Orono, 
Maine, aged nbi ut 22. 

\\".r- killed b; the late explosion of the Bteamer Ranker, at 
Aliuni da, i ii 8 inday, Bth hist., Mr, Alex. Rose, aged 29 years. 

In Placervillc, Jan. 5th, Andrew Ale, aged 1? years, of 
:■-:■ i ■ - ■ . ■ ly. Mo. 



SIIWPINti INTELLIGENCE. 



PORT i»F SAN PHANCreCO 



ARRIVALS. 
Jan. fi — Ship Sweepstakes, Lake, New York, Sopfc 3; mdee. 

Ship Lei now, Gates, Puget Sound, 7 days ; lumber- 

Bcnr Blue Wing, Andrews, B de p 84 hour produce. 
ji,u. ? — Brig Mnr> A Jones, Folger, Oregon, 6 days; lumber, 

Biig Frances, Mi D<mough, Pajaro, W houri i j r duce, 

Schr Laura Bevaa, M< rton, Pajaro, '■'. days j produce. 

Schr Loo CI , Charles, Pajaro, 3 days ; in nil in-. 

Jan. B— Stmr I thtnus, Miiiinni, San Dieao, 3 di ; 

Mex brig Arexona, Newman, San Bias, 28 days, via Mn- 
zntuiii ; produce, etc. 

Schr Volnsco, Copeland, Santa < irua . lime, 

Sal r .i BR) ersi n, MeCarty, Pajor >, 24 In ure, potatoea 
Jan. 9 — Bru: i ' ' Pn ro -h, At™ oi d, Pajaro, 24 houre \ ■■ 

Sel i' Eliza Davis, B< linns, 24 houre ; produce, 
Jim. 10— Ship R wena, Thomas, Pugei , fc ". und ; lumber. 

Br ship Oregon, Williams, Livcrpi -it. L54 dayt : cool. 

Brig Gnorgi Enif ry, Dtggs, Puuei S und, !i days; lumber. 

Bj la I tudlej Staples, Ore ran, 8 day* | iui ibei . 
Jim. 1 1— Bark Orion, Upshur, IS w I rk, 340 days, via Rao Jan- 
eiro; mdse. 

Clipprrsl.i H utliern Crow, Now York, L43davs: aidsa 

Clipjie plii] Wild Pieei n, Elai on.New I 16 devs; mdse 

r- 1 1 i i] Plyinc Fich, Nickl«=, B on, 1 13 days; md*c, 

B . Mervey, Liverpi ol, '■' 'i 

Ship I ' . ' UlHdwjclt, Val] 111 al 10 | I 1 ' 1 duCft 

Schr Wi nderer, Seward, San Pedro, 9 days, rlt\ Monterey; 
600 ■; c! B an 
Stmr Mnji i Tompkins, Hunt, Monteri ■ >■ duca 

CLE \i; wci S 
Jan. 6 — flcl r Rinlro, Kimr, Hon. lulu. 
Jmi. 7— Br bail Speed, Grn 



Schr Vh 



, u I,-. 



Mil Bill hi 



Jon 9— B l»a k Matilda, L pn U, \ Di i uv< r*i lt.l«iiii. 

Inn, 10.— SI in Parsin. Conk, Hong K ng, 

Br barli J -lm Calvin, Jni k, Vnl] arniao, 
Jim. U— Clipper ship Wizard I 

Bark Amorican, Wiggan, Pi rtltu d 

Bark Math nna, R« 11, Humbi dl Bay. 

Pi-bj Tarquinn, Robortson, ' Hj n 



B i: ^ A NT & CO'S 
Agricultural Ware House. 

COHNKit FBONT AN1> 8ACRAMBNT0 [*ni 

i ■ . ■ 

Agici .1 - .; ■■ i. i «pli iti ■ Mining r 

AN!) « rABDER &EKD8, 
Al*», r lull and complete stock of HARDWARE AKD CUT- 
LERY. 

Mmi. M Kt mmtRi "i nil kinds. 



I -i i i'v:uhiss. 



in ,\i; i c ■ i ■ riio-tirsoi). 



PKRKTNS, WEBSTER .V CO., 

Commission Merchants for Salo of Produce, 

— AND — 

DEALERS IN 11. urn AND OB UN, 

No. £3 Olay street, between Front and Davis. 

8 Ii S\n FaaNcfsco. 



A CARD. 
Prize Medals Awarded at the Agricultural Fair. 

BY [hi 
tin ct I 
I 
■ . 

..... 
1 1 
Oui I 

YVAl: i 



"IITAN 

w 



Bi 



Italian Marble, Granite and Froa Stone Wor.i 

i 

■ 

■ 

■ ■ ■ ..;■■. 

I. 
'■ 
1 ■ ■ 

. h ..... L . ■ j 00 \\ oi i- on 
■ ■ ..I- . : r Bide, to arrive, LOO inn I ol 
■ ■ ■ i ■ ■ . ■ . • ■:. ■ .... 

: irmined ru H oll cheap. 

coir it SEALS, 
■ : -■ ihe Marble Obeli k, 
2 lm 94 Batter] etmi i. c irner ofClny. 

""DONAHUE'S UNION IKON WORKS, 

[THE PIBST ESTABLISHKD in THE state.] 

Cor. of First and Mitsian VtUU.y y San &Vanc&co, 

rpi'it; undeitignt i call the attention of the eiti :ens of Caliibr 
X nia andOrc^on to hU imequalled iacilities lor d ,ing workwitti 

I . •■■■■■. ■-. He has made, and « ill continue to 

n • • to hi time and labor-saving machinery, as 

• ■■ ceasing wants of the State i'equire,and hence solicits pub- 
lic patron i 

Saw and Grist Mill Irons. 

Quartz Crush. n^ and Amalgamaung Machinery, 

and CiiatingR o either Iron or Brass ol every descriptii n (having 

.. in !■■■: exfent-ive assortment of readj made patterns) made 

pn tni tty to order. 

STEAM ENGINES from the manufactories of William Bur- 
don, Brooklyn, New York, and other celebrated makers, ccn- 
Btantlv mi hand and for sale. 
BOILERS of every deseription lurnished al lower rutea Chan 

onn be afforded elsewhere, the iron lor the i being imported 

direct, and i i ■ niachniery lor bhcuring, i uucliuigand riveting 

I I ing^diiven i y m p w c. Puteui Ste id W 

Hi itim Wiii ii -, < loclw, India Rubber Steam Paekmg, Roady 
inade Bolts und Nut , Belting Laco and othoi Engineer's Fina- 
n eale. 
2 3m JAMES DONAHUE. 



WM. b. cookt:. 



Ci;0. L. KK.WV, 



GKO. L. STURTEVANT. 



WHOLESALE BOOKSTORE 
AND SIWTIONEXS' HALL. 

COOKE t KENNY & Co., 

CORNER MERCHANT AND MONTGOMERY STRET3, 

Importers of English, French and American fancy and Btaple 

Stationi ry — wholesale and r''t;iil dealers in Law, Medical, Mis- 
cellaneous, School and Blank Books, 
Agents and dealers in Magazines, Reviews, and NewBpi ■ 
Blank Hunk- ainde to order or the shortest notice. S -It 



WM. NEELY THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Lumber, 

HAKKST STKEE'f, BETWEEN I'BiNT AND DAV19. 

Q ...,,., Scantling, Floor Joist, Sash and Panel Door*; Win 
dowsand Building materials of all tcinds con tantlj on hand. A ■■'- 

F~~ BNCING WIRE— Galvanized and Bright— 
80 fr n . Ivant; d, N is. s, I, 5, <i i i 
10 h 1 1 brigl . N . .;. : ■. S and 7. 
For sale Ij; 
2 4t SOUTHWOHTH & CO. 



PALMER, COOK & CO., 

Bankers^ 

Drafts on the American Exchange Bank, New York, 
And u] nil ihe cities of the Haired Si 9 41 



LUCAS, l'URNEK & CO., 

Bankers t 

■ -. I l. ', M I ■ 

H time i ■ 

— i', Heci aud I 

nil I 

Quid Duet, Bii Deposit h 

lii b. ■ 

HENRI 

WILLIAM T. 8UERMHN, 
N R. NI^BF.T, 



.1 V.Ml.s li. LUCAS, 
JOHN MMONDS, 

i PATTERSON, 



DREXEL, S VTI1K1I & VU\ RCH, 
Basil 

mi ui at iroUT in iPMB T<i fDTT, 

O ■ in Rai 

FUnh 

■ 
■ 

■ 

A n llu ■ I 

■ 

■ 

H. W. BRADLEY'S 

National Dagnerrean Gallery, 

■ 

Impoi " 

Every A. a in lb« Bum— 

- I lm 



id Frimt<* 

■ 
■: 

T, H 

1 

- 

11 1. 1 ll H t .: 

kj Bhu-GnM. 
i ■ » ...i.tu- ike wrr i ~'-J lo «"■■ 



PATCH & CLAYTt 







E ON 


N 






AV 








EaJHS 








r mock. 










.rfc..**. 










Slw ! 


tit 








Aal i «»«. iovnn 



New Dm§: Ejtablisunent. 




«ciW» po 



ttaar- ta - 



ATM. 



Henry D. Rai nn. j M ■ 
i ; 

PAGE, BACON & 



Ii 



. ■■ : .... .-. 

.. • ■ • 
.. - 



■ ■ • : . i ; ■ ■ i ;... 

Di ■ ■ . . Uo 

... 

Fosl Lne&Cu 

i iOuJi iiiniii State Bank 

Page & Baeon 

lintel & Co 

T. S, Q Kidman di Co 

S, Join & Oo 

ild Om i and Exchange purchased al 



1 Francis V, 
Sacrtuucnto < lit; . 

CO., 

ifoi in ■■.:■.■.. 

,-uit, on — 

Lend m 

.....London. 

New l"oi k, 

■..■, i 

Host ii. 

Philadelphia. 

Baltimore. 

..... .New * Irleans. 

. . . hi. Lou ■. 
. . . Louisville. 

-l 'ini-niuiili. 

Pittsburg. 

urront rates. J 4\ 



Miners' Exchange and Savings Bank, 

AND HAN FRANCISCO ASSAY OFFICE, 

AIUIOHV HALL, SAN FRANCISCO. 

( brner Montgomery and Sacramento streets, 
DR. A. H. WRIGHT, Agent. 

ALL MONEYS loft al this Banking House will bear an inter- 
est ol one aud s half per cent per ih, redeemable al 

pleasure. 

GOLD DUST !'■''[ to be assayed at thin office, will bo returned 
within tweniy-tbur hours, and thevei^ bestpnee paid ibr it 
when offei-ed far Bale. 

GOLD DUST received on Special Deposit Free of Charge, 
jinit Rich Quartz Specimens purchased, or valued QTatis, and 
every attention paid to theAssaying or testing of all kinds of 
< Ires. 

GOLD DUST received for Coinage, or Remittance Bills of 
Exchange drawn on the East, 'it Sight oc on Time. l 4t 



VOLUNTEERS WANTED ! 
JEWELRY AT J OHN W. TUCKER'S. 

1 ahall now coin nee 

. I DIAMO ■■!' w OUK, \\ ITCHES, Jl WJ LB 
WARE, ens, etc 

Aiuountlngf to more than £300, 000! 

[ have got to sell all tue above goods lieli i*e the tir>*t ol J ■, ■ ■ 

I have to rebuild my store according to the new ki ,; - 
person who : article can procure one irom me 

Cheaper than in any other City in the World ! 
Bui I don'l w ish il to be understuod that I pretend to compere 
with those who sell trash ; — persona who would not hesitate to 
guarantee ;i braas ring or a watch far pure fold; — thesopersoua 
can fiell lower than I can. If I sell an article oi an; '■■ - and 

does turn oul at i ropreseul it, I will return tt -< • moi ey. No 

personslvall leave my BSlahlishment dieeatlsiied. Call and ■■<■■• 
me belbre you purchase elsowhera 

JOHN W. TUC1 i !'. 

1 lm 1 Si Montgomery street, ueai Sucramc] to, 



Gentlemen's Clothing and Furnishing Goods. 

Gj_EORGE F. WALTER, No. 113 Mongomery street, on- 
rpositeBarry & Patten's, has on hand and is constantly 

receiving a splendid a aortmeutol g la far Gentlemen^ w ear, 

ctmprisingj id part, fiincy Cassuneres, Vestings and French 
Cloths, of various colors and Rnesl texture, He is constautlj 
receiving by the steamers, cured from lii.-^ Agents in New York- 
Messrs. Crawly it Lent, 737 Broadway — invoices of Paris 
PANTS, Benjean's make, of Caseimerej velvet face, the best ever 
imported. A discriminating public ifi invited to call and examine 
tins stock. / 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 
C. F. W. gives tiii:= department his especial attention. All 
styles of military suits made to order, from the best material, 
and guaranteed ru give perfect satisfaction. 

GentUauen'e Fas! aole i Slothing cut and made equal to any 

house in the Atlantic S ates — the workmanship by the best Tail- 
ors. The principle laid down i* thai no garmeai isd 

which is not n perfect Gt; as every article is fitted on belbre 
being finished, thereby avoiding the unpleasant neceesirj of al- 
tering after leaving Che Btore, Anygarmenl thai ie made and 
I Hi perieci lj . Is aoi ■■ cpft ted to be taken, at ue is de fr- 
ousof establishing b business thai will on to all 

favor iiini with ii ■ 
.V !■'.. — ! . till continue & i take ■ tadei I 

York by Messrs. Croney & Lent All orders sen) will be ro- 
eei» ' d b] nei ui n steamer, 

■ , . IRQ] : WALTEB 
1 lm Opposite Barry & Pattens, 



Wholesale Saddlery Warehouse. 
■I. C. JOHNSON A CO., 

IMPORTERS and w 
, ,Vr., Nc. i:tO :-.■ 

Hm ii.. 






part ol : 

■ 

Can li 

■ 

I ■unfiled 
1 U 



10(1 






I I'll 






■ '■•rnjfua. 



PIArlO FORTES FJJ1 HinE. 

WOODWORTH & CO., importers of Piano Fortes, 130 
< !lay si reet, are now receiving ;i further supplj <>■ Pian < 
\-\<nv, from the <■ ilobrated " Sf dord" ui mufacti ry, expre 
far hire, Also, now landing Irom the clipper^, a lnrue assort- 
ment of instruments suitable for HOLiDAi PRESENTS, con- 
eisting of C, U', and 7 octaves, plain and carved, " ith pcsxl and 
ii ory '•■<': 8, likev> i e 

Prince's Mclodeons, A i i - r ' octaves ; 

Imli.i Rubber Piano Covers ; 

French Piano Covers ; 

RoBewood Music Stools, Ac, &c. 1 4t 

TIME. 
ARTK'ULAL iittnition psiid, ȣ usual, to the cleaning and 
repidring ul* Watches, by 

BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 



P 



City Obucrvatoiy, Montgomi Bt 



4 t 



SPEC.li\lEKS OF AGaiCULIDiii). 

WI" de lire to call the attenti a ol the Cultivators of the Soil, 
to the importance of exhibiting euch specimens as they 
may grow of evei'j variety of chain, Gkabs, Fbuit and Vko- 
stable — we mean all fine or extra epecunens. 

They will observe that " Our l lull " i j now opened Free — And 
we shall make it n point to call public attention to every speci- 
men and give nil publicity to them that they merit 

In the Hull farmers wiu lindull the most valuable Agricultural 
and Scientific Papers and Periodicals, and thej are over ready 
for their use and open ro those who Feel an interest in them and 
especially to the Press aud to scientific nun and Societies, tt 

will I ur Him to furnish b plane where all could spends 

leisure hour profiitahly, and they can do so ; 

1 WARREN & fj«N. 

SIGN OF THE GOLDEN M0ETAB. 

JUSTIN GATES, wholesale and retail Druggist, 76 K street, 
Sacramento, oners fbr sale al greatly reduced prices, o laxga 
and well bbIi ctea assortmeni ol 
Paints, Oils, Turpentine, Brushes, Alcohi 1, Lamp Oil, 
..i.,i i til, Qumlne, M irphlnc, Opinm, Cam] hi r, 
Tartaric Acid, Cream ol Tartar, & de, IVipioca, U 
Cloves, Castile Soap, Indigo. Buj Water, uongresa Water, 

ShakerV Herbt H iots,Tdden'a Extract, Seidltta Powdat, 

. :.. i ■ j Syringes, Patent and li tanlc Medicinal, 

■ .no Surgical Instruments, Lubht's Extracts, 
Electric Ci uccutrated Preparations, Perrumcn 
1 1. jl,.,. uc, Totvnsend's, Sands' and Myors 1 Surra 

parilla, lycrs' Cherry Pectoral, Dr, Janes' Expectorant, 
md Pills, 
( [rei i; ment, I [allowaj Ointmenti i rills 

!■. illor, 
i . 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick, 
Old P 
AgenU tor Dr. Robiiu en's Mountain Extract, 
i iO\ E IN ONE DAT. 
.... 

! 

SACdAMENIU CliY BANK. 
JOHN M. RHOADES, Banker. 
1 
SaCB ■. 

■ 

■ I 

■ 

rates. 

■ 

■ ■ 

■ 



\\ 



Grip? V:: 



10,000 FRUIT TREES, 

fTML Raspberry an I 



GEMS FOE THE 



iNOTHER MAN t& l\ Tin: FIELD 

Prepared to cut Quartz Rock into any form 
desired. 

* I «m 

prrparH 

with a r !:«BO». 

N. R— QiiHTt^ Riicit t .itr. \m. -\i »t tiir 



I 
1 

'.t» i..r '» 

-t ukI mart orasn 



1 



AND GEMS i'Jii 
EN. 



and 



CBE.CENT tlTY HOTEL, 
And Oenarml Stags Office for all parts. 



'•il ]i*t'r.Ti- 



\\K BAK1 

Carpet. Faper Hnagiaf tad Upfcotatar D«I»t, 



tan FrumtccK 



j 0UAMXVTAI m 

1.000 Bfaati^l Shad* Trees 
\ 

-^ ' GMiW«<: 






SKAI 



i 



There are Three Things 1 Do Ti t To: 
: 

oluis iar eh 



fa r( mtk f-'irTv I>oLLABd far a cfcain, aad sri) it f»r 

TniUTf 5 :-l wurmr.t tt F: -- GuU, *!•« a ft 

'> braasfoUrr, uid b*ve co t»Ve it hnck and pa] 
i s in saw st» and jitt moitr dana. 






p Oranf*. EitspbtmM aad Cnrrajua. 

_ \ f.\ MMI tar fc-flft 

■ 






Woman's Eights 



w 



r Tli KER W; F -.u 

"■'S.' ' 

- 
8IL zas AHD ctrps. **u 

Ml ^,l-.or F|\. s«r* •> l» tl' • 

tiu Oi mi, m) • •"» ""JL^ 

'>kM Jr." - "a. .*«.- •' 






▼Uteri 



Eol Mil B:. 

u .■»■• 



•»* 



ast .z C4iiforai*. 



: jBox CoTtn, h~ . 

wmf -- 







16 



%]):( @<8lUte* ®§® §mmm 



A DREAM. 



GIBSON. 



1 had n dream, a Btrangely chequered dream, 

At firet ir thrills] my bosom to its core. 

"Twos calm as twilight hour, when the mid roar 
Of storms is Imsh'd, and from the east doth stream 
Tin- lull orb'd moon'* pale, mild and shadowy beam. 

Ir was b mother in her humble home — 
A widowed mother, nil whose earthly joy 
Was centred is a blooming, cherub boy. 

Her spirit seem'd "mont; bygone scenes to roam, — 
Anon she spoke, the boy kneeled by her ride ; 

She placed ouc haud upon his head, then raised 
Her eyes to Heaven ; and, forth rushed the full tide 
Of all a mother's love in silent prayer. 

My soul was emit with awe, as on I gazed, — 
I bowed my head, and worshipped with her there. 

I raised mine eyes, the scene had changed, — the child 
Now merged in manhood, — still the grief beguiled 

Of that fond mother, waxing grey with years, 

Their very souls comingled ; — and, the tears 
They shed were not the tears of withering grief; 

But, like the dew-drop to the drooping flower ; 
And to their hearts surcharg'd brought eweet relief. 

He bravely toil'd through many a weary hour, 
To shield bis aged mother from the band 
Of ruthless want — and, Fortune, smiling bland, 

Danc'd in the path of noble upright toil ; — 
Of Poesy he drank the crystal streams, 
And science round him shower'd her kindly beams. 

Again the scene is changed, — ah ! sadly chanced ! 
What sight is this — all haggard and deranged 

In beastly drunkenness 1 can this be he, 
Who lately kneel'd upon the glassy !ea, 
Now wrapping in Death's sleep a mother's form ? 

That noble brow ! — that eye !— uh I yes, tis he ! 
But oh, how fallen 1 how wretched, pale and worn I 
That eye is rayless, which once beam'd like morn. 

Hark I from those lips unholy torrents flow, 
From which the soul, with loathing, shrinks aghast ! 

He reels — he staggers ! — see f be smites his brow, 

Tortured with agony, which none can know. 
Save he whose soul dreams of the happy past — 
His mind all scathed by passion's scorching blast. 

All disappeared ; — and darkness veil*d my sight, 
Tilt on my ear rush'd a discordant sound, 
As if a thousand Demons yelled around; 
Then straight before me gleamed a baleful light ; — 
1 gazed with horror on the frightful scene ; — 
It was a hell in immature, where woe 
Sat brooding darkly o'er the drunkard's mien, 
And tortures stung his brain with maddening throe. 

Ah ! such was He amid that wretched throng, — 
The poison M chalice sparkling in his hand, 
While forms of men in rags around him stand : 
He trembles still to hear their ribald eong : — 
While thoughts of the sweet past flash through his soul. 
Frenzied, he rushes to the drunkard's goal ! 



laid with his white beard in the tomb, and every- 
body came out to enjoy the smiles of the new 
comer. 

Uh. it was a lovely babe; one upon which its 
parent might look with pride, satisfaction and 
hope. It seemed a spark struck off from the 
(great wheel of ages by the hand of Time, one of 
the sands in his glass changed to gold. The 
streets were full of jay in the person of splendidly 
dressed handsome men, on their tour of friend- 
ship, acquaintance or love, and seemed almost to 
forget the out-door glories in their anticipations 
of those who presided over the domestic hospital- 
ities. Bright and cheering as the sunlight were 
the smiles within doors, soft as the balmy air the 
words breathed by the festive board. 

There was pleasure without — there was happi- 
ness within the dwelling. Hearts swelled more 
joyously — blood flowed through vein and artery 
with a wilder delight. Friendship went on foot, 
Love on wings. Aristocracy on wheels. Friend- 
ship smiled. Love sighed. Snob swelled. 'T was 
a grand time, a good time, a happy time. Old 
friendships grew nearer. Love grew stronger. Snob 
became a little less stately — all harmonizing and 
humanizing. There's nothing like Association. 
'T is the sand-paper which rubs down nature's 
asperities, the burnisher which polishes the sur- 
face of society, the brush which applies the last 
varnish. 

Therefore, long live the poetic and delightful 
custom of New Years calls. There is not a spot 
on earth where it could be of greater service. 
Business eats up intercourse like a cancer, and 
rust eats into the character like salt water into an 
iron hoop cast upon the sea shore. A custom 
which causes pleasant associations and sympa- 
thies is like oil on the surface of the waters, keep- 
ing them calm — oil on the surface of steel. keeping 
it bright, 'Tisthe stamp on the genius of society. 
giving new beauty to its gold. Let New Year's 
Day, then.be our mint to coin anew pleasant 
feelings and turn into double eagles the rough 
bullion of life. 



' ( Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver." 
We present our readers to-day a gem worth 
preserving. We have read and re-read it, and 
each time with new pleasure — each time discover- 
ing now beauties. One may read it. and be sure 
of pleasant dreams. It will hang around the 
memory like the echoes of sweetest music. "We 
feel confident that all who love the delightful 
associations which gather around the new year. 
will thank us for republishing this editorial of the 
San Francisco Chronicle : 

New Year's Day. — God made last Monday. 
There can be no dispute upon that head. You 
might submit it to the Legislature at Benicia. and 
they would answer aye. You might ask all San 
Francisco, and no chairman would be needed to 
put it to vote, no clerk to record the ballot. No- 
thing short of Divinity could have done it. The 
air came with the blandness of heaven's own 
atmosphere. It was as bracing as the cold north- 
west breeze of Maine, as mild as the Indian sum- 
mer of Louisiana. Italy might have breathed it 
with a deep and delightful respiration, and believed 
it that which visits the Kialto or the Tiber. 
Switzerland might have felt stronger in its inspi- 
ration, and thought it a zephyr coming down from 
the glaciers, warmed Into tepidity by the genial 
plains, basking in the smiles and warmth of spring. 

There was nothing blue that day, save the skies, 
and everything put on a robe of golden beauty. 
colored in the sunlight, and bordered on the edges 
of the day with trimmings of stars. Nature's 
great broad face wore a smile as irresistable as 
that of the girl you love most dearly. One could 
not but feel its influence, for it seemed spread out 
everywhere. The lowlands were alive with glory. 
Over the hill tops, the light came and went in 
flashes and streams of wondrous brilliance. The 
lazy breezes stooped down to the laughing waters. 
as they passed, and the amorous waves pouted up 
their lips to the kisses of the wooer. On went 
the day in its joyousness, full of a gus^ of senti- 
ment, as if the elements themselves sympathized 
with human hearts, and were determined to have 
a lark on New Year's Day. The sun smiled un- 
usually cosy from every pore of his jollv face. 
The dull earth lighted up for once, like Eve from 
her first sleep, and blushed like her to find herself 
beautiful. The Bay lay around the men of our 
city like a sleeping spaniel at the foot of his mas- 
ter, and the ships, resting like swans on a sea of 
silver, swung leisurely with the tide, and like the 
ladies, awaited calls. 

All male-dom emptied into the streets — all lady- 
dom staid at home. It was a gala day. a holiday, 
:i day for polishing anew the chain of friendship 
and interlocking the links of love. It was prac- 
tical New Year's Day, one set apart to repair any 
omission or error of the old year. It was like the 
merry march with which the returning funeral 
band r>irits off the sad thoughts which the re- 
cent burial had excited. The old year had been 



Heroism. 

The following glowing description of noble and 
brave efforts to save life, wc copy from The Sun 
of the Cth inst. — and we feel it the duty of the 
press to make known as widely as possible such 
heroic achievements and keep the actors in honor- 
ble remembrance : 

One of those magnificent instances of glorious 
and intrepid conduct, which breaks like a gleam 
of vivid sunshine on the heart, and ennobles 
and dignities human nature, occurred yesterday, 
off North Point. A small boat, in which were 
two men, was endeavoring to make its way to 
land, amidst the rolling billows that raged around 
it, when, within full view of the shipping, a mon- 
ster wave o'ertopped the slender shell and swamp- 
j ed it. The drowning men clung with death hold 
I to the capsized boat, and mutely implored the 
jaid of those who witnessed the accident. Boat 
| after boat of bold, determined sailors shoved off 
! in the hopes of rescuing these unfortunates, and 
with rapid strokes made their perilous way over 
the foaming waves; but the contest was too 
unequal, and to save their own lives, they were 
obliged to return, one after the other. In this 
extremity Captain ClaDSTER, of the Hamburg 
brig Geo. Henrich, manned his boat with three 
trusty seamen, and went to their rescue. By this 
time the anxiety of the hundreds collected on the 
wharf had raised almost to an agony of excite- 
ment, and every rod made by the boat and her 
gallant crew, was watched with intense feeling. 
At one time, site would appear to be entirely 
swallowed up in the waste of angry waters, at 
another, she would dance gaily on the crest of 
some foaming wave, as it rolled in its wrath 
towards the resounding shore. But yet. in spite 
of all danger, all obstacles, the gallant Clauster 
at the helm and the noble tars at the laboring 
oars, held on their errand of mercy, and finally 
succeeded in reaching the boat and saving the 
drowning men. It is needless to say that shouts 
and hurrahs rent the air at this "splendid and 
most praiseworthy act, which it delights us to 
record. All honor to Captain Clauster and his 
gallant crew. 

A Happy World. 

This is a happy world — who says to the con- 
trary is a fool or something else. There is every- 
thing to make us happy. The land, and sea con- 
tribute to our enjoyment. The man who has a 
good heart, sees pleasure where a bad person 
beholds nothing but gloom. The secret then of 
being happy and enjoying this world is. to possess 
a cheerful and virtuous heart. AVho is the most 
cheerful and contented man in your neighbor- 
hood ? The man who has the most honor, and 
possesses the greatest riches ? No. It is he who 
has nothing but a kind heart. For nothing ruffles 
his temper, or disturbs his repOM?. The morning 
sky— the evening cloud— the rolling waters— the 
teeming forests and the fields of snow, give him a 
pleasure that others never dream of. It is he 
whoso mind is led from nature up to nature's 
God. and every day that he lives he is as contented 
and happy as it is possible for a man to be. De- 
pend upon it, the worm is a beautiful one and 
contains a thousand sources, of enjoyment, which 
they only can see and feel whose hearts are pure, 
and whose lives correspond with the words of 
eternal truth. 



Some lone bachelor editor, away out in Mis- 
souri, is guilty of the following:— Why is the 
heart of a lover like the sea serpent? Because 
it is a secreter (sea creeter) of great sighs (size). 
Dreadful, wasn't it? 



PEOKIA PREMTUM STEEL PLOWS. 

rE FORMFIt CELEBRITY OF THE PEORIA FRE- 
MH'.M STEEL PLOWS, and the unequalled success ol 
tin ir introduction in this State, would seem to preclude the • ■■- 
■-■ ■ — ii ;■" of any further effort on our part to draw 
thereto: but in view of the transitory nature of business in 
general ui California, and the probability that Borne may have 
looked upon our i stablishment of an extensive and permanent 
G cture ot Plows here, in the face of such enormous im- 
portations and extravagant pric j ol inat rial, as au impossi- 
bility — •■■ e belii to adopt this method of bringins 
- lecinl noi ; < ,] - 1 ■' all concerm d, thai v ■ are now 
manufacturing and "'ill have i (idj for i.ii- eeasi u' demand, 
three thousand of the most supi . tor PI iws ever made or used 
within this Shtl : 

We feel warranted in making this assertion, from I 
thut nil who used our Plows lasl season testify thai thi ; 
superior: and wo have studied -<■ clost ly tbe iixmii dinte wants 
of our patrons from every section of the State, that wc can 
now furnish Plows suitable to any particular kind oi soil known 
iu the State; 

Our material has all been selected in the East by one of our 
firm, aud imported by us directly from the manufacturers, 
which places it in our power to say confidently that nothing ie 
lacking in quality, while wo arc enabled to make the plows at a 
cost greatly below that of last Beaeoniand are determined to 
-I'll at prices within me reach of every farmer who may wish 
t'> use the Peoria Premium Steel Plow. 

ir should be remembered that these plows will do double die 
work with halF the team required in using the ordinary cost 
Plow ; and thai the work, when done, "ill be well done. 

For particulars of prices, and descriptions of plows, h e refer 
you to the subjoined card. The prices therein detailed are 
those established at our factory, and the only alterations from 
mem that we authorize our agents to make, is the addition of 
the cost oi transportation to their plao s of liusineft — thus plae- 
ingthe plows ni every accessible point of the .Suite for the 
exact price charged at the Factory, with the necessary expi oses 
only added. 

Farmers ordering our plows Q utile houses here, 

would do well to write to us at the same time, if they would 
make sun the right plow, fbr some are interest! d in 

repri 'en ting that we are noi m iking plows at nil, n bile others 
will not sell our plows when the ■■ cast plow. We 

re recommend tha d be sent tons directly, 

accompanied by on order upon your merchant for the 
which you can always know bj a reference to the card accom- 
pany n. _ this cii cul&r. 

On tile 34th o!" June the interest of T. Adams in our business 
ceased, by the sale ol his into L. E. Mor- 

gan, Aside from this, there has not, oor win" there bi , any 
the B&me effiCieni and thoroughly prac- 
tised hands in every department of our business. 

E. I.. MORGAN Si CO., So. 1 r* to 

T. ADAMS _v CO., 
Corner of Broadway and Un: ' - strei i 

15?" The folio wins are dm established prices lor the Peoria 
Premium Steel Plows, at our Factory, and the only addition 
our Agents an- authorised to make thereto, u the cost of trans- 
on to their points of bust] •■ 

BrZK. DESCniPTlO.V. FL'RBOW. FBICF.. 

No. 5 plain 10 in $ 30 

5'... '* 12in 8 35 

6 " 14 in $ 40 

? " 16 in .* ."(ii 

ti clipper or prairie 1-1 iu $ GO 

16 " *■ 16 in a 7n 

16 " " IB in | 83 

20 " " 30 in }100 

32 " " as in iiia 

34 " " 34 in $1 

36 " " S6 in $150 

:t0 " " UO in SITS 

40 " " 40 in S32S 

Subsoil Plows 

Cultivator:* $35 

J For the addition of wheel and axle to any of the above clip- 
per Plow.-, an addi i of $30. [ 

L. E. MORGAN ft CO., Successorem 
1 T. ADAMS A CO. 



THEODORE PAYNK. SQriBK W. DF.WEr. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 
REAL EST ATE AND STOCK AUCTION! 

OFFICE AND SALES-ROOM CORNER CAT. I FOR .VI A AND MONT 
DOMES? STREETS. 



THEODORE PAV? 



.AUCTIONEER 



■' ■» ■ PAYNI }, ,,,;,,,-,;, , : ,. puWie 

ol transacting the 

Baa] Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conduct! culiariy 

qualified, by having given it their special attention lor over two 
years past, and made themselves fondliar with all questions 
affecting title?, &c. &e. 

They will give their especial attention to t 1 "- public sales of 
estate, by Administrators, Assignees, EL rtgugeea. 

Sec, carerully complying nifli the tonni of law. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sole 
always open at their offica 

JAMES E. WAINWBIGHT. ALBERT GV BAKDALI. 

JAMES E. WAINWRIGHT, Auctioneer. 



WAIFWEIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 

REAL EST ATE AND STOCK Al'i.' TIOXKERS, 

Office and Salesroom^ 100 Merchant Street, 
between Montgomery and Kearny. 

Messrs, Wahtobight, Randalj, &. Co. respectfully an- 
ncmnce to their friends and the public generally that they have 
lit business connection, and rr-t-.-r-'Mi-L.-.l Ti-.ujV. -i v--- 
Rw Ifco purpose of transacting the Real Estate business in all ita 
branches, tor the succe-slu] immasemenl of which they deem 
themselves well qualified, having hud upwards of four years 
experience in this Hry. 

They will give especial attention to making public sales oi all 

kinds ol property tor Administrators, ccdvera, 

■ -. and others, according to law. 

Particular attention paid n, preparing "Rancho" property 

for sale, and ev< ry facility will be afforded to the hold.-ra oi such 

iction ol their business. Mr. H 
being conversant with the Spanish language (having resided 
years in South America,) . ;l . ,,,,,,„ 

to the translation ol title papers, when required. 

A practical Surreyor andT Draughtsman will he in constant 
attendance ai the offica 
A large amount ol property »t private Bale. 
Conveyancing, under the supervision of A- G. RANDALL 
Notary Public, under, the law of 1853— and Conuniasioner for 
- of New Hanapflui] e. i -it 



. SELOVER. 

A. A SELOVER, Auction 



a. II. sinton. 



WARREN & SON'S 
H B T I C V L X f R A L M S E M 

AND 

HALL OP SCIENCE. 

THE subscribers take pie isure in anni uncnu to thej 
and patrons thai thej open tl eir Ball ae a Uuaeum of Hor- 
ticulture and Natural Sciences, Having now completed our 
arrangements in Europe and in this country, wi- are enabled to 
offer to l blishment ithe tin-t of the kind 

in California) everything desirable connected with the science 
of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

i Connected a Ii meni n ill be N ur ■ 

Fruit Orchards, ' Iraperies, and Greenhouses of the proprietors; 
and therefore the i atrona can l"- assured thai it i^ much better 
for tin-in to send their orders to ii' - - 1 hands than to those who 
collect here und there, at auction and alaewhere, where there 
can be ii" certainty of the . what they buy. 

The Nurseries w£U be- wttefMri ir ^, p/^f'nbig several hundred 
thousand trees grown under tin" eye of the proprietors. The 
Fruit Garden win contain the chi lieeel Fruits known in Europe 
and America. 

The Museum will contain specimens of Fruit in Wax, rare 
and curious Bnedniens ol everything elae in nature, boti) in was 
andin adVieostate; Oil Paintini and Patntingsof 

Fruits, i-'Ih\v<t>, Sec, together with specimens in Natural tGs- 
B oka on Agriculture, Horticulture and n itanyj Garden im- 
plements ol «il descriptions and of the most approved patterns. 

SEEPS. — A lnr_'<- and euperior assortment of Garden and 
Flower $■■'■•]*, comprising all the new and rare varieties 
and Grass Seeds ot* warranted quality, wholesale and retail. 
The Seeds sold at tins establishment wul be warranted pure 
an4 genuine, true bo their name and preserved in a proper 
manner. Dealers will receive a liberal discount, 

Boxes ol 5 l- for exportation at (5 and upwards, ^o packed 
that they may bf wifely transported to any port of the world. 

Packages of Flower Oaeda, contoinhig twenty varieties ol 
-. Ehennlals and Pernmuals, neatly pocked in boxes, from 

: 

J5r^ Separate Catalo>_iip« of Fruit and Forest Trees : VTnea, 

Shrubs, Evergreens, Dahlias; Rosea and Greenhouse Plant*; 

Gurdon and Agricultural Seeds, may be bud on application. 

WARREN i- SON, 

NuasERVME.v, Seedsmen and Florists. 

1-tf Musical Hull Building, Bush Bt, San Francisco. 



SELOVER & SINTON, 

REAL ESTATE AUCTIONEERS AND AGENTS. 

Office anil z>al?*rtioin, l-i'.i Montgomery street^ 
between Clay ami Commercial. 

Ueaara Sxxovxn ft Snmw respectfully huTonn the public 
ey have associated themselves together for uV purpose 

luctin^ the Heal Estate Busin^e in nil it- lmmehes 

tor the prosecution of which they deem themselves particularly 
well qualified, havini- been Intimate with thebusineas in tins city 
since July, 1849. 

Particular attention gnwi to nil questione afieoting titles, &c. 

Great care will be taken in complying with the law, iu bales' 
ire, and othi r legal Bali gl 

a Register for property, at public or private gje, ahvnvsopen 
.-it tnenr office. 

Tsaau ok Sale— Titles ■atis&etory, or no Bale. Acts of 
I irchaser'i en pi nse, '!'■ d per cent ol the pi n 
money win be reonired at timi m all parties not 

known to the itucabni era, 

' of long experience have been 

nation of 
,;l '-- 1 4t 



SELIM & EDWARD FRANEXIN, 

KEAL ES TATE ACCENTS AND AI' CTIONEERg, 

Office and Salt sroom 102 M< rchant st., between 
Mont gomery street and the Plaza. 

Real estate of all descriptions bo] i al public and private sale 
Pellicular attention given to sales for Administrators, a ■ 
Receivcre, Mortg 

■ invested and rents collected for parties at n d'atonce 
Loans effi , 

I competent partira in the office, tl b 1 ta- 

rial business exacted by WILLIAM A. COHHWELL, Xotarr 
Public. 

■ property for Bale. 
The Spa 

Improved und unimproved Ranches and landi I raaleiu 
various parte of the State — SpaniaD i it 



WASHINGTON STEAM HILLS. 
WASHINGTON PLOTJR MILLS. 

THE underahjaed proprietor of the Washington Flouring 
Mills t«kc pleasure in offering to uunibes and the trade, 
Superior Family Flour. To our Mill-, we are happy tosay to 
oar friends, was awarded tbe Sjlrer hfedal; and we nhall be 
always etrivibg to maintain for it n high reputation, bo that our 
customers can send to us in confidence, believing they will re- 
receive the highest character of Flour the market nl*brds, 

in the same estalitisnmettl we have extensive steam SAW 
MILLS, capable of performing every kind of work thai may be 
desired, and to this branch of our business ive invite the atten- 
tion of the public We have aW, STEAM PLANING MILLS. 
that will tinieh all kinds of work in the most workman-like man- 
ner, and equal to anything performed m the cmi;. 

most jiromjit manner to order. 

We invite all who are contracting work, to call on ue and ex- 
amine Bur Blills, and we can satii ry them of our abUity to supply 
every order in each branch of our extem--ive ctablishmenL 

D. W. VANCOURT, Proprietor. 

1 Near the Orient il. 



SUPEEI0R FORNlTlTRi:. 

TI1E ]iir-'' ; i and best nock in Sacramento raiw at all ' 
found at the Old Stand of h. P. St D. MOOK 1 . . 

Btreet, where they si a selling us muc 

■ rs as their superior facilities will admit o£ I' 
hand tbe mi Bt splendid and substantial asaorfmei i 
Furniture ever offered in Sacr in 

prices to suit, thai none c Ihvor us 

with n calL 

Our stock consiatfl of Burenus, Secretaries, Wardrobes, Somas, 
Tables, Bedsteads, Lounges, Sofas, Paini 
Wnlnnt^ Satin und Rosewoi d Sena — some of the Sni ■■ 
r ever offered in this market. 

AL-io.MiMni--i-.ril" Cur-led Hair, Patent F.it. Moss, Wool, 
aw with Cotton Tope, ' Pillows, 

ami rWthersfbr Beds, with q large stock of Qu 
Sheets, Blankets, Asa, Sic Also, 

Wood, and Cane Seats of all descriptions : also, ol Hair, I 
^jiruiL', Plush, V< ci i; litems, udth Rockers of all 

lands; all of which will be sold nt 

1 4t Also at 130 Jackson street, ^..) t Francisco. 



POLLEY & CO., 

OF THF. BAY STATE MILLS, would announce that lor 
the bettor accommodation of their numerous customers 
and trade in general, that tbw have opened a branch of their 
business at the Fire Proof Store, No. 49 K street, between 
Second and Third, where they will always keep on hand a huge 
stock of California FLOUR ; itlao, II i\a'll and Gallego, 

Publir attention is particularly directed to the " Bav State 
Lower Mills' Brand," an article we nave everj confldouce 
in warranting, being made undei our own mi pection, from new 
Wheat, without any adulteration. 

Ground feed of all kinds always on 

Every exertion will be used to merli B ci utinuanco ■ 
favor heretofore so liberally extended to ii . l-^t 



PEEM1UM PLOUGHS. 
TITE invite the attention of Btrmen to the 
YV " Premium Steel Ploughs," □ iu al ours al E 
Hall. These are ihe celebrated " M irean & C .v Peoria 
Ploughs," pronounced by the committee Hie vert besi Plnugfa in 
tlie United SuiU>. WAHKK.N St SON'ti 

1 Agricultural Store. 



A CAHD. 

FREE EXHIBITION HALL.— We desire to announce, ami 
we do -" ■ . miiy, thut hereafter, dt 

Exhibition, our Hall. conDuning all the magnificent Bpeclmeu 
ol the A.'ricnltund Exhibition, together with the choice Paint- 
in-- and Embroideries, and many rare und beautiful specimens: 
ana curiosities from the " Islands of the 
the visits ol afl who wish to examine them, FREE < tF CHARGE 

We would also ann funce to Artists that our Hall is offered t'> 
them, FREE, to exhibit then: work for exhibition ot sale, and 
we fun in-]- announce to all persons »ho have Patating*; B 
Works ol Art, Curiosities, or extra specimens i 
domestic njanu nature, I : 
for its exhibits in or bb! ■ 
can i" 1 given to it. All who bavi 
cm i tail ■■■■ i il ['!- c luni iy . or wonderful »] 
culture ol Coluornia or the Pocifii co*i t, will find 
mo*! impropriate place for the i tbihiti 

We desire also to state thai nil the \ .■ 

■ bIg of aba United State ■ and the princiii 
ipe upon the subjects of A'jriculture, Hirticulm ■ 
Floriculture, and other ecu utific nbjects, and to 
and t>. the cause ol Bcieo ar open, and 

our he.it aid Co developing to tin utmost of our power the jood 
resulting from ■ 
1 WARRKN Si SON. 

FAMILY FL0UE. 
HORNER'S PR EMI DM FLiU 11. 

UNION CITY MILLS. 
iri: INVITE the partionlar all ntion ol PhmDhM and tho 

\\ Trad.-, tol : v inT 

Our gr^nl aim Suns to 

f machinery, to employ 

uutry. 

Tun: \v 

of our M 
Tlie l-'l.i hu ■■ 

■ 

ilmj tho 
The Best Flour in the Land. 

Itroad- 
■ 
14, lHllt.NrJt 



($$3« 



VOL 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 19, 1854. 



NO, 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

,l\7> JOURNAL OF USEFUL SCIENCES, 

09 PUBLISHED AT THE OFFICE. ON BUSH STREET. 

EVERY THURSDAY, 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BY JOHN F. MORSE & 00., PropriMera, 

JOHN !■'. MORSE, Editoh. 
J. L. L. V. WARREN, Assistant Editoh. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of Ailverti^mrnta 
w\\\ be iu.-i'rh'.l j 1 1 the foHowincf rates : For one square of eight 
lines, per month, 16. F ir business aottrca of five lines or less, 
per month, $i. A slight reduction v. ill be mode to rc--uior 
advertisers. 



Patriotism and Devotion. 

We reprint the following, believing it good to 
keep alive the feelings that actuated the Heroes of 
the Revolution. The lofty patriotism that actuated 
the '' Father of his country " to deeds of imper- 
ishable fame, and his devotion to that country, in 
all her interests, together with the love and affec- 
tion that his example inspired in all who were 
around hint — to these we attribute, as one of the 
great causes that led to and kept alive that wil- 
lingness of spirit to become martyrs, in all the 
officers and soldiers in the revolution, under his 
command or influence. 

We would ever hold up those examples to all 
— to officers and soldiers, whether military, • ivil, 
or judiciary. Whensuch patriotism in defending 
anil such devotcdness in sustaining our institu- 
tions pervades the minds and hearts of our people, 
our country will be safe. 

The revolution was over. Eighl years' conflict 
had ceased, and the warriors were now to sepa 
rale forever, turning (heir weapons into plough- 
shares, ami their camps into workshops, The 
spectacle, thongh a subiimo and gorgeous one, 
was yet attended with Borrowftilfcolings ; for, 
alas! in the remains of that gallant armj of pal 
riotic soldiers now- about I o disband without pay, 
without suppers, stalked poverty and disease. 
The country had nol the means to be grateful. 

The details of the condition of many of ll 
cers and soldiers of t hal pei iod, according to his- 
tory and oral tradition, were melancholy in the 
extreme. Possessing no means of patrimonial in- 
heritance ti» kill back upon thrown out of even 
the perilous support of the soldier, at the com- 
mencement of w inter, and hardly lit lor any other 
duty than that of tho camp — their situation can 

be hetter Imagined than described, 

A single instance, as :i sample Of the situation 
of some of the officers, as related of the oonducl 
of Baron Steuben, may OOl It ami>s. When the 
main body of the army was disbanded at V ■« 
DUrg, and the veteran soldiers were Kidding a 
parting farewell to each other, l.t. Col. Cochran. 
an aged soldier .d the New Hampshire line, re- 
marked with tears in his eyt -. a- he shook hands 

with (he Baron: 

'■ For myself, I could stand it ; hut my wife anil 
daughters are in the garret of thai' wretched 

BSVern, and I have no means of removing them." 
"I'oiiie. ei'ln- ( " said the Karon, "don't izr- 

thus. I will pay my respects to Mrs. Cochran 
and her daughters." 

When tile good old soldier left them, their 
countenances were warm with gratitude — for he 
telt there all he had. 

In one o( the Rhode Island rcgimeni - 
• VCral companies of hi* 

nid discipline 
were unsurpassed. The ll-n ciV' - 
these poor ucgroes on the wh org, ap- 

nily in great disu, 

" \\ lii L is the in 

"Why master Baron, I want a dollar 
home ,vuh. now tl t.is no furl' 

for in 

'I'he baron < 
then returned with a silver dollar, which he had 
borrowed. 

■■ I h 

_ 
and as he reached the d at and 

said — 

: 

of the armv 
■ lumrWrahwd 

■in: had tlh 

hear country 

« ■ 



may the choicest of heaven's favors, both here and 
hereafter, attend those who, under divine auspices, 
have secured innumerable blessings for others. 

"With these wishes and this benediction,. the 
Commander-in-Chief is about to retire from ser- 
vice. The curtain of separation will soon be 
drawn, and the military scenes to him will be 
closed forever. 

The closing of the ; ' military scenes" I am about 
to relate : 

New York had been occupied by Washington 
on the 25th of November. A few days after- 
wards, he notified the President of Congress. 
which body was then in session at Annapolis, in 
Maryland — that as the war was now closed, he 
should consider it his duty to proceed thence and 
surrender to that body the commission which he 
had received from them seven years before. 

The morning of the 5th of December, 178-i. was 
a sad and heavy one to the remnant of the Amer- 
ican army in the city of New York. The noon of 
that day was to vviness the farewell of Washin; 
ton — he was to hid adieu to his military comrades 
forever. The officers wh" bad been with him in 
solemn council, the privates who had fought and 
bled in the ''heavy tight," under his orders, were 
to bear his commands ii" longer. The manly 
form and dignified countenance of the "great cap- 
tain'' was henceforth to live in their memories. 

As the 1 r of iiiiuii approached, the whole 

garrison, ai the request of Washington him. elf 
Was put in motion, and marched down Broad 
street io Francis's tavern, his head-quarters, lie 

,\ isle -I lo lake leave of private soldier- alike will 
officers, and hid them all adieu. Iiis favorite 
light infantry were drawn up in line, facing in 
wards, through Pearl street, at the fool of White 
hall, wh, in barge was in readiness to e. 
him to Powell's Hook. 

Within the dining-room of the tavern were 
gathered the generals and the Held officers to lake 
their farewell. Assembled tie re were Knox, 
ilrcen, Clinton, Steuben. Gates and others, who 
erred with him faithfully and truly in the 
tented held : but alas! where ■ thai 

had entered the war with bint, seven 
Their bones crumbled in the soil, from Can 

imery had yielded up his life at 
II at Uanbnry, Woodhau was 
barbarously murdered while a prisoner at the 
battle of Long Island, and Mcrcci fell mu 
wounded at Princeton, the brave and cb 

i- after displaying 
in the trench died in a ti 

skirmish in S 

trie I.- uid Putnam 

helpless child, w ,i . 
in'ss Indeed, the hat 
the rinks which n 
ol Indi 

Washington intend the room — the 1. 

A.S lie 

I down In- cheek, and hi ■ 
them. .Nor ■ 
"alhcil unii. 
around him. whoso han d- 

lin at- 
tempted to conceal, bespoke the angui- , 

could not hide. 

After a moment's conwr- .-. 
called fora glass of wine. It n 
Turning 1" ll 

" With a 
now take my final leave of you. and I newt de- 
vouth 
and prosperous as your 



soldiers told how deeply engraved upon their 
affections was the love of their commander. 

At last. Washington reached the barge at White- 
hall, and entered it. At the first stroke of the 
oar, lie rose, and, turning to the companions of his 
glory, by waving his hat, bade them a silent 
adieu. Their answer was only in tears; and the 
officers and men, with glistening eyes, watched 
the receding boat till the form of their noble 
commander was lost sight ol'in the distance. — N. 
V. Juur. of Com. 



A Sketch. 

The day had been mild and beautiful, the sun 
had just passed behind the mauntain tops, still 
easting its brightness upon the distant peaks in 
the far east ere it should pass entirely away. The 
mellow lints of twilight were now gathering 
around and over nie, each tree and shrub seemed 
to be clad with new beauty; the very air came 
loaded with fragrance, for the vale lilly, and honey- 
suckle, and the myriads of nature's early spring 
flowers were just opening their honied petals; 
the lark and tiie sparrow were singing their even- 
ing song ; the little lambs were frisking gaily as 
they neareil their nightly shelter; the husband- 
man was returning to his home with a counte- 
nance already expressive of the welcome greeting 
that awaited him from his lovely wile and little 
it:,, limn of the busy looms bad ceased; the 
waters of the river and streamlet seemed to glide 
on more quiel and still — all, all ab.we, below and 
around me joined in the joyous feeling such scenes 
awakens; my heart was touched, my eye filled, 
and the (ear that trembled unconsciously upon 

the cheek spoke ol harmony that exists between 
the created ami the creator when the soul awakes. 

and in sweet and'i mplation, is drawn 

from " nai ore. up to nature's '■ 

From this reverie 1 was aroused by the kindly 

greeting ot warm ! i I- bidding mo join 

them in a ride up the mountain aide. A moment 

more, ami we were seated and ready ; a crack of 

rhip and We went forward and upward. 

nov tdln 

,ih and pleasant plain; now 

plunging down into a dell, the light shut out h_\ 

en -i ing forth ujon the 

plain : now down, now up : one moment shroudsd 

silvered over by twilight 

Sow the • 

sceaerv that lay in bea u t y around and above us 

I spoke it- i I tliril- 

i 

I made 

_ht re 

hed the 

.nt ! 



there, and though loth to leave, the hour hade 
that we must look our last look at the jo 
scenes around us. and " gang awa." 

Our descent from the mountain was more i 

that graceful, more speedy than safe ; vet st 

nerve, youthful vigor, soon brought us to 

bonnie steeds" and soon we were Speeding 

way homeward to the "earth below." 

Scenes like these from an epoch in one's lii 
they are to life what fragrance is lo the I" 
adding a double value to its former merit — 
liow many such scenes might come up in 
day life, were we more reflective. We rush ■ 
thoughtlessly that we loose golden opporlu 
for heart happiness. 

Never, never shall the reflection of that hi 
evening pass from my memory, 'Tis like 
ture on my brain daugerreotyped. 1 have 1 
it o'er again in my dreams, and it was 
dreaming on that 1 found a fae siniilie ot 
hurried sketch — it was indeed so! and it 
legibly marked around in red ink, significant 
most happy event, ami it. bore this date — "Mo 
Tom." — Vermont Mercury. 

Omnium Gatherum. 
Want or PERFECTION. — A person, ha 
upon on one occasion gotten Sir Philip Ira 
into a corner, and innocently mistaking his a 
lions and gestures for extreme interest in the 
rative which be was administering to his pat 
was soiiicw hat confounded when the latter, sei 
him by the collar, exclaimed with an call 
"human nature could endure no more." 
impossible for men to always put an exact in 
lactation upon the real feelings of lb, 
they address; bill not unfrcipielitly by the ill 

propriativeness of things, thousands of individi 
are placed in as uncomfortable a position as t 
of Sir Philip in the oorncr. 
Superciliousness Requited.— Roil , 

man was representative in Congress from C 
iieeiieut, and distinguished fbrhisdovol 
ism and his great natural talents; bul uufi 

hi- had been a shoemaker. A I one time he 

cited the ire of John Randolph, who, ri i 

ual squeaking sounds, said: 
like to know what the gentleman did with 
leather apron before he set out for W:i 
Mr. Sherman replied, imitating the Ban 
I 'Ml it up. sir, to ii 



upon |ilioii, 

when the) do the re 

-le. 

Curious Ex raacT- (From a 

link in He' 









- that we can I 









>f r inn aTl.-r Ada 



leOt elo>|UCDCv ol 

mbrared him. Wash- 
left the r»om. falknri 
md thro u gh the Use of light ir.f.r 
is slow and measured, bis need uocovn-l 
■ 
lo whom he now bade a-. 

rred more touching 
Her. who had 
a, Hepped from the 
n,i.\i his h» 



purj*.-<, mr a ua 
tea by 

•I (rood 
la light and 

*aj for 
there w 



How .w-n ', r>i->n _ t_? ri*M. 

1 . -« Uw - M IS I •« > ■<* « . 

Awl s-» it ii I m <a-a -i i- <(wi. 

We: l\ \u tm OlwHOwljw. 

1w«mi» ■j.wW-wwx 

'-! -Mil.. I 
For k 

■w«wawtrw. 

Ik_»»4awll4w« 

wwJ w, 

-I -wo --* tow* c — ■. 

Www. wl «WW WW t 



the Samaritan's bo 
a new hand 
adding mare f'icl to t -r fire of Xeboet 

■1 payment- 

hua ever »r< 
ir of a metn 
cotVeet- -cntiuirnU 

makes RJHtetieu alter, when a. 1 1 - 
man whom he s ele c ted as the bearer of an ,u,| 

Unt messjsv- 

'n-m *h ! r -owl packet think ) 

Lfiarl:4*i * f -»r rai'»» ' -'■*aj.' nt) Twi ' 

of yonth. which Pate mum far a *; 
h«*«l thirl is no such ■<•< 

-■a Would 



AaSrawx- - . ■* 

n»w»wS i i— u a lau f a ■ «■■■■ 

rlwilwiwwwwlrx 



May atupW justiee be door them here, and hv the baud, and the uuhl suba-wd uar* of ib< | The witrkmg (wsur ai 



u all 



other flu men 

fVafa-v 

i-.r- are muw. 

...a.t au-wwar at est 



18 



8fyg t&siHivmH 3mmz?.< 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



To the Friends of Agriculture. 

We ask of nil to whom we send tbis number, who arc not 
already subscriber*, to examine tbe Fabmek, and to give it their 
influenc. Wo trust t3 bear from tlicin and to know that they 
will not only become Bnbscribcra to our Journal, but farbrus 
with their communications. We desire to cull their attention to 
•ur ternu of subscription for clubs. 

A Premium— Farmers' Clubs. 

With the hope of inducing such ol our frieuds, end theos 
v/bo hiive a little leisure, to ride among their neighbors and 
iutroduceon Agricultural Paper, we rake pleasure in offering 
"(he CALIFORNIA FARMER : and, to make it tin inducement, 
we say to such friend. — if you will get ns Frv'E svbscribers, and 
remit the nmount, we will send you six papers, or for ten 
subscribers, TWELVE papers. We trust there are many friends 
who will cheerfully take a little piuns to aid us, and thus exteuil 
the circulatio n of the Farmer, and make a useful vehicle for 
the Agriculture of California. 

To Our Patrons. 

To Advehtisers. — We would call tbe attention of those who 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
he pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will reach sources of trade entirely new and 
unattainable by any other means, and thus secure a large and 
•enmediate profit to those who desire to make known their 
business. By a glance at our advertising columns, it will be per- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have space for but one or two of each 
branch, these will be the most prominent houses, and thus give 
more influence to them. 



Real Estate— Shipment of Specie. 

By referringfto the shipment of specie, it will 
be perceived that the amount is much lessened 
by the last boats. The causes for this cannot at 
this moment be truly known. It will be admitted 
readily that the depressed state of trade through- 
out the State, the want of rains to assist in min- 
ing operations, from whence come the supply of 
the precious "dust" — and the overstocked market 
in all kinds of merchandise, all operate to check 
the export of gold. We should also notice that 
extensive sales of real estate have been made dur- 
ing the last month, both in city property and es- 
tates in the country. This has required a large 
amount of capital, which might have been used 
in merchandizing, had the state of trade war- 
ranted it. By inquiry, it will be found that had 
business been brisk, the usual quantity, in all 
probability two-and-a-half millions, would have 
left the country. 

The question arises— which will result in the 
greatest good to the country — the most permanent 
good — largo shipments, easy money market, and 
high prices of merchandise, or the investment of 
the same capital here in real estate, the improve- 
ment and cultivation of the country, the produc- 
ing our own supplies, and the manufacturing for 
all our own wants. The present high price of 
real estate is certainly an index of the confidence 
felt in that property over all others, and the large 
amount of foreign capital now investing in that 
property, and the increased attention given by the 
eultivators of the vast plains and valleys, will soon 
give a new tone to all kinds of trade. Rapidly 
we are becomiug a manufacturing people, and. 
with the skill and talent now iu the country, and 
that which the present prospects of California 
will soon draw to us, the time is not far distant 
when, instead of millions being sent abroad by 
every steamer, we shall, by becoming a home 
producing State, retain the wealth here accumu- 
lated, for the use and benefit of our own people. 

Correspondence of "The Fanner." 

We have on file many valuable and interesting 
letters from cultivators, from various sections of 
the State, from which we shall take the liberty 
of making extracts; that our friends may know 
we have received their valuable communications. 
we mention some of thoir names, and thank them 
for their interest: H. Marshall, Bodega; J. W. 
Russell, Pajaro Valley ; T. P. Robb, Sacramento 
River ; J. Bryant Hill, Martinez ; R. S. Kilburn, 
Nappa ; Maurice Williams, C. P. Hester, F. F. 
Letcher, and C. Jones, San Jose ; G. D. Dickcn- 
•on, Tuolumne Co. ; A. G. Register, Georgetown : 
R. II. Sawin, Santa Cruz ; C. M. 'Hudspeth, Bo- 
dega ; B. Policy, Downieville ; Joseph Wood- 
ham, C. B. Smith, Martinez ; Columbus Cooper 
Sierra Co., and many others. We shall be glad 
to bear from our friends at all times, aud to make 
known the practical results of their labors. 

Fat Ox. — A very fine fat ox has been exhibited 
on Bush street, at the Eureka Market House. 
The Ox would weigh from 1,500 to 1,000 lbs, and 
is a truly noble animal. It gives one a good 
appetite to call at this market and look at the 
line sirloins, rib pieces and choice cuts. 

Extraordinary Beaver.— Wo saw, passing 
•long K street, Sacramento, on Saturday last, an 
uncommonly large Beaver. It was a load for the 
man, who seemed to bear a heavy burden ; it 
was caught on Dry Creek.. 



~\Ye had the happiness last evening of attend- 
ing the readings of Mr. J. E. Murdoch, at Musical 
Hall. From an intimate acquaintance with that 
gentleman's wonderful accomplishments in elocu- 
tion, we were prepared for a refreshing and most 
delightful entertainment ; but, as of other days, 
when we have seen him hold in entrancement the 
cultivated minds of thousands of individuals, so 
diil we hear last night what we cannot describe, 
what injustice we must leave to the appreciative 
feelings of the audience to conceive. His readings 
of the speeches of Brutus and Mark Antony; 
the conflict between Roderic Dim and Fitz 
James, the Thanatopsis of Bryant, the Ava- 
lanche in Switzerland, were all so exquisitely 
rendered, as to leave nothing to wish for in 
the writer or reader. But in nothing was he so 
much at home, as in reproducing and giving effect 
to some of the facetious and irresistible scenes in 
Nicholas Nicklcby. In the readings of Mr. Mur- 
doch from Dickens, the power of the artiste was 
so strongly developed as to enable one to fully 
understand why he has secured such an exalted 
rank in genteel anil clegaut comedy. The power 
of the man over his own rich and incomparable 
voice, his accurate conception of the meaning of 
writers, and his exact conception ot the relation of 
words to sound and sense, gained him such marks 
of applause as a man could not fail to treasure w he 11 
it came to him from an audience of refined intel- 
lect and good taste. We do wish this gentle- 
man could lie sustained in a full and varied course 
of such readings as he gave last night. It appears 
to us that nothing could exert a more elevating 
effect upon society than such entertainments. 



For the first time, webelieve in the history of San 
Francisco, there was a ; " run" last evening and this 
morning, upon one of the leading banking houses 
of this city — Messrs. Adams & Co. — a house as 
solid, financially, as the rock of Gibraltar is, 
physically. The run was occasioned by a panic 
created by the circumstance of the name of the 
linn failing to appear among the shippers by the 
steamers of the 16th. Casual depositors, anil 
parties making irregular remittances, became 
alarmed, supposing that Adams & Co. had sent 
nothing by the steamers ; while in fact, they had 
shipped per John L. Stephens, $255,902; per 
Sierra Nevada. $122,000 ; total shipment on (lie 
16th, $377,902. The house has of course met. 
and will continue to meet, all demands that have 
been or may be made upon it. — Eve. Picayune. 

We are most happy to note the tone of confi- 
dence pervading the community respecting this 
responsible and influential Banking house. The 
readiness with which capital has been tendered 
them can be inferred from the millions placed at 
their disposal. 

This is a question which involves the best in- 
terests of a wide spread community, aud there is 
no one house whose influence is more widely felt. 
Not only is tbe effect felt at San Francisco, but at 
all their numerous offices, scattered at every point ; 
and, in addition to this the immense amount of 
treasure confided to their care from every mining 
region and every mercantile community over tl 
State. The evil suffered, and the damage done 
by any interruption to such an influence cannot 
lie counted, and it behoves all to condemn in the 
strongest terms any act that shall tend to injure 
the credit or shake the public confidence in any 
institution, and more particularly in a House to 
whom the citizens of California arc so largely 
indebted fur facilities of communication and 
business as the house of Adams & Co. 

Many interesting as well as amusing incidents 
might be mentioned of the events of the day — 
such as a deposit being withdrawn by one party 
of $7, while another would make a deposit of 
thousands. The House rendered every facility, 
and most readily and cheerfully, and gave notice 
that they would keep open till midnight to ac- 
commodate all who desired their money. Such 
was the general feeling throughout the best in- 
formed part of the citizens that, there being m 
plenty of " oro" on hand, those who unnecessarily 
became alarmed would soon find they had " their 
trouble for their pains." 

For if all 1 • true we bear people say. 
More gold came in than was carrictl away. 

The brig J. B. Brown, hence for Oregon, re- 
turned to this port on Tuesday, having been struck 
by lightning at 8 P. M. on Sunday, about four 
miles from Point Reyes, which carried away main 
and fore topmasts, yards, sails, and all attached, 
together with thejib-boom. Being close on a lee 
shore at the time, was unable to save any of the 
gear. 'The man at the wheel was struck by the 
main boom, and had his hand injured. 



Envy. 

"envy's a coal, hissing hot from iiei.l." — Fcstug. 
There is no one ingredient that is found in 
society that is so great an element of discord and 
unhappiness as the theme of our present remarks. 
It is indeed all that Fcstus so warmly describes; 
it is the gangrene that is found in the social 
circle ; like the deadly I'pas, it casts forth a 
miasma that is death to all the gem nuts impulses 
of our better natures ; like as the leaven hid in 
the measure of meal leavens the whole lump, so 
envy affects all within its reach — it taints all it 
touches. 

Envy is the prolific mother of other evils that 
clearly follow in her train, and society has long 
suffered their blighting effects. Envy opens her 
lips, and the base inuendo is hurled against some 
spirit who dares essay a higher region, or nobler 
flight; the pointed arrow may perf -no its hateful 
mission, and pierce the ascending one. cheeking 
for a time the lofty flight, but tbe poison upon the 
shaft will soon be spent — for the ptu*e blood will 
soon overcome the evil, and the flight will be the 
loftier when the contest is ended. 

The spirit of detraction, which is so fondly 
nursed by this mother of evil, scatters broadcast 
its foul seed, and thorns and thistles obstruct 
the pathway of life, which otherwise would be 
strewn with flowers. 

Envy is an assassin — a cowardly poltroon, that 
unsheaths the dagger in the dark, and stabs in the 
back ; it docs not strike openly, or in the light of 
day; " it hates the light. because ils deeds are 
evil." One needs almost a coat of mail to he pre- 
served from its venomed blow. None are safe 
from tin's walking pestilence, unless they lie face 
downwards to the earth, until this simoon, that 
would make a desert of all God's fair earth, has 
passed. Envy was originally doomed to crawl 
upon the earth, and the slimy monster would fain 
doom mankind to crawl also — all that dare walk 
erect — all that dare breathe the pure atmosphere 
of something above earth, are objects of its invet- 
erate hate, and it t»ould fain throw its slimy 
coils around them, to drag them down to its own 
level. But there has been found an antidote to 
heal this monster's sting — an antidote better than 
a coat of mail — a protection better than rings of 
steel or plate of gold — it is a brave spirit. A 
heart thus shielded wears a talisman that is proof 
against <-n\y ; every shaft will fall harmless, or 
be returned into the bosom of those who sent it. 
A truly brave spirit feels this, and looks calmly 
on. knowing the final result will be victory. 

Life can never be free from evils. Flies may 
buzz about us — may annoy us, until we lose com- 
mand of our temper ; yet we should remember 
that flies are a necessary evil — they consume the 
impure air. and our health is better for their an- 
noyance. The bee may sting us, and lite smart 
may draw from us complaint ; yet we should 
remember that the purer our own blood, the less 
inflammation arises from the sting, and conse- 
quently the less pain. Let us, then, keep our 
minds calm under these evils, and envy, malice, 
hatred, and uncharitableness, and all the train 
fnim pandemonium, can do but little harm, if we 
have the panoply of a brave spirit ! 



Rains. 

How many hearts have been desponding of 

late — the miner the merchant, the banker and 
the agriculturalist ; all were looking to the heavens 
for relief. Kain ! rain ! give us rain ! The prayer 
of anxious hearts has been heard and the clouds 
have given of this abundance. The pattering 
rain has caused many a smile, it has been to the 
countenances of men what the dew is to the plant, 
refreshing. How many pleasant dreams have 
been occasioned by these blessed rains; how 
sweetly sounds the falling drops upon the roof. 
The softest notes of the harp hold no comparison 
to it, for fortune and life, — life, business life — 
hangs upon these gentle streams. Could its value 
be told in dollars and cents, it would be millions; 
but there is a value above all this — it is the hap- 
piness it has diffused, and that is above all price. 

The new hotel in Sacramento built by Henry 
E. Robinson, Esq., was opened on Tuesday. It 
is fitted up in elegant style, and is to be under 
the charge of Mr. Jones, formerly of the Tehama 
House. We regret we were not able to respond 
to their polite invitations to atttend the opening 
dinner. Our mouth waters at the thought of the 
good things that would have been templing us. 



Enormous Root. — The San Jose Telegraph 
makes mention of a beet 3 ft. 3 in. long aud 
weighing 42 lbs. It was grown in the garden of 
Mrs. Crandall. 



The following paragraphs, from the President's 
Message will be read with pride by every true 
American. These are sentiments worthy the 
Chief Magistrate of a great nation. 

Recognizing the wisdom of the broad principle 
of absolute religious toleration proclaimed in our 



fundamental law, and rejoicing in the benign in- 
fluence which it has excited upon our social and 
political condition, I should shrink from a clear 
duty, did I fail to express my deepest conviction 
(hat we can place no secure reliance upon any ap- 
parent progress, if it lie nut sustained by national 
integrity, resting upon the great truths affirmed 
and illustrated by divine revelation. In the midst 
of our sorrow for the afflicted and suffering, it hap 
been consoling to see how promptly disaster made 
true neighbors of districts and cities separated 
widely from each other, and cheering to watch 
the strength of that com in on bond of brotherhood, 
which unites all hearts, in all parts of this Union, 
when danger threatens from abroad, or calamity 
impends over us at borne. **,*,* 

Martin Koszta. a Hungarian by birth, came to 
this country in 1850, and declared his intention, 
in due form of law, to become a citizen of the 
United States. After remaining here nearly two 
years, he visited Turkey. While at Smyrna, he 
was forcibly seized, taken on board an Austrian 
brig of war, then lying in the harbor of that place, 
and there confined in irons, with the avowed 
design to take him into the dominions of Austria. 
Our consul at Smyrna and legation at Constanti- 
nople interposed for his release, but their efforts 
were ineffectual. While thus imprisoned, Com- 
mander Ingraham, with the United States ship of 
war St. bonis, arrived at Smyrna, and, after in- 
quiring into the circumstances of the case, came 
to the conclusion that Koszta was entitled to the 
protection of this government, and took energetic 
and prompt measures for his release. Under an 
arrangement between the agents of the United 
Slates and of Austria, he was transferred to the 
custody of the French consul-general, at Smyrna, 
there to remain until he should be disposed of by 
the mutual agreement of the consuls of the re- 
spective governments at that place. Pursuant to 
that agreement be has been released, and is now 
iu the United States. The Emperor of Austria 
lets made the conduct of our officers who took 
part iu this transaction a subject of grave com- 
plaint. Regarding Koszta as still his subject, and 
claiming a right to seize him within tbe limits of 
the Turkish Empire, he has demanded of this 
government its consent to the surrender of the 
prisoner, a disavowal of the acts of its agents, and 
-;i I isfacl ion for the alleged outrage. After a care- 
ful consideration of the case, I came to the con- 
elusion that Koszta was seized without legal 
authority at Smyrna; that he was wrongfully 
detained on board of the Austrian brig of war : 
that, at the time of his seizure, lie was clothed 
with the nationality of the United Mates; and 
that the acts of our officers, under the circum- 
stances of the case, were justifiable, and their 
conduct has been fully approved by nte and a 
compliance with the several demands of tl.e Em- 
peror of Austria has been declined. * * 

I commend to your favorable consideration the 
men of genius of our country, who by their inven- 
tions and discoveries in science and art, have con. 
tributed largely to the improvements of the age 
without, in many instances, securing to them- 
selves anything like an adequate reward. For 
many interesting details upon this subject. I refer 
you "to the appropriate reports, and especially urge 
upon your attention the apparently slight, but 
really important modifications of existing laws 
therein suggested. 

The erection of an asylum for the insane of thr 
District of Columbia, and the army and navy of 
the United States has been somewhat retarded by 
the great demand for materials and labor during 
the past summer ; but full preparation for the 
reception of pattents before the return of another 
w inter, is anticipated, antl there is the best reason 
to believe, from the plan and contemplated ar- 
rangements which have been devised, with the 
large experience furnished within the last few 
years in relation to the nature and treatment of 
the disease, that it will prove an asylum indeed to 
this mest helpless and afflicted class of sufferers, 
and stand as a noble monument of wisdom and 
mercy. 

The growth of our population has now brought 
us, in the destined career of our national history. 
to a point at which it well behoves us to expand 
our vision over the vast prospective. 

The successive decennial returns of the census 
since the adoption of the constitution have re- 
vealed a law of steady progressive development, 
which may be stated, in general terms, as a dupli- 
cation every quarter-century. Carried forward. 
from the point already reached, for only a short 
period of time as applicable to the existence of a 
nation, this law of progress, if unchecked, will 
lead us to almost incredible results. A large al- 
lowance for a diminished proportional effect of 
emigration would not very materially reduce thr 
estimate, while the increased average duration of 
human life, known to have resulted from the 
tie- scientific and hygienic improvements of the 
past fifty years, will tend to keep up through the 
next fifty, or perhaps hundred, the same propor- 
tion of growth, which has been thus revealed in 
our last progress ; and to the influence of these 
causes may be added the influx of laboring masses 
from eastern Asia to the Pacific side of our pos- 
sessions, together with the probable accession of 
the populations already existing in other parts of 
our hemisphere, which, within the period in ques- 
tion will feel, with yearly increasing force, the 
natural attractions of SO vast, powerful and pros- 
perous a confederation ot self-governing republics. 
and will seek the privilege of bring admitted 

within its safe and happy bosom transferring 

with themselves, by a peaceful and healthy pro- 
cess of incorporation, spacious regions "I virgin 
and exuberant soil, which are destined to BWUU 
with the fast-growing and fast-sprcadiug niillioat 
of our race. 



%)):t S&UH'JUrtB&f) s-fflffWil 



11 



Later from the East. 

The Nicaragua steamship • ". -v:« — . Capt. Cro] 
arrived early on Sunday morning, bringing New 
York and Washington dates to Dee. 20. and Paris 
and Vienna tu Dei one week later than 

those previoualy received via the Kamsa} > 

Among the passengers is Thomas P. Men 
the eloquent and accomplished Irish "i 

The I . S. Revenue Cutter Hamilton left the 
dry dock at Charleston on the 9th of Dcci In 
anil was wrecked during the same night off e'ollj 

Breakers, 01 Bay. The officers and crew 

took i boats, ono of which has nol been 

qeardofjthc other, containhig Capt. Rudulph, 
tnc quarter-master, and tour men. was lost, and 
all on board drowned, with the exception of one 
. : : ch I I Charleston. Dec. 19, 

states that the body ol Capt. Rudulph had been 
picked up that morning and brought up to the 
oitj tor burial. The following is a list of those on 
board when the disaster happened — Thomas C. 
Rudulph, Captain; Camillus Saunders, 1st Lieut. 
Curtiss I line, 2d Lieut. ; John Mahoney, boat- 
■wain; George Carter, gunner ; William Rowan, 
seaman; John Sullivan, do.; Geo. Thompson, 
alias James Mcnan ; Thomas Seone, quarter-mas- 
ter; Michael Cowley, seaman; Joseph Bowser 
do.; James Lucas, do. ; Henry Olwolt uncertain ; 
Timothy Hurley, seaman ; John Johnson, do. ; 
James Egan. saved ; t 'harlcs Brown, cook. 

The great fire which destroyed the establish- 
ment of the Harpers, was the most destructive 
which has visited New York since 1845. The 
papers state that the lire was witnessed by fifty 
thousand people. The fire was caused by eam- 
phene, as stated by one of the proprietors. The 
Messrs. Harper estimate their loss at $1,200,000, 
and they are insured to the amount of $250,000. 

The Mitehel banquet took place at the Broad- 
way theatre, flee. 19th. Some six hundred people 
sat down to dinner, and the boxes were filled 
with as many ladies. Charles O'Conor, Esq., 
presided, and speeches were made by Messrs. 
Mitehel, Meagher, ()'( lornum, Smyth, and others. 
Mr. Robert Emmet made an explanation relative 
to the funds of the Irish Directory. 

The New York Herald of Dee. 20th says 
Flour again advanced yesterday from G 1-4 cents 
to 12 1-2 cents per barrel, while grain was about 
the same. Freights were firmer, and engagements 
were made to Liverpool at enhanced rates. 

The libel suit against the New York Herald. 
growing out of its attacks upon the Opera Man- 
agement ui' 1848, has been closod by a verdict of 
010.000 damages andcosts against the proprietor 
of the Herald, and in favor of Mr. Fry. 

The Howard House in Broadway, New York, 
caught tire on the night of December 18th, and 
came very near being destroyed. The root was 
in flames, hut by the extraordinary exertions of 
the firemen the fire was extinguished. 

From Chicago we have a brief account of a ter- 
rible riot among the workmi non (he Illinois Cen- 
tral Railroad, uear Lasallc. It appears thai an 
altercation occurred about wages between a eon- 
tractor named Story and a parly of irishmen, 
which resulted in Hie shooting of one of the di 
affected. .Mr. Story was afterwards captured and 
brutally murdered, and his wile was fired al. bul 
escaped. It is reported thai the foreman of the 

deceased has since shot nine of the laborers, and 

the Sheriff has killed two more and captured 
thirty. The rlngli adt rioters escaped. 

The clipper sh in W lib Squall reached Neil 
York lice. 20th, after a sh irl ps sage oi 92 day-. 

The Newark \. J. Ad ites tied some 

persons who were en| streets 

of thai city, came upon tweutj 

foot deep, two to I mouth, and 

Kt the bottom. The discover] has excited consi- 
derable curiosity in the vicinitj . 

tin Sunday. Deo. 11. a crowd, estimated al 

10,000, assembled a in preachingagainsi 

Catholicism in the , city. lb- w as 

bj cted lo a gi ' I 
foreigners ol r ! but was pro- 
acted nericans. who con- 
tended for the freedom of speech. A riol ap- 
peared mimic m, when tie preacher was arrested 
by order of the Mayor. 

\ then formed, and 

marched to tie- residoneo of the Mayor, threaten 
IHg to burn 

released. In the meantime the case had under- 
gone investigation, and the man me get al liberty, 
when the crowd d 

t>n the succeeding W< w-ninganim- 

menst heW in 

the Park, ! i tinients upon the 

arrest i ', in the 

open air, again il I 4,000 

person 

marked with mui m. The m 

was a I 
denounced l 
Mr. Pa pi to put down ft 

Of spceell. 

Mr. Parso 



Ocean Mail Contracts. — In accordance with 
an act of Congress, the Postmaster General, some- 
time sii i Ised for fids for carrying the 0. 
S. Mails for six years from the first ol October, 
1854, on certain foreign routes designated. This 
advertisement elicited proposals from various re- 
sponsible parties, which have been submitted to 
Congress. There was only one bid lbr the mails 
now convoyed by the Collins line. William M. 
Biblo, President of the New York and Calwin 
Steamship Company, oilers lo perform the service, 
twenty-six trips a-year, to such ports in Great 
Britain us ecu bo directed by Congress, but 
slates no specific sum therefore. This is the line 

that expects to cross the Atlantic in six days. 
The Collins line now receives $858,000 per an- 
num, and will probablj retain the contract. The 
lowcsl hid for the Bremen service is $184,500, 
which is $15,500 less than the Sinn at present 
paid. E. Mills puts in the bid. and will probably 
secure the contract. For the California service 
the present contractors receive $733,585. They 
sent in no bids. The Nicaragua Transit Company 
oiler to perform this service (with the exception 
of that portion of the route between San Fran- 
cisco and Oregon.) for $300,000. This is the 
lowest oiler, and will probably secure the con- 
tract. In ease the new bids are accepted, govern- 
ment may have to pay, in some instances, a heavy 
sum to present contractors by purchasing steam- 
ers which will be of no particular use. — Boston 
Journal. 

Snow was on the ground in New York city, 
December 20th. Snow storms prevailed generally 
the same day throughout the northwest. 

Three of Joseph Hall's children, of Roshville, 
Iowa, were accidentally poisoned recently, and all 
were lyingcorpscs in the house at the same time. 

Hector Jennings, of Sandusky, Ohio, has been 
notified by his attorney in London, that he is un- 
disputed heir to one-half the Jennings estate in 
England— $00,000,600. 

On Wednesday evening, the " Aurora Club," of 
Lowell, announced an amateur theatrical enter; 
taiuinent in a large room at the corner of I'rcs- 
cott and Merrimack streets, Lowell, and a large 
audience assembled, the room being rilled. Just 
as the curtain was rising, "down came the house" 
in a most unexpected manner, injuring several 
persons badly, amongst w horn was a lady, who 
had her ankle broken. 

Gen. Wool to be sent to San Francisco. 
— Another Washington writer under same date 
says: — We understand that Major General Woo] 
has been ordered to the command of the military 
division haling its head-quarters at San Francisco. 
Colonel Hitchcock is at present there, but will of 
course be superceded in command upon General 
Wool's arrival. It is believed the President has 
been induced to send Gen. Wool to California in 

view of the importance of the position and the 
necessity which recent events ha\c demonstrated 

of having a military officer Btati d there of the 

highest rank, and clothed with the fullest power- 
to suppress any infringement npon our neutrality 
laws, 1 al the same lime to pi ili/ons 

on the Pacific. Ceu. Wool, ii i- understood, will 
leave for the scene of his duties a liecon 

make the necessary arrangements for the voyage. 
Fatal Railway Acciobrt — Shameful Con- 
duct of a Conductor. — JamcsTJ in em- 
ployee on tlf Troj ami Boston Railway, was 
killed at 'I'm", en Saturday evening. He was a 

driver of One of the teams which arc used to draw 

thc cars from tin- citj to the depot outside ol the 
bul on Saturday evening employed 
another to perform his duty, and took his puce 
in the cars a- a p ington, 

Vi,. where hi- mother resides, whom he had not 
-ecu lor three years, 'I h 
is White seeing him in the cars was displea 
hi- substituting another man for driver, and or- 
dered him Off to his place. I>lckemian t 

that he was going homeland offered the conductor 
money Tor I 

lake it. and pushed liickennan off* the curs, when 
the latter fell under the wheels, and was imlni-dt- 
rushed to death. The conductor, we under- 
stand, proceeded on up the road with the train. 
The deceased was • 

age. — Albany I ' . 12. 

I.1.1 ri.K ihom Martik 1 1 the 

following letter in the bu 

Wr, 
the Austrian tyrant. I am ow 
mostly to the gi nereos will of I 
I'nkui, which, anakeuiug to lh 
their providential mi.-.- 
determined to protect '' 
by the voluntary oath ol 
■ 1 the name of thi- 
ol" Europe, 1 
the Ri 

\pres- 
sion in the hei 

•hinc again I 



synipaf 
which 



From Europe. 

By tile arrival of the Cortes at this port, we 
have the details ot the European news brought by 
the steamship Asia, w hich arrived at New York 
December 1 1, and the steamship Asia, which ar- 
rived Dec. 15. The latest dates from London ore 
to December 3, and from the scat of war to No- 
vember 26. 

'I'he news is important. It indicates the de- 
termination of Russia and Turkey lo prosecute 
the WOT with vigor, mid spring will open with 
immense armies in the field. There is every pros- 
pect of a general European war in 1854. Di- 
visions of the English and French ileets have 
entered the Black Sea; Turkey has a large squad- 
ron there, and operations on the water as well as 
on the land, promise to he on the most extensive 
scale. 

Rain and snow had been heavy in parts of Wal- 
lachia, so that operations were to a great extent 
impracticable. 'I'he aim of the commanders was 
therefore to get their men under cover, (liner 
Pacha, after leaving the garrison in the different 
fortresses on the right bank of the river, has 
marched the bulk of his troops back to the quar- 
.ers which they occupied before the passage of 
the Danube was effected from Widdin Colefat, 
Gorschekoff has imitated his example. 

A Marseilles paper has the following from Con- 
stantinople: "Admiral S lade, with the ship of 
the line Medjidik, five frigates and a steamer, lias 
gone to cruise in the Black Sea. His object is to 
force the Russian cruisers from before Anapa, 
which is the only port of the Caucasus in a coast 
of eighty miles. He is accompanied by Seftir 
Bey, the Circassian Chief, who was so long de- 
tained at Adrianople, and he is to supply ammu- 
nition and arms to the Lesghians, the Laghes, 
and the Tcherkesses tribes. This expedition is 
of the highest importance. If the Turks succeed 
in taking the fortresses that defend the entrance 
into the Caucasus, they will put an end to all 
communication by 'and between Russia and the 
Trans-Caucasian provinces acquired by the treaty 
of (lulistan. Numerous Polish and Russian de- 
serters have reached the Turkish advanced posts 
in Asia. Two thousand Russian deserters are 
Said to have reached the Turkish camp — a huge 
number, vet perhaps correctly slated, as the Rus- 
sian army in (he Caucasus whs the receptacle of 
all punished and degraded soldiers and officers, 
and consequently contained a great many mal- 
contents. Hungarian officers, who served with 
Bern and Dembinski. have undertaken to organ- 
ize these deserters into a serviceable corps."' 
It is confirmed thai a Russian ship of war ran 

ashore and went to pieces. Of Crew and troops 

it had 1,600 men on board, of whom I. Kin per- 
ished, and the remaining 200 were rescued bj the 
Turks, and sen! as prisoners to Constantinople. 

The name of the llu-.. i, in steam frigate sunk by 
the Turkish forte of Batoum, was the Foudro; i 

the same which brought I'linoe Mcncb ikoll 'to 
intinoplo, and remained there at his dis- 
posal during hi- stay. 

(hi the 26th of November the 'lurk- < struct- 

i -il a 1,,-idge between linstock and the Islai 

Moknan. This island remains in tht 

of the Turk-. notwithstari 

they had been dislodged by thi rttllery 

under Gen. form if. They bad also resisted 

all the attempts of the Russians to drivi 
from then positions below llu 

enec of the lalolill/a and ■ 

Advices from Calat/ state thai the fourth and 

liflli i i movement. 

and are kboUl lo enter Walla- hill. 'I he whole of 

the arm) now in Poland is to be sent to the I'rin- 

cipalil i 

together with a portion ol the Imperial ' 

ad. 

On the 24th lilt, Srhamyl and Ishmacl I 

•ii lh. 1 Ku- 
j sian line.. The result has not . 

1 HI 

It Is j 

which tln-i 
i the I 'irk-. 
Official. — An official dispalrh 1 

of the lianu 



actict 

in in 



The Horse. 

The frequent exhibitions of erne] I 
upon this noble animal, which we 
streets, and which demand the i 
friend of humanity, induces us lo i oi 

readers such information, from tine 
shall awaken the proper interest i rainil 

and care of the horse, until his abilities ai 
powers are better understood and appreciated. 

There is probably no city in the Union of the si 
of San Francisco, where so many splendid hors 
can he found ; and our express offices, job wago 
and draymen arc in possession of some of t! 
handsomest and most powerful in the L'uit 
States. 

The following most excellent article from t 
" Farmer's Companion and Journal of the West 
published at Detroit, Michigan, we rcconiniei 
most highly : 

Hints on Breaking Houses. — I. There 
nothing more important about a horse than th 
he should lie well trained. His usefulness a) 
ability, and the comfort, and even safety of t 
person using him, depend on judicious manic, 
mint for a year or so of the animal's life. 

11. "Persuasion is better than force;" almc 
anything may lie done with a horse by stea 
kindness. By nature it is timid; hut when 
once gains confidence with its master, it bceon 
almost a rational being, and may be treated 
such. On the contrary, severity, harshness, pi 
sion, and blows, rarely fail to spoil a young hors 
temper, and render him either faulty or vicioi 
Better spend an hour in persuading him to dc 
thing, than two minutes in whipping him to 
He never forgets the first; while the scco 
ceases to be an object of terror to him. A hoi 
wants to understand what he is to do; and, wh 
his judgment is once convinced that all is rig 
the difficulty is over. A horse is scry apt to hi: 
the same temper that his trainer or master ha! 
HI. A young horse, like a child, is a creati 
of imitation. It is much easier to teach it by t 
side of an old hersc than by itself. It fully t 
predates rewards; anil the best horse-break, 
give a young animal a handful of oats, or a pii 
of bread when it docs well ; clapping and playj 
with il. It certainly understands it, and in vi 
of the reword takes pains. So, many give a f 
oats on returning it, after cxi rei.se, to the stab! 

IV. II is believed by mam. that a young c 
can he trained and became attached to its mast 
if he will cover its eyes with his hands, a 
breathe for a few minutes into its nose, lloi 
this frequently, tor a few days, certainly seems 
produce an effect; and wc have known ae 

follow us about like a dog. alter doing it, a 
another put up its nose to mn face whenever 
visited the stable. It is not Infallible, but it 

Worth trying, and persevering in. for a few ill 

or n eel,-. W !<i t'nl stories of the effect of t 

familiarity ore told in the books; and it is 
lhal every one can make the experimen 

V. 'fir hOuld begill after the -|TO 

on the principle that a young 

I than an old one. At first, 
il be bitted with S bit smaller than usual, a 

carefully select i to hurt its moul 

w it li tie ely fastened b 

roller i , it may be Buffered to ami 

for an hour or 

at a tine -out by a hall 

VI. I tig perfect, and I 

perilous of lli.. ban . put upon hi 

and last of all the bllnde 

Iter, In- may go into the !■ 
old horse. Let the wagon be light and eui;> 

let nothing be done except lo -p. a 1 
I lie other llll 

he will soon learn to pull, if In 

frightened, sooth bun. play with him. awl shi 

him lhal nothing will hurl him. Wh 

VII. 1 

bun to i 

• rwards with a hjBMTj 

In- mouth i- not hurt. It 






■ 






,111 









-tup in concent 
iu froi. - 



Streets on tli 
surrounded lo 

Throe i 

I 
B ■ 
o i » 

mea 

i 
- 
and U i 



and was 

llsiurb- 

Uv. 



i an h 
route betwci 



- 



W -t r -,- 
\ ork, Wednesday. LK< 



kfndneaa and persneaw • 

Ms. Chick i »te. — We learn that a yvaoar horse 

_ 

ntn.li of tt, 
■ 
*lf a most aorom; 



,[ He u't, CO 









■any years ot pru*- 



.nlden a hflgatwad 
the eeattra 

viaatAy « i t i — te sli 

st of the variooa 
been nent oat from lisee to time is starch ot S 
John Frankim at 4602.446. 



20 



W})% ^(!JlMilt.U:rjJiii ^©i?UB8»i 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER 



JOHS F. M01UE, Editoh. 



SAX FRANCISCO: 
imrsday, January 19, 185i\' 



Dwelling Houses in California, 

We know of no subject more worthy of consi- 
deration than (he above. Health and comfort in 
all countries are so much affected by the adaptation 
•f dwelling houses to climate, that too much at- 
tention cannot be awarded to a local architecture. 
Houses that would be comfortable in the bleak 
and frosty regions of the north-eastern States, arc 
by no means calculated to suit the requirements 
of such a climate as that in which we live. In 
the former States the situation of the dwellings 
and the size of the rooms are so arranged as to | 
make it less- difficult to keep them warm in winter. 
This is a leading feature in the construction, both 
internal and external, of houses that are erected 
in a cold climate, and it is a principle which can- 
not be carried out without defeating, to a great 
extent, one of the most important points in any 
residence — namely, that of free ventilation. But 
in California there is nothing in the climate re- 
quiring such an architectural feature. On the 
contrary, one of the first, if not the most impor- 
tant requirement of architecture in this country 
is to have the position of the house and capacity 
•f rooms so developed as to prevent the inconve- 
nience of the long and oppressive season of an 
exalted temperature. Houses in California, in- 
stead of being so built as to interrupt currents of 
air, should be so located and constructed as to 
promote them. In no country is there a greater 
necessity for high ceilings, for long and capacious 
halls, and for a general communication of rooms, 
or for projecting roofs and broad and long porti 
•oes. A house so constructed as to present these 
features cannot bean uncomfortable house in win- 
ter or summer, and it will certainly be kept in 
better ventilation, and in consequence more 
healthy, than by any other system of architecture 
that can be adapted in California. 

The location of a dwelling in this State most 
favorable for securing a free c irculation in the hot 
summer months, is nearly north and south. At 
least our observation has induced the conclusion 
that houses so situated arc much cooler and of 
«ourse more comfortable. But in no section of 
the world can the beauty and heallhfulncss of 
high ceilings be more consistently secured than in 
this, and where there is no good reason for com- 
pelling a person to live in tile constant inhalation 
•fa rarified and deteriorated atmosphere, there is 
(he strongest motive which health and common 
sense can urge, in favor of breathing (he pure and 
invigorating air -I heaven. 

No conviction ever fastened itself upon our 
mind with more Force, than the belief that half the 
diseases .,[' mankind are superinduced by the ex- 
hausted and not unfrcquently raephetic air vrb.ii lr 
is being forever breathed in contracted parlors 
and drawing-rooms, and miserable pent-up sleep- 
ing apartments. But not only is it a good thing 
m California to consult an architecture adapted 
to the climate and a location of house favorable 
to comfort; but it is especially a proper object in 
this country to pay attention to the cultivation of 
•hade trees. We never yet got our mind so tinc- 
tured with notions of malaria from the decomposi- 
tion of vegetable matter, as to fear the autumn 
leaves of a forest. On the contrary, such is the re- 
ciprocal necessities existing between the vegetable 
and animal kingdoms thai the health of each can 
be best preserved by an intimate connexion. But 
we cannot now define the mutual dependencies 
that exist in this respect. The fact is too gener- 
ally known to be denied in the reference, and the 
Wggestion can be best responded to by embower- 
ing the dwellings of our country in the foliage of 
•oltivated shade trees. 

And then again, there is another matter of no 
•mall interest, in the kind of material best adapted 
to the building of houses in California. We be- 
lieve it is the existing impression that brick can 
lay claim to being the best material of which 
houses have as yet been built; whether this bo so 
•r not, one thing is certain, that it is next to 
wood the most convenient material to secure. 
We do not believe however that sufficient atten- 
tion has been paid to this part of our subject to 
warrant a full and final conclusion. But we hope 
that what we have already said upon the subject 
•f houses will cause architects to give the public 
the benefit of their views, and that a subject of 
*> bki race may aol be postponed or 

kepi i until ou] [<Jed with 

buildings unfitted to climate, beauty, health or 
•emfort. 



Osage Orange. 
We have been frequently desired to furnish 
directions for the planting the seed and preparing 
the ground for the plant, the transplanting, and 
the system best adapted to make a permanent 
hedge. 

This is a subject of very great importance in 
this country ; the cost of fencing is one of the 
heaviest bills the cultivator has to bear, ami it is, 
or should be, his first care that what he does, 
should be done well. 

We know that many suppose that it would re- 
quire a great length of time to secure a Hedge 
from the Seed ; yet it is not so. H the proper 
care is given in planting, cultivating, transplant- 
and heading in and forming the hedge, three 
years from the seed will give a very good barrier 
against intrusion ; the fourth year a strong pro- 
tection, and the fifth year an impregnable fence, 
a protection against man and beast, and even the 
smaller animals. 

We recommend the following rules to be adopt- 
ed to secure the most desirable fence needed in 
California : First secure good seed ; a large por- 
tion of the seed offered having been boiled out. 
the life has been destroyed and the seed is worth- 
less. No seed is good and reliable except that 
which has been carefully selected and washed 
out, after what is called the rotting process; in 
this way the seed is reliable. We recommend 
the seed to be soaked over night when the season 
of planting is a dry one — in moist weather il is 
not needed. The ground should be ploughed 
very deep; subsoiling will add to the growth 
of the seedling. Plant in broad drills quite 
thin, after the ground has been well and tho- 
roughly pulverized ; cover the seeil two to three 
inches in wet weather, three to foiu' in diy weath- 
er. When the seedlings have grown half the 
season, head them down one half — this will cans 
them to grow strong ami be better furnished witl: 
roots. It will add to the strength and health of 
the plants to plough and cultivate between the 
rows of the seedling plants. When proper atten- 
tion has been given to seedlings, they will make 
three to four and a half feet growth and stron; 
plants the first year, and thus lie ready for trans- 
planting in the month of December or January, 
according as the earth may be suitable. 

When a permanent hedge is to be made, the 
lines should be drawn and the ground plowed 
and subsoilcd three feet wide; the soil should be 
moved if possible two feet deep. Great success 
lies in this deep culture. "When plowed, a cover- 
ing "(' four inches of good manure will add much 
to the health, growth and beauty of the plauts. 

When the ground is thus prepared, the plants 
should be selected from the nursery rows of equal 
size and strength, and these should be planted 
with a line, in double rows, the rows one foot 
apart and the plants one loot apart in the rows — 
settiugthem triangular,so as to break joints, thus 
filling the rows and making an uniformity in both 
sides of the hedge. The plants should besets 
little deeper- than they originally grew. 

We recommend another feature in preparing 
hedge for extensive grounds. Select a stronger 
plant than the average, and plant one every twen- 
ty-five feet. These are to be permitted "to rise 
with undipped wings" anil form a free. It re- 
quires but litlie imagination to conceive of the 
beauty of a long and continuous hedge of living 
green for miles, ornamented with golden yellow- 
fruit ; and then towering up along this line, mag- 
nificent trees, twenty, thirty, forty, and fifty feet 
high, bearing the same golden fruit. All this 
can easily be accomplished by commencing right 
and doing it well. 

After the transplanting is finished, and after 
the plants are first set and the ground levelled 
around them by treading lightly and rakingclcan 
and smooth, the plants should be cut down to 
within two inches of the ground ; this will cause 
them to branch freely and grow thick. When 
they have reached two feet high, cut than back 
one-half; this causes them to grow slowly and 
branch again, and if the season is favorable they 
can be shortened a second time, and the work 
is done of pruning the fust year. Let it, be re- 
membered that the ground around this hedge 
should be cultivated often and kept free of weeds 
and grass. Remember, too, in pruning, never to 
prune the strong plant you intend for the tree; 
this must grow unmolested, save pruning up the 
branches after the height of the head is reached. 
The second year, in the spring, when the sap 
moves, head in again half or the whole of the 

last growth "i the fan ' year; do this according 

1,1 the rength of the plant, and also comi 
:; the sides by strengthening them. 



The form of the hedge must be according to 
the taste of the proprietor — square side and top, 
or conical, or round. Great care must be used in 
turning the top, lest by forgctfulncss you clip the 
standard tree ; a bit of red cloth to denote them 
will secure them from danger. 

The third year the same course, only more 
pruning at the sides to make the hedge compact. 
With a little care and taste, a hedge can thus be 
made, and almost be impervious to the smaller 
animals. 

"With the hope that these hints may be of some 
service to our friends, we take leave, promisin; 
to give some hints by-and-by in regard to pre- 
paring buildings of the same materials. 



The Cultivation of the Rose. 

Tin: luxuriant growth of this Queen of Flowers, 
in California, has astonished many who supposed 
they were familiar with the nature and habits of 
this loveliest gem of Flora. Besides this, its in- 
creased blooming powers, and its adaptation to 
our gardens, will soon enable us, in this country 
to present many new and valuable varieties by 
seed and by hybridation. 

Many of the very choicest kinds, those of slow 
anrl delicate growth in other countries, become 
strong and vigorous ; those that were shy bloomers 
increase their size ami number of blooms, and 
and those which hardly produced perfect blooms, 
become here some of the finest blooms we have 
ever seen. 

We were preparing brief directions for the cul- 
tivation of the roso from slips, that our fair 
amateurs might have an opportunity to experi 
ment and show their skill — when, upon opening 
a familiar work received by last mail we found 
the directions so admirably given by a practical 
florist, in the form of a story, that we preferred to 
give it to our readers entire ; and we believe they 
will read it with interest, and obtain some prac- 
tical lessons to guide them. Here it is : 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A POT-HOSE. 

A writer of no mean authority has said, that 
whenever an individual speaks of himself, we 
should listen with attention, as we may almost 
invariably gather from his remarks an insight 
into his character and nature. It is because I 
believe in this opinion I hat 1 am about to relate 
my own history; and if by withdrawing the veil, 
(he public, by knowing more of my nature, should 
think less favorably of mc. I shall at hast have 
the satisfaction of having dissipated the false 
reverence upheld only by se.-lusion. and my asso- 
ciates may lie gainers by the light thus throw n 
around my path. 

Mueh that occurred in the first few weeks of 
my existence is of my existence is of course not 
wry vividly before me; and lest [should mislead 
the public, it is perhaps letter that such should 
be passed iii silence. I. however, distinctly re- 
member existing as a short branch, terminated by 
flower-bud, in company with other branches, 01,1 
what is termed the parent free; and although de- 
riving sustenance from the same root, and through 
the same stem, I had a certain sense of my own 
independence — of my capability of becoming 
separate individual, and being in after times 1 1 1 c - 
main stem whence should arise branches like 
myself. As 1 heard one and another bestow a 
passing word of praise on the freshness, beauty. 
and fragrance of my flower, bill reserve the comble 
de >jhiire for the plant on which 1 grew. 1 longed 
for tin- time when my master, who wasa nursery- 
man, should see fit to detach me from my parcnl 
anil place me in a state of cutting, to begin life 
entirely on my own account. 

Accordingly, one morning, just as my flower 
had dropped. I heard with joy. as he gently 
pressed me between his linger and thumb, that 1 
"is 'ripe enough," to use his own words, and 
that on the morrow 1 was to become a cutting 
As the preparations for the coming event were 
made beneath my own eyes. I shall relate as 
briefly as possible the bare facts, not troubling 
the reader with my hopes, fears, and aspirations, 
as they may be more easily imagined than des- 
cribed. First of all was brought into the house 
about a peck of pure yellow loam, chopped line, 
but not sifted ; it appeared to have been the top- 
spit of an old pasture cut, and laid up to dry and 
air some months previously ; the next material 
was about half a pock of decapod leaves, techni- 
cally called leaf-mould, and next about, a quarter 
of a peek of white sand. These materials were 
laid on a flat board and thoroughly mixed together 
by turning thorn frequently with a small spade, 
and then pronounced ready for use. I now saw 
a quantity of pots brought in, of the size called 
laTge sixties, and a boy followed with some broken 
ppts under his arm, some brickbats, and a hammer. 
He began breaking the pots into pieces nearly the 
size of the bottom of the pot, and put one piece 
the concave side downwards over the hole in each 
pot ; he then broke the bricks into pieces about 
the size of a nut, put a handful over each piece of 
crock, and filled the pots with the soil previously 
prepared, pressing it down rather firmly, and 
striking it off level with the top of the pot with 
his hand. I now made a pretty Bhrewd guess that 
into one of these pots I was tfl go ; and \\ illi an 
exulting heart 1 saw in-, n with a 

bllle white-handled knife in his hand, and b 

' 1 km « it. I wa - severed f he | 

"i. After the debris of my flower was cut off, 



there remained two leaves ; the upper one was 
left intact, and the lower removed ; the stem wast 
then cut straight, just below where the bottom 
leaf joined it, and 1 was cutting ■•made." 

I was now inserted in company with three 
others, in one of the pots previously described. 
A hole was made at the side of the pot with a 
dibble, about the size of an ordinary cedar pencil. 
and the lower two-thirds of my height ware 
placed firmly under the soil. The pot was then 
removed to a frame, with a gentle bottom-heat. 
and plunged to the rim in saw-dust. For the 
first few days I suffered greatly, owing to my old 
sources of nourishment being cut off. and having 
as yet no power of appropriating the new ones at 
my disposal. I am sure if my master had not 
exercised the greatest care and watchfulness over 
me, 1 must have died ; and I resolved, if i reco- 
vered, to show my gratitude, by throwing blos- 
soms and odors around his dwelling all my life. 
He kept a tank of warm water flowing beneath 
mc night and day, by which means not only was 
the soil in which I was placed made warm and 
comfortable, but a moisture arose and adhered to 
the under sides of my leaf, which proved pecu- 
liarly refreshing. Whenever the sun burst upon 
me, threatening in my then state to exhaust me 
Of my juices, be ran with a mat to afford me 
shade ; and he further refreshed me morning and 
evening with a dew-like shower, thrown through 
a line-rosed syringe. In about eight days (he 
juices exuding from the top and bottom of mv 
stem had formed a callous ; and a few days later 
while porous roots began to form, with sponge- 
like points, that sucked up the moisture from the 
soil, and felt my almost exhausted strength ra- 
pidly recruiting. My master now allowed a little 
sun to fall on my leaf in the morning, and admit- 
ted a little air into the frame in which I had been 
closely shut for a fortnight By (his treatment 
my strength became so great, ami my roots spread 
so rapidly, that the eye in the axil of my leaf la- 
gan to grow, and I n as shaken out of the cutting- 
pot and placed in a pot of the same size by my- 
self, in a soil something similar, but with decayed 
manure instead of leaf-mould, and about one- 
fourth the quantity of sand. 1 was here separated 

from my companions, one of whom had died a 
cutting, not having been sufficiently ripe when 

taken ; one had not yet rooted, having been too 
ripe ; and the fourth w as placed in a separate pot 
like myself. 1 was now carried back to a frame 
with bottom-heat, syringed with water morning 
and evening, and shaded from the sun as before. 
For the first two or three days but very little air 
was admitted, but after that time more and more 
was given every day. the shade was made lighter 
by degrees, till at last the frame was entirely re- 
moved, and I was exposed to tile sun and air 
night ami day. It was now July, and the grow- 
ing season was before me ; my first anxiety VU 

to show my gratiin.de to my master, ami being of 

the kind railed •• aillllllinal." by the third v, eel) 

of September, 1 produced three, not over-large. 
but linely-shaped and highly-colored Bowers. 

As the nursery in which 1 grew was much fre- 
quented by favors <»f Bowers, 1 heard monj high 
encomiums passed on me; and one evening I was 
purchased by a quakcr, a piece of white paper was 
tied 101111. 1 my |.,l and I was placed inside his 
-..1 1 1-, ■<■ ; and I w ho before had onh lived, now 
lived and moved 1 knew not whither, li was 
gratifying to me to see how my new master gazed 
upon me, handled me, anil inhaled mj al 
breath, regarding me, as 1 thought, with more 
than usus] interest because hi- considered my dc» 
tiny altogether chano d in his hands. For my 
part. 1 resolved to do my best to please him, as I 
had done my former master. .Soon the carriage 
stopped; I was handed out, passed through (lie 
the hall and drawing-room, admired by the ser- 
vants and ladies, and placed by my master ill the 
conservatory. I bad not been long here before I 
saw a red-faced happy-looking man. without a 
coat, and with a blue apron, coming toward me 
with a watering-pot ; this, as I afterwards learned, 
was John the gardener. My master met him 
elose by me. and a conversation immediately en- 
sued, ending by John expressing himself highly 
pleased, but wishing 1 had been a wee bit bigger. 
When 1 had shed my Bowers, 1 was taken out of 
doors, and a frosty night having denuded mv 
branches of their leaves, I was removed to a cold 
pit for winter quarters. — Turner's Florist. 



Corn Cribs may be rendered rat-priiiif. by 
lacing a large milk pan. bottom up, on the top 
Of each post on which thecrib stands, and having 
a moveable ladder by which to enter the door. 
The rats climb up the posts, but can get no fur- 
ther. Mice will also be excluded, unless carried 
in with the corn. 

Yahnish for Iron Work. — Dissolve in two 
pounds of tar oil, something more than half a 
pound of asphaltum, and a like quantity of pound- 
ed resin ; the mixing is performed hot in an iron 
kettle, taking care it does not catch lire ; when 
cold, the varnish is poured into a vessel and kept 
for use. It should be applied to hinges gate- 
fastenings, and all iron exposed to the weather. 



Sugar. — It is said there is a capital of $80,- 
000,000 invested in the culture of cane in th* 
States of Florida, Louisiana and Texas. T'hcsv 
Stales produce annually about 300,000,000 pounds 
of sugar, besides which foreign importations arv 
made to the extent of about 350,000,000 pounds. 
Even a short crop of sugar at the South, which 
reduces the usual production only 100 or l. r >|i,- 
000,000 pounds, invariably advanoes the rate of 
ft 010 on,- to one and : per pound: 

w hidi. on the cm in- consumption of I 

cil. at one per cent, lo 
and at one and a half cents to ab 



%\).s $®U$m ®H &mm$9< 



21 



Beport on Vegetables. 
Tuk following is the report of the Committee 
in V. the Agricultural Exhibition is 

Messrs. Warri rned, a 

appointed to examine the Vegetables 

tr Hall for exhibition ami premium, having 

itiended to thai duty, beg leave to submit the 

tig rejtort : 

1 ; umber <>f specimens, their immense 

ight, anil the volume of data offered at 

1 (hibition, would preclude the possibility ol 

bis Committee making that full and detailed ro- 

Kirt which they would desire; tnjlo all this would 

C|iiii and time than could be con- 

rcniently public 

ir Committee therefore oiler the following 
iondensed report, ami trust it will be considered, 
inder the circumstances, Satisfactory. The speci- 
neas are named in the order in which they were 
received : 

Prom T. P. Robb's Ranch, Sacramento river — 

finer mammoth squashes, weighing 1-1. D5, and 

(j feel 3 inches in cirouinfcr- 

i et 9 inches ; three strings supe- 

rioronions, offifty each, averaging 2pounds each; 

luce sacks do. of 100 lbs. averaging two pounds 

lach ; two baskets very extra, 100 lbs. averaging 

I pounds each ; one basket crooknecfa squashes, 

varieties; one do. summer squashes, four 

Mi ties; one do. cucumbers, fancy ; three heads 

■ ; . line ; one blood turnip heet. forming many 

ds; one cluster squash, numbering til'tcen united 

}n one stem, compact together. 

From .1 . M. Horner, San Jose — Four fine squash- 
ss, 87, 70, 'it. 35 pounds; one drumhead cabbage, 
25 pounds ; live cabbages, of live varieties; two 
specimens potatoes, 31-2 pounds each ; one sack 
19 onions, over '2 pounds each ; one sack potatoes. 
)ver - pounds each ; one extra cabbage, 35 pounds; 

me potato, 5 1-2 pounds. 

From W. Pomeroy, Alviso — Four mammoth 
squashes, weighing 104, 85, 77, and 75 pounds, 
;he largest, one measuring 5 feet, 3 inches in cir- 
nimference ; one acorn squash, very handsome, 
iveighing 34 pounds, 4 feet 5 inches in circum- 
ference ; seven crookneck squashes, superior, one 
neighing 26 pounds, others 20, 18, 16, 14; four 
narrow squashes. 27 pounds each ; four line blood 
Lieels. weighing 25,24, 20, and 17 ; one measuring 
three feet three inches in length. 

From W. Neeley Thompson, Suscol Valley — 
Two baskets onions, 2 to 3 pounds each ; four 
narrow squashes, 50 to 42 pounds each ; two do. 
lo. superb, til pounds each, pure in species and 
very extra, and of extraordinary size and quality; 
Dnc basket Chili peppers, very handsome; one 
plant of same, in bearing ; one basket tomatoes, 
line. 

From Henry Roc, Mission San Jose — one sack 
large eggplants, averaging 5 pounds each; one 
lo., medium size, do. 3 pounds each ; one plant 
n hearing, with seven line fruit, weighing about 
25 pounds ; one specimen egg fruit, weighing 7 1-2 
pounds. 

From E. L. Beard, San Jose — Thirteen fine 
:abbages, averaging 25 pounds each ; one sack line 
»lood beets; one do. oo. carrots; one do. do. 
rarsnips; one do. large potatoes, averaging 2 
sounds each ; four mammoth squashes, of supe- 
rior kinds, weighing 73. 57, 56, 50 pounds each. 
This collection was very line. 

From Levi Hamilton, San Jose — Four large 
sugar I. eels, weighing 41, 11, 25, 17 pounds each. 
in I rery tine; two extra Valparaiso squashes. 56 
mil 52 pounds, and of line form and appearance, 
nearly three feet long. 

Prom Snide i Donahue, San Lorenzo — One sack 
sxtrn potatoes, weighing 20 pounds. 

From Pierre Beccouarn, Visitation Ranch, near 
Mission Dolores — Twelve large turnips, from 6 to 
12 pounds each; thirty-six large carrots, from I to 
C pounds each; twelve artichokes; three clusters 
parsley; three black radishes ; two baskets line 
jieas; one lfrusseH's cabbage; three rutabagas, 
weighing 20 pounds; three large and singular 
formed carrots. 

From Doctor SamM Murdoek, San Jose, Mission 
land — Seven sacks potatoes, 12 bushels, the 
product of three potatoes. We are satislied that 
this statement is true; they were fine and large 
and the best in the market ; and we believe this to 
be the largest crop ever raised from that amount of 
seed. 

Kay & Jackson, San Francisco — One large and 
6plendid beet, 36 1-2 pounds. 

From Calvin lingers, Contra Costa — One potato. 
4 pounds. 

From Rev. Lorenzo Wangh — one line snowball 
turnip. 

From Lawrence Leihn— collections — Five varie- 
ties squashes and pumpkins; four roots celery; 
three verities rhubarb ; two do asparagus ; collec- 
tion cucumbers; one box mushrooms spawn. 
The above were exhibited more from curiosity 
than size or quality. 

From A. Lloyd. San .lose Mission — Specimens 
beets, very fine ; four sweet potatoes, weighing 
9 I | ■amis ; 4 do. do., large. 20 pounds. The 
i potatoes of Mr. Lloyd were very interesting 
and were much praised, as proving the sn 
that will attend their cultivation. 

I om E. Linoberg, Sonora — Four specimens 
Chili pepper. 

From Cktpman & Aiiginhaugh. Alameda coun- 
ty — One blood turnip beet, 13 pounds; four onions 
» 
; ! good specie 

- 



Kr ',"" ' ' specimens Onions, weighing 5 lbs., onemcasnrine 

i-.-d I ajar.. \ alley. weigh „,is. in circumference, flfcdal 

l " James De an. Pctaluma, for flnesl Tur- 
nips, weighing 26, 23 and 2] lbs. Medal. - 

To \\ in. Neely Thompson, Suscol Valley, for 
superb specimens Tomatoes. Medal 
To .1. M. llorne 



im "J. Bryant Bill rhroo 

weighing 9 pounds, one measuring two 
foot in circumference; four potatoes, weighing 10 
pounds; one sack white onions, mi] 
mid quality, many weighing 3 pounds ami up- 
ward-, some few I pounds 

ID I'.. I. Crane A 111...— fen line extra po- 
tables, weighing 30 pounds. 
From Asa Uoyno, Martinez. Contra Costa ; one 

sweet potato, weighing i. pounds. 

From Augustus Bonnet, San Francisco— Sev- 
eral samples, yellow and white sugar beet ; ruta- 
baga ; white carrot, line ; white parsnip ; red pep- 
per; white solid celery, clean ami well grown; 
salsify or vegetable oyster; large « hit.- leek . 
huge butter beans; dual I'd... shellbeans; one Sugar 
beet, 52 pounds; two do. do. .i 7 and 27 pounds. 
This entire collection was very line, displaying 
great care in cultivation. 

From Snuthcis and Covey, Tuolumne River — 
Specimens .Mexican Vam, weighing 7 pounds. 

S. ,v. ('. raise this year seven tons. 

From Merrill & Warren — Two samples pota- 
bles from the ranch of Mr. Blaisdell, in Pajaro 

Valley, very large. 4 1-2 pounds each. Mr'. B. 
cultivated 100 acres. 
From James Gillis— Sweet potatoes weighing 7 

1-2 pounds. Mr. Gillis cultivates two acres, and 
the crop (his year will be six tons per acre. 

From ,1. 0. Debris, Fries Valley, Mission Do- 
lores— One specimen beet; specimens peas, of the 
Queen Dwarf. 

Col. J. T. Hall. Sacramento — One blood beet, of 
surpassing size, weighing when lifted from the 
ground 05 pounds, and when cleared of leaves 
and on exhibition 52 pounds, after it had been 
out of ground some time. 

From Warren's Gardens, Sacramento — Four 
tomatoes, four varieties; one acorn squash, curious; 
two gourds. (Hercules club); one plant Hawaiian 
tobacco; specimens cucumbers, Walker's Hum- 
bler. 

From Smith, Barber & Co. Sacramento — Five 
citron melons, tine. 

From W.I1. and Moses Nichols, Sulphur Spring 
Valley, near Benicia — Curious specimen of hybrid 
Cabbage, in seed, a union of the cauliflower and cab- 
bage, being an evidence ot the difficulty of raising 
line cabbages from any seed that has been grown 
contiguous to any other variety, same species. 

From I. 0. Woods — Fine samples potatoes, 2d 
crop, raised in Suisun Valley, July 10. 

From Dr. Harris — Specimen of sea kelp, found 
on the shore. This specimen was of much in- 
terest ; it was of remarkable beauty, being a 
large and smooth ball at one end, anil tapering off 
like a rubber lash to a point, measuring 23 feet 
long, perfectly smooth and high polished. 

From James Denman, Petaluma — Three white 
globe turnips, superior, weighing 23, 21, and 20 
pounds. 

From N. Knapp, San .losi — One sugar beet, 
25 pounds; two turnip beets, anil pounds. 

Hamilton .V- Co. from Kitchie's Ranch, two 
miles above Crescent City, on the coast — Unc 
white Oat turnip, weighing 33 pounds, a line and 
beautiful specimen. 

From Weaver * Blaisdell, San Francisco — One 
specimen potato. 5 [.2 pounds, 

Mr. OVoinicll. Sun Lorenzo, Alameda county — 
The p.loduce ot one hill of potatoes. 10 l-J pounds. 

raised from one eye; two clusters potatoes, weigh- 
ing 12 pounds, and twelve potatoes measuring one 
bushel. From four sacks seed planted there was 
raised live bundled and twenty-nine aai ks. on one 
ami three quarters acres of land. 

ili. committee have examined with much 
pleasure the extensive collection of the vegetables 
exhibited, and believe that there never has been 
exhibited within the United Slates, a collection 

that would equal them lor size, weight, beauty or 
excellence. 

It would lie difficult to make persons in the old 
States realise what was actually exhibited in the 

Hall, They must have been seen to have been 
believed. Tha committees would have made ear- 
lier repots, but for the great difficult] in obtain- 
ing statistics of the growers, iii order lo ascertain 
who were entitled to the premiums. Main" ex- 
hibitors, after repeated enquiries, and with all the 
facts before them, of the Efeai importance ot' ren- 
dering in a statement of the quantity grown. Ac. 

failing to do so after great delay, the committee 

proceeded to make llie awards to the best of their 
ability, feeling confident they have acted with 
strict justice to those who have at all made known 
by letter or otherwise, any statement of Lheir 

crops to enable tic committees lo act then 

The committee have made the follow 
AWARDS : 

To E. L. Heard, oi' San Jose, for the tai 
crop of Potatoes — 630 acres — and avei 
300 bushels per acre. A silver cup. i > 

To .1. I'. Kohl., tor the besi coUectioi 
Onions, exhibited both in quantity and quality. 
having grown 1,000 sacks. A tir-t class medal, 
valued at SI"; no person competing lor the prize 

The best collection of Squashes and Pumpkins, 

to .T. P. Kol.b. of Sacramento, for twelve var 

To K. I., b 

Silver ned i 

spsaim .1. val- 

ued at 8 

To A largest and 



cr. San .lose, lor largest and finest 



PROSPECTUS 

OP 

THE CALIFORNIA FARMEi 
And Journal of Useful Sciences. 
We commence the issue of this Joi B 



specimens Tomatoes, weighing 5 II and 5 1-2 Voricultubb and kindred Sciences, with the b< 
lbs. Medal, $5. ginning of the New Year. 

To .1. M. Horner. San Jose, largest and best The Editorial Department is under the charge 



Cabbage, weighing 35 lbs. Medal, valued at $5, 

Hie committee having lull power to make 
awards to all exhibitors who were deserving 
special notice, award llie following 
SPECIAL PRIZES, 

To W. l'oincroy, of Alviso, lor superior mam- 
moth Cocoanul and crookneck Squashes. A first 
class silver medal. )J10. 

To Henry Hoc, San .lose, for very superb speci 
mens Egg Plant, weighing from 6 to 7 1-2 lbs. 
each. A first class silver medal. JS10. 

To Win. Neely Thompson, Suscol Valley, for 
his collceiion of Boston marrow Squashes; they 
were the largest, purest and handsomest probably 
ever exhibited at any show in the United States 
weighing 01 lbs. each— bright golden yellow. A 
first class silver medal. $10. 

To Dr. Sam, Murdoch, for his interesting col- 
lection of Potatoes; 7 bags, from 3 seed potatoes. 
A silver medal, $10. 

To W. 0. Coi nell, San Lorenzo, for his collec- 
tion Potatoes. .Medal, $5. 

To Pierre Beccouarn, for a fine collection of Car- 
rots, Parsnips, Turnips and other vegetables. $10, 

To Lawrence Leihn. San Francisco, for several 
specimens of Vegetables. Medal, $5. 

To Wm. Neely Thompson, Suscol Valley, for 
two bushels extra red and yellow Onions, very 
finely grown. First class medal, .flUO. 

The committee notice that several fine speci 
mens were also shown by the friends of agricul 
lure for exhibition, only collected in various 
places, and not of the growths of exhibitors, many 
of them very fine, and adding interest to the ex- 
hibition. Such evidences of interest we trust will 
result in their hereafter becoming identified more 
closely and exhibiting more largely, as the pro- 
duct of their own skill. 

Your committee were much gratified to notice 
the increasing attention paid to the cultivation of 
the vegetable kingdom, and trust that all will find 
ample reward in their labors. No country in the 
world has ever presented such splendid specimens 
of agriculture, and we feel assured that coming 
years, under the auspices of an enlarged interest 
among all the cultivators, and a union of efforts 
among others, all under the auspices of the society 
now commencing, and with the aid of the press, 
California will present to the world the most in- 
teresting and delightful, as well as the most 
astonishing results, such results as the mind could 
hardly conceive at the present moment. That 
these results will be manifest, your committee 
have no doubt, and the wisest anil most attentive 
care and skill will always reward Ihc best Such 

. xertions your committee recommend to the cul- 
tivators. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
\<w m t Ibahbers, 
F. W. Maciisiihav, J. Committee. 
L. B, Morgan. 



National Agriculture. 
Tin; total value of the annual products of the 
soil of the United States is now about one thous- 
and millions of dollars: and no one who knows 



of Dr. J. F. M0B8E, of Sacramento, (formerly 
editor of the I'llinn.) — assisted by Col. VVaBBEK, 
of the firm Of Warren & Son, who will aid in the 
Agricultural and Market Reports, and Foreign 
and domestic data. 

It will be the aim af the publishers to furnish 
to their readers. 1st. 'The most useful data for the 
practical Agriculturist, and to present to them 
all the most important practical results, obtained 
from authentic sources, in our own State. 

2. To present, the latest and most important 
facts from our sister States and Europe, touching 
Agriculture, in all its branches. 

3. To furnish familiar illustrations of valuable 
Agricultural Implements, together with remarks 
explanatory of their character and success, 

4. To furnish complete drain Tables and Mar- 
ket Reports, and other data connected therewith. 

5. General and Critical Notices of the various 
Agricultural and Horticultural Societies of our 
country and of Europe, sufficient to guide 011.1 
own Cultivators, and keep them advised of the 
progress of the Science. 

6. A portion of the Journal will devoted to 
Select Literature — the aim of which will be to 
exhibit the purifying influences which flow from 
the pursuits of Agriculture, Horticulture and 
rural life. That kind of Literature which tends 
to a morbid excitability of the mind — which 
superinduces a species of sickly sentimentality, 
and degrades instead of elevates the character of 
man — as well as politics and sectarianism, will 
he rigidly excluded from its pages : our aim 
being to cultivate a love for and an interest in 
those useful Sciences which must ever add to the 
happiness of mankind. 

Cultivators of the Soil, and all who feel an 
interest in these all-important and fundamental 
sources of our prosperity and happiness, are cor- 
dially invited to communicate with us freely. 
Their valuable aid is what we earnestly desire. 

All communications for the Editorial columns 
should be forwarded to Dr, J. F. Mouse. Sacra- 
mento, or may he left at the office, on Bush stret t, 
two doors below Montgomery, San Francisco. 

Communications on Business, Reports on Agri- 
culture, and Advertisements, should be addressed 
to J. F. Mouse & Co., San Francisco. 

Terms of the Paper — S8 per annum, in advance. 
J. F. MOBSE & CO., 
(Publishers California Fanner,) 

Bnsh street, below* Montgomery, 
San Francisco, Col. 

Advertisements in thjs Journal (of which a 
limited number will be inserted) will reach a 
circulation hitherto unattaincd, extending to the 
remotest Agricultural Districts particularly — thus 
making it of the highest interest for all matters 
pertaining to Agriculture. 



Corn Harvester. 
The New York Herald, in enamcrating various 
articles on exhibition in the Crystal Palace, has 

the following: 



Reams' patent corn harvester is another imple- 
ment of agricultural lite which will be jnterc* 
ing to farmers. The machine is very simple in 
agriculture will doubt its ,„„<„.„,.,'„„. n „,i purports to cut. with the 
that the same amount ol labor which IS I noV em- ,.,,„„. of one horse and a boy. from sixteen to 
ployed in producing this aggregate might be so ,„.,.,„, acres of corn per day, and lay it in bundles 
■»PT--e° •- '" ,; '- I"'"' 1 '"' 1 thirty per „,- from two to ten hills, as desired. 



1. ni. greater, or one thousand three hundred 
millions. F.ut scientific, skilful, thorough Agri- 



oms part of this machine, is an appliance called a 
dropper, by which the boy riding on the hack ot 



culture always employs more than the shiftless, the hoTse can drop the bundles ofcorn at suits 

slouching sort loo generally preialc.it; and it is ,'■,,,„„,.< „, the furrow, all ready for shookmg. 
certainly within bounds to estimate that our Ag- T)]l , ,.,,., „ f mfa , m ,) nn ,. is reasonable, ranging 
rionlturc might be so unproved as, by the help of f ,. nm ,;„,.,,„ or twenty dollars, ihc speed of this 

tinners consider it 
t time to cut corn when the dew is on the 
stalks, or immediately after a rain. In dry times, 
the corn is brittle and difficult to cut. If th 
able to accomplish that for which it is in 
mended, it must be a great advantage to 1 



additional labor now unemployed and unpr 

ive, to gi\c an additional product offiftj per cent. 
or five hundred millions per annum — an achieve- 
ment which would double the wealth "I the coun- 
try every eight or ten years. Whosoever will 
carefully review the Agriculture of a 6 
or even an avenge county, in any part of the farmer to po 

Union, and estimate how much its product might 
be enhanced by irrigation, manuring, deep plow- 
's will perceive that our calculation is far 
within the truth. 

lint suppose that only half of it. or an addition 
of two hundred ami titty millions per annum to 
our annual Agricultural product is attains 

what an immense addition to our national wealth of all occupations a 
would thereby be insured 1 Pour-fifths of this portion of th 
would probably be permanently added to 
wealth of the country — that is. the farmer whose hihition. illu- 
anniial product should be swelled from -kill, care an 

-si 250, mill - 
or drink up I 

part of it in new buildings, fen 

■■■. They sweep a» a 
. They infii- 
Iv inmasiar < fanner an ambition 

Such an an 
the annual irful wastes, V 

ration 0* 
domestic and ivpor: sequence 

1 ' ' 
inak inp a living on it must be ' r 



Agricultural Fairs. 
S r Arc. Fa irs seem to be growing into The Great 
Annual Festival, in many oi thi 
all other gatherings by tl; 
acter. bringing into I communion 



. 



I 



■ 












22 



SJfyg tyiiUUz urn $(BSWi?* 



The Pioneer Ball.-TIhs splendid annivcr- 1 The news relative lo Land Titles is of much 
sary celebration came off on Wednesday evening, interest, and will be hailed with joy by the culti- 
1 1th inst, at the Musical Hall, on Bush street. ; Ta tors of the soil, as all that tends to a speedy 
\\ r e are a dancer, and of course attended; and , adjastment affect them deeply. We give below 
although the recollection of Balls, wtuch we m ondeDCe wllidl wil] exp)ain the action 
uanced at in other days, is vivid, and the remeni- i ""■ w " ~r * 

branceof fair feces which then shone upon us, no taken by our Senators and Representatives at 
less so, still we are forced to admit in spite of Washington. 

early predilections, that the Pioneers have eclipsed Washington City, Dec. I. 

the Fary-land frolics of our youth. That even- Sir: It is of the greatest importance to lin- 
ing was no ordinary occasion. Music, with its ; people of California to have an early decision of 
'•voluptuous swell ;" "cheeks that blushed at the Supreme Court of the United States upon 
their own loveliness;" '• haughty forms and flash- Spanish and Mexican grants for lands in that 

State. We are informed by the last mail that 
important decisions on this question have been i 
made by the I". S. DistrictCourtforthe Northern i 



ng eyes," 

"Auri thin rol.ea 
Floating like lh,'ht cloud- tw-Lxt our gaze ami Heaven." 



these were all there, and were to be expected. J District, and we respectfully but earnestly invite 
But more than all these we beheld the Pioneer I Tour attention to the necessity of a speedy review 

Band of California ; the men who preceded us, in 1 f tneS( . decisions by the Supreme Court; and 
piercing the wilderness, tamed the inclemencies ns j ; „i R . t hcr action can be had during the ap- 



of the elements and prepared this beautiful land 
for the home of civilization. 

Many a rugged cheek met our gaze, parched by 
exposures, and wrinkled by premature age. but 
upon them all sat the smile of peace and happi- 
ness. It was plain to see that the Pioneers 
deemed the present a full compensation fur [lie 
past, and a glorious promise of the future. Many 
of them promenaded the brilliant Hall the whole 
evening, with fairy-little arms hanging upon their 
own. refusing to dance, and pouring into willing 
tars the story of the early times in California. 
But there was a banner displayed upon the walls 
which told the same story, and in tones no less 
emphatic and eloquent. Within a gilded frame 



proaching session of the Court 

The importance of the subject to our consti- 
tuents must be our apology for the enquiry, and 
the request of an answer at your earliest conve- 
nience. 

With great respect, your obedient servants, 
Wm. M. Gwin, 
M. S. Latham. 
Hon. C. dishing. Attorney General. 

Washington. Dec. 2. 

GENTLEMEN : I have the honor to acknowledge 

the reception "I your letter representing to me 

the magnitude of the interest involved in thecases 

before the Commissioners for adjudicating private 



hung the banner of the celebrated 1-rcmont Bat- ■ ]. iml d . ljms m California, and the importance of 
taiian. Of course it was the cynosure of every proceeding with all possible despatch in the ap- 
eye. The veteran gazed upon its folds and re- p^fe to the Supreme Court ; and I can assure you 



called the dread hour when it floated stiffened by 
frosts, in the bleak north winds of the .Sierra Ne- 
vada ; the maiden saw it, and shuddered at the 
fate of those whose last gaze had been fixed upon 
its triumphant stars, and the young aspirant felt 
his hot blood mount in exultation and pride, as 
he dreamily read the story of its victories, told 
by its gilded lips and in its stars of glory. 

The Hall was literally crowded — the number 
present was variously estimated at from ten to 
twelve hundred persons. The supper, too. was 
magnificently prepared, and whole attiiir went off 
with perfect propriety and unrivalled eclat. — Ete. 
News. 



Industrial Institute. 
We were pleased to receive by last mail the 
doings of the Legislature of Illinois, and it reflects 
the highest honor upon that assemblage, to notice 
that the resolutions were passed by both branches 
unanimously. Wc give the resolutions below. 

Important Resolution. — In the Illinois 
House of Representatives, Mr. Denio offered the 
following joint resolution, which was unanimous 
adopted : 

Whereas, The spirit and progress of this age 
and country demand the culture of the highest 
order of intellectual attainment, in theoretic and 
industrial science; and, whereas, it is impossible 
that our commerce and prosperity will continue- 
to increase, without calling into requisition all the 
elements of internal thrift arising from the labors 
of the farmer, the mechanic, anil the manufac- 
turer, by every fostering etlbrt within the reach 
of government ; and whereas, a system of Indus- 
trial Universities, liberally endowed in each State 
of the Union, co-operative with each other and 
with the Smithsonian Institution at Washington. 
would develop a more liberal and practical educa- 
tion anion; the people tend the more to intollect- 
ualizc the rising generation, and eminently con- 
duce to the virtue, intelligence and true glory of 
our common country ; therefore, be it 

Resolced, by the House of Representatives, the 
Setate concurring therein. Thai oar Senators in 
Congress be instructed, and our Representatives 
be requested, to use their best exertions to pro- 
cure the passage of a law of Congress donating to 
each State of the Union an amount of public lands 
not less in value than five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, for the liberal endowment of a system of In- 
dustrial Universities, one in each Slate in the 
Union, to co-operate with each other and h ith the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, for the 
more liberal and practical education of our in- 



that I shall spare no exertion to accomplish this 
object — in which view I propose at an early da\ 
to bring the subject to the attention of the I lourt. 

1 am. very respectfully, your obedient servant 
C. Co&HING. 

Messrs. W. M. Gwin, M. S. Latham. 



United States Land Commissioners. 

This Court have rendered the following decis- 
ions this week to the 17th. The great ' ; Pcralta 
Case" which involves BO large an t ainount, and in- 
terests large numbers of persons, has not yet been 
decided, thus causing great disappointment : 

No. 448. Francisco Sales, one lot. Mission San 
Gabriel confirmed. 

No. 480. Arno Maube, one lot, Mission San 
Gabriel rejected. 

No. 363. J. J. Sparks. " Iluana." confirmed. 

No. 140. Joaquin Kstrade. " Santa Rosa." con- 
firmed. 

No. 324. Jose Antonio de la Guerre, £; Los 
Alamos." confirmed. 

No. 283. Pedro San Saevers. ( * La Rincon del 
Kincon," confirmed. 

No. 98. Ellen White. "Cholume," rejected. 

No. 562. James Watson, "San Benito," con- 
firmed. 

No. 134. M. G. Yallojo, lot in Sonoma, con- 
firmed. 

No. 113. Rafael Garcia, " Mendocino," rejected. 

No. 319. John Bidwcll, " Oipinas." confirmed. 

No. 383. Maria de Jesus Garcia, "Los Noy 
ales." confirmed. 

No. HIT. Robert II. Thomas, ''I.us Sancos, 
confirmed. 

No. 100. Albert G. Toames. " Rio de los Moli- 
nos," confirmed. 

No. 110. .Jose Antouio Agguero, rejected. 

No. 343. Henry Ilallun, " Santa Anita," con 
firmed. 

No. 102. Francisco Branch. "Arroya Grande, 9 
confirmed. 



Great Cropi. 

Tun Annual Meeting of the Rockingham, N. II.. 
Fair, was holdeu at Exeter, on the 9th inst. We 
find in the News Letter the report of the commit- 
tee on crops, awarding the following premiums: 

The committee on crops awarded the following 
premiums : 

To Joseph Winslow.of Kpping. for 111 bushels 
and 14 quarts, of Indian corn on one acre of 
round. $5. 

To Joseph Ciller, of Nottingham, for 121 bush- 
els and 1 I quarts of Indian corn on one acre and 



dustrial classes and their teachers; a liberal and 23 rods of ground $3 

varied education adapted to the manifold wants To Stephen Dow, of Brentwood, for 175 1-2 
ol a practical and enterprising people, and a pro- j bushels of Rye on -1 acres, fl tods of ground. 84. 
vision for such educational facilities, being in 1 'p.. Daniel' C. bong, of Kingston, for 36 1-2 
manifest concurrence with the intimations of the bushels of wheat on one acre and 2t rods of 
popular will, it urgently demands the unite.! 



effort of our national strength 

liesolred, That the Governor is hereby author- 
ised to forward » copy of the foregoing resolutions 
to our Senators and Representatives in Congress, 

and to the Executive and Legislature of each of 
our sister States, inviting them to co-operate with 
us in this meritorious enterprise. 



Large Cargoes.— Among other articles en- 
raged by the ship Great Republic, loading at New 
York for Liverpool, are (he following, viz : About 
9.00U barrels flour, G0\000 to 70,000 bushels of 
corn and wheat. LO00 bales of cotton. 8,009 bar- 
rels of resin. 1,000 tierces of beef. &c. & 



grounds, si. 

To A. 0. Taylor, of Hampton, for 50 1-2 bush- 
els of liarlev on one acre and 10 rods of ground. 
84. 

To James II. Dow. of Rye. for OX bushels Oats 
on one and a half acres of ground, $! !. 

To Rufus C Sanborn, of Ilainptonfalls, for 
151 1-2 bushels of carrots on one quarter of an 
acre of ground, $4. 

The Committee on Bog Meadows awarded to 
G. C. Brown, of Stratham, a premium of §5. 

The above arc certainly large corn crops. AVhat 
would California Farmers say bo 30 bushels wheat 
to the acre ? and what would New Hampshire 



. She 
was to sail when she had taken as much freight formers say to our crops of 150 bushels barley to 



as she could cross the bar at Sandy Hook with. 

The new ship Break 0' Day, lately launched 
ftt Calais, Maine, loaded Opposite at St. Stephen 
for Liverpool, with the following Cargo, viz; 1.604.- 
000 feet ol deals and boards. 133,000 laths. 16,000 
pickets, and 10 cords of lath wood. She is a well 
built ship, of beautiful model, and reflects much 
honor on her builders. 



the acre 1 

We arc under weighty obligations to the gen- 
tlemanly messengers of Messrs. Adams & Co. 
for the prompt delivery of packages, letters, etc. 



A three year old heifer was killed at Santa 
Clara last week, which weighed 004 lbs. 



A laoy in Vermont, who signs herself E. E., 
has sent us the following contribution to our Fire- 
side corner : 

"Look on the Bright Sins." — There is in 
earth enough of beauty to warm, to cheer and en- 
liven the heart, were it but looked upon with an 
eye to see, a mind to feel it. 

Look on the bright side, keep looking on the 
bright side. Surround yourself with forms and 
hues of beauty — "a lion- of beauty i.- a joj i"t- 
ever." Thus if you would be joyous, and who 
would not. cultivate a taste for the beautiful ; and 
what so beautiful — ever renewing their youth and 
beauty — us the things with which God has sur- 
rounded us ? 

Then let that majestic elm still wave its 
branches in lofty fecedom. Suppose it would 
make so many feet of boards, let it stand, as yon 
would be happy in a shady, beautiful home. Leave 
that little patch for wife' and children to scatter 
flower seeds in the spring time. Suppose you 
could raise ao many potatoes upon it: leave it if 
yon wouid meet joyous, smiling faces. 

Indeed, surround, in country and city, your 
homes with the beautiful, that your eye, resting 
upon it. may be insensibly but surely attracted to 
that perfect beauty of soul which, if you make it 
yours, shall one day bear you where none will 
need say, "look on the bright side." since every 
shade will be bright ; bright with purity ; bright do do' .lo 
with love, for -ilod is love."— Country Gentle- f^jj™. beat moke. 
man. f ''" """' - 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, Jan. 18, 1854. 

Tin- principal frnture to be observed la our markets thi 
present week w u more cheerful spirit Induced bytbehope 
Una tin- recent rs&eahing rains will brin" a more i ■ . ■ - 
state of things. A butter feeling has indeed been ma 
although wc could hardly say there were uuy very eucoumging 
proepcctB. 

The Agricultural interest has been cheered, and were it not 
tor the continual arrivals of clippen with largi freights, there, 
would b« a better feeling. Whit- goods cont'nue tu arrive in 
such mtantics, tin; entire trade must feel the bod e 
thetn. ft will be noticed that the ahipmenta of specie .h-note 
a large falling oft; yet there ran la- an doubt evt a this coutinst- 
od amount i- much more than ought sogo. We hope to see it 
continually decrease, until it shall be merely nominal, ami made 
to by our becoming rati- own producers and manutactureni. 

JOBDING FMCES. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— 

Shovels, Ames Long handled, bright |16 — 'at 

do do short handled re SO ?/ 

>lo 1-iili.', i(,ii. handled 14 — 6 lis 00 

do tlo short handled, no sale. 

.1. Rowland's, long handled IS 00 ®13 00 

'lo ill HllOltll.ltlllll.-ll Stilt ./]o oo 

tl i King's, lima Lait.llnl 12 no 

.in mi 

. ii 



Spud* origin c. s. best moke . 

do iron 

Coal and Grain Scoops; cost ntcel 

ilo do iron 

Aviv, Collin.-', n.-*\i handle 

.1.. II. nil--. ,1, 

I'iak-. i -..nil,--, ic. to o-m.Miiiii eye. .. 

■ lo other brands 

Selves, heavy lii.-r.ory pick, turned ... 



Threshing Machines and Uoree power. Hull &. 

. laaiaaal, $600 to $HHJ : other 

makes $-llWto 1600; Emmery's, with thre-.li- 



..20 DO 
..10 mi 

-.17 on 
..17 w 

..It Ol 

..in on 
.. I on 
.. a im 

.11 10 
.30 oo 



111 oo 
tl i* oo 
it le no 
</2t 00 
a 12 00 



<i 

ti .j 00 
.' I Ml 

« :in oo 

<*75 OO 



■[.inati.r, an.I fan mill, fQSO to »]i«). 

Cm 



Every six years, by law. there is a re-valuation 

of the real estate oj Ohio for taxation. The last Straw Cuuen, no sale initial . 

valuation was in 1847, when the entire taxable "«•»«. hom and revoira 

property of the State amounted to about $478,- ',]". '".'i'/,' 1 ' v ™,"i' 

000,000. The returns for the new valuation an ' doz, no sale. 

nearly con, pi, -1,-, a, ,d the Auditor estimates that 'I'"-,'" ■■■■'•}"' ''"" 

,. ' -,, , , ,. ,, .- , ,, Crowbars, honvy steel pointed per ft — lo 

they will vary but little Iron, $800,000,000. ' »500; Brown's, 30 in. 8450. 



.20 00 7* Go 00 



.12 00 7*20 00 



Tin: Cai.ii-.iiinia Farmer will always be found 
»t Sri, i. iv ax's Newspaper Stand, Kearny .street 
at the Bookstore of Mr. Murray, Montgomery 
street^ and at other prominent places in every 
city. 

Messrs. Adams & Co., are authorized to re- 
ceive money for us, and receipt for the same, at 
any of their offices throughout the State. 



The Golden Gate. — Considerable anxiety 
exits relative to the non-arrival of the Golden 
Gate. She was due here on Saturday. The 
Uncle Sam reported she was seen on the 11th 
inst.. in latitude 25 30. She must have either 
sustained some injury in her machinery or run 
short of coal. It was reported the Columbia was 
to go in quest of her and render aid if needed 



The Sandwich Islands — twelve in number — 
embrace a superficial urea of about six thousand 
and one hundred square miles. Four of the 
islands are rocky and uninhabitable. 



State Agricultural College. 

ffi; rejoice to learn that the W. S. Letcher, 
Esq.. of Santa Clara, of the Committee On Ag- 
riculture, has given notice that he should 
bring in a bill lor the establishment of an Agri- 
cultural College for the State. We trust that 
every well-wisher of the State will bid this noble 
enterprise (toil speed. 

It is announced by that committee that another 
bill to establish a State Society will be introduced. 
Wc are happy to say a State Society is alroadj 
organized, and that gentlemen deeply interested 
in agriculture are connected with it. and will give 
their influence to it We trust the Slate will lend 
their aid and influence to carry it forward pros- 
perously. 

The late rains, which were very heavy in the 
upper counties, have given great encouragement 
to the Fanners, and the result will be a renewed 
attention to ploughing and planting, and much 
more ground will be improved by reason of the 
rains. More wheat will in consequence be planted. 



it H (O 
ii. 18 



;, 13 do 
ii in SO 
rt 111 26 
tl 12 50 
S12 50 



Th.-n- iirol.al.lj- has never been n linio when nil the nbovo 
enumerated articles hung more hoavyvpon the murket, than 
tin- j.t.-i ,i 

FLOUR— 
For Gallega ami &axall r we quota Uic jobbme 

rates le 50 

Chilo 

Repacked 10 on 

Horner*! Mill.-, (domestic-) 12 on 

Bcni, -a. Mills, do 12 00 

— We note hu-gu stocks on hand; uttd sales heavy ; holders 

i.nvoti- to 

M.-,.]. in i.i.i. i; on 7j 

■ lo i_.lilil, tr 1125 

llrun, P IL ft— a 

GRAIN— 
Corn, Eastern, f Ih — 2 -Tr 

.1.. California — a«- 314 

Barloy, I'iiili a — a 

do CaLfoeding — u ,„— e 1 ^ 



luikwhiMir, lur BOOd 

Jut-, -Tali x. in in 

tl.. Sood 

•\ . If: 1 /..ti, Ii. .in: ill fltk't. 


..._ hi a 

. . ._ 4 a 

..._ 4 a 1 




'J" < illllnllili, Ibr ''-I 

ii-1 il.f lur trilling 


-. — . r j't«— 5"r4 

. — S " 


— Wr iini-1 note n lfciiviucrsa in till wiles 


no dt. mi in ml. 



The rise of the American Kivcr. near Patter- 
son's Ferry, was 12 feet; it fell however, rapidly. 
At Marysvillc it rose to the I'laza. High up the 
river, by the appearance of the water and the 
masses of logs Heating down, the rains must have 
swelled the rivers to an unexpected height sud- 
denly. It will renew trade and put a cheerful 
aspect upou all business. 



Shipments of Treasure, — Jan. 16. 1854. 

FEB STFAMKll JOHN L. STEPHENS. 

Adams A. Co 1255,902 | Spat* & Ne 

Paw, Bacon & (',..... 204,000 

Burj wa- A Co 170,000 

K Davidson 140.800 

Wells, Far,-., -v I'" 60,800 

Tallinn- & Willi.- 60,000 

Case, Il.t-ar A C 33,887 

Cunningham .v Ilru- 

magiin 12.P00 

nil, snsona nkvada. 



I w Mover, .v i'o. 
I Bolton & Barron — 

I Wy.kotl .V Co 

j Grander, Jn<-- A c'.» . 



,»lo.7.',n 

. 8.750 
. 4,500 

. 2.742 
. LO50 



Total 1869,039 



Page, Baeon & Co. . . .t:is..,oiH) 

n.i-x.-i.s.itii.-r .v. ci.-i n 7:..:.in) 

('. K. Garrison 77.'i,Ki 

W.-ll., Forgo J Co .. ISM 

J. Sal, -limn Si Co 15,000 



-. lion- .V Co 

cros & Co. 

11 11 Mil* A l'i 

i Co 

j. It, Spring 



133,000 
12,533 

-.Tim 



LUMBER— 

Timber, Oregon Pine, .q, V M 45 00 

Plana and Sctwtlinaj Oregon 50 no 

Plana Eastern \V, P. clear 100 00 

Plank. Eastern onk 115 no 

tern c!-i,r, 1st qoalits 100 ihi 

do .1. 2.1 <|Ut.lilv 75 00 

.lo Georgia Y. P. fooling. 

ii.. ' ,'...,. ,..,„■. rough 

,lo redwood — 60 00 

Floor Joist 50 m. 

1 Mem, l.a-t in 'hi 

Clapl rde, No, I - sn 00 

I.atli-, Eastero 

.lo California 

Doon, Bajteir. :i 75 

Bashes, window 3 75 ® 500 

— Vary heavy .-tack- on linn.!, an,l Domestic COOling in Irec-ly 

with n moderate demand, nnd downward tendency. 
PROVISIONS— 

Boof, Mesa, t> 1.1,1 10 110 n 

bbl lo. family 1: 



:m on 

/ mi, no 

, -o 00 

n 80 i»o 

on in 

a ni no 

.7.7 00 

1, 1 1 00 

85 00 1 

in 00 

!> 00 



H II. a III. < llMt -ille, l V III 13 

.lo Mess niiaal. 00 sale. 

Cheese, (scarce) 

I2gga, ii.--li ' al 

Butter, ,'ia.i .-a 

do good ordinary 1 

.1.. California 1 no 

Main.-, oiiluiary Hi 

,lo extra .' 1-1 

Lttnl, in kegs 

do tun Hi- It 16 

do 15— 20 do 17 

l'ork. clear, V M>1 

.lo .lo u. I.I.I IK 00 m ; 

do as, *• bbl 17 00 a 

do do Vjdo 11O0 a 

— All kiiuL. of Pro¥Mona> Qjronenl n Bly dull ; prices noroma] 
BJCE- 

Curoliiai, in bbfs 6 

China. No. I, in HUB) 6 

do N...2, do 

Manila 3 

VEGETABLES— 

. . ... 7c, few in market. 

Beans, California 2ii?> 3Vj , 

ilo ilo 10,1 5 it 

Bonn, Y t..n 20 ii 

Carrots ® 

Onions, prim,-. V tb ® 

Tnrt)i|in ~ 8 

I'otatoa- —ids 

"i.a i ark,.-t.) 

■, -IF" lb — 1*» 



t-U* 

30 » 32V»i 
87t»9 1 00 
28 ® 30 . 
25 



15 



17^ 

lain 



6Vs 
7 
3 
5 



4 
2 
11* 



RETAIL VEGETABLE MARKET. 
In pnsentutg the Entail Market of Vegetables, we .1.. this 
to sliow uic weekly value mid list of famihj ei mforts .mil luxu- 
ries (for good vegetables arolndeed luxuries) that are <*crod. 
to us in our murk.-!*. Very few markets in the United States 
can pra-ant -uih luxurien every iv.-rk, and have them fresh 
from tin- garden every day. 

It will la- -a. -a that eillilloivers eel, TV, t.or-a. aill-!., tomiltOeA, . 

and green peas command «o.h! prieee, and we may any all ctu^ 
.la, , produota pay well— lor the quantity nuard uj.ou u small 
ran a I,,, al i« almoat bayond belleC 



Cubhagns, p bead... 

.1.. Sia-t ¥ d„z .. 

Boots, (Mb 



Cnm i- 

\l limn in! *.|inuiies 

Celery, I' dm 

Cuuiiitov 

[tail shea, f_ inl .. 



% .'17 

..:i ou 

i 



.4 00 

.'.. 
7.7 



Touil 1780,403 i . ! 'l Bweel Votttow, ♦> lb 12 



Pnttitiaw 

OnhmB, pram 

Qarlio I 

li^h 1 081 

■ 
Creel. I (•* iinna 

1 99 

I'HrHley 

I'aniuins 



%\):t &ii\\.i}):tii : \n £mm$x< 



23 



California Statistics. 
The Rev. Mr. Phillips, in ■ sermon delivered 
lately - - the following inter 



Drowning. - \ teamster in Attempting to cross 
die Stanislaus rivcral Ueathj Kinory's Perry, 
was swept down stream and and bj this cnlain- 



ion to tho population, Ac., ol it} onowoman Uurco men and live mul 
I ilifomia. They arc copied from tho Journal : drowned. 



ipulation of California Ibor years ago, 
w.is 35.UIX1, "I which number 17.n(> >, or one half, 
wire' females. At the present linn-, there are 
I), nuikin^ an annual increase ol 75,OUO. 
The sexes, which were about equally divided four 
years ago, now stand in groat disproportion, as 

out of a population of 800, I, there are only 

40,UOU females, an increase of 23,000, avoraging 
ii. or 479 per month. Of this 
whole population, 20.000 arc children, under four- 
tecu years of age. Deduct from the number of 
females omvhali the number of children, and we 
27 500 white females in the State. The figures 
sum up as follows: Females, 27,5(30 ; Children. 
25,000; Males. 247,500 — making a total of 
::,n,'Hi!i. uf tins number it is estimated that 
| ..i :.. io reside on the coast, and 200,000 in the 
valleys and in the mountains. These estimates 
are reliable, and are only selected from among the 
mass of statist ies presented on the occasion, as the 
most worthy of publication. 

In connection with the above, we do not derm 
it amiss to publish some statistics connected with 
the churches, that may prove of interest. The 
Methodist Epicopal denomination has 43 churches 
and 41 ministers, in California, with a member- 
ship of 2,500. The same denomination, of the 
southern branch, have 21 churches, and member- 
ship of 530. The O. S. Presbyterian have 4 
churches, and 5 ministers ; and the N. S, Presby- 
terians have 7 churches and 11 ministers. The 
Congregationalist churches have an aggregate of 
600 members. The Baptists have churches, 10 
ministers and 400 members. The Unitarians 
have one church and one minister. From the 
above it would appear that the Methodists in 
California, as in all new States, outnumber any 
other denomination by great odds. We are gra- 
tified at the religious prospect of our new country. 

Steamboat Explosions. — Those repeated 
calamities are but the more positive assurance that 
there is the most grievous neglect on the part of 
the owners and managers of these boats. This 
evil has been increasing for one year within a 
moderate distance of San Francisco. The loss of 
life has been terrible, and unless this evil is reme- 
died, we shall have repeated and more severe yet 
to record. We would call tho attention of the 
Legislature to the subject, and see if all this 
danger cannot be removed. 



m\rrii:i>. 



i i, W. i 'it-Mi |y, E*q., Justice 
, U'm. T. ' ' lurchill mul Mtt*a 



In tl ■■.■■■ Jji :■■ I 

ul tho Pc ich : .. Township, 

EUoo Bnrtiry. 

In this pity, on tun llth Jim, bj tho sumo, A. H. Armstrong 
nod MIrb Cntlicrino M .1 ■>. 

hi thin city, on tho L5th Jan., i>\ the Bruno, A, \Y, Pftdfhr und 
Mta Minim UiiuPiutin. 

In Noith Rendinff, M isa., Dec. 8, by Rev. T. N. Jontw, G ■:-■ 

U. Kollogg, ef the 1 -i- ul' Flint, Foaliodj & Co., ol Saul ran- 

cifico, and Mm Kate lv. (Inughter of Mijor Daniel Flint, ol the 
former placu. 

In this city, on the 16th Lust, bj Rev, Win. Rollinaon, Mr. W. 

Bromley and Mlna A. Scribner; all ol Sail Francisco. 

In Sacramento city, on tho 17th inst,, al i o'clock, P. w., by 
Rev. J. A. Benton, Dr. John F. Morse and Miaa Carrit!, L. 
Liowney, both of thai city. 



DIED. 



Iii this city, Jan. llth, James Humphrey, of Lanuiburg, N. V. 

On tin 1 morninij ofthe ISth Jan., Win, 'Tuimnck, merchantof 
this city. 

In San Fi-ancieco, Jan, 14, of consumption, John, son of J. 
nmi the late Ann McMuhon, aged 9 months and 25 days. 

In Honolulu, Dec. Let, -it consumption, Mr. Edmund II. Rod- 
gere, aged 47 years, Mr. R. has been connected with the Mis- 
eion an h printer for o\ ei 20 \ ears.. 

On board brfg Zoe, Samuel Knight, of consumption. 

Drowned, on Friday, Jan. 13th,in Sonoma county, at the 
ranch of his father, Sacramento Naglej aged 4 years, sou of Mr. 
E. Nagle, formerly of rit. Louis, Mo. Decenecil was the first 
child horn in Sacramento ofthe hnrmgrtition of 1849. 

In Forest City, Sierra comity, Caf, on the evening of the 
■28th of Hire, at the residence ofMr.Wm. Henry, after an illnces 
rjftwo weeks,James Campbell, a native of Perthshire, Scotland, 
iiijed about 41 yenrn. 



PALMER, t K & CO., 

Bankers, 

Drafts on tho American Exchange Bank, New York, 
Ami upon id] Ihe citii ■ of the i . [ti I 81 iti Sat 



LUCAS, TURNER & UO., 
Bankers, 

104 UONTOOWTBItV ST&RRT, BAN FRANCISCO, 

B113 fl mi M'ii ml'1,1 j ml time Exchange on all theprlncipal 
led in the Union — colleci and tranemll money, and transact 
r 11 buslni m- pertaining to BanKlog, 

Gold Dust, Bullion, and Certificates of Deposit bought at the 
higbesl morkei raws. 

HENRY s, TURNER, 
WILLIAM T. SHERMHN, 
BENJAMIN It. NISBET, 

.Sun Francisco', < Sal. 



JAMES N, LUCAS, 
JOHN SIMONDS, 
HENRI I,. PATTERSON, 
•„' liu St, Louis, Mo, 



ADAMS & CO., 
Bankers, 

MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
Bills of Exchange drown on any of our Houses in New York, 
Philmiclphia, Boston, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, New 
Orleans, St. Eonis and London. 

Also payable at the following Banks — 

Merchants' ami Farmers' Btmk Albany. 

Illicit City Bunk Utica. 

Bank of Syracuse Symonee, 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica IluMalo. 

Rochester City Bank Rochester. 

George Smith & Co Chicago. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Ins, Co Mihvmikic 

Michigan State Bank Detriot. 

( lom. Branch Bunk ofthe Statu of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio, 

Money and Gold Duet received in Special Deposits, and 
General Deposits, received from morchante, mechanics, and 
others. ADAM.-' & CO. 



SHIPPING INTBLLIGBNi 'E. 



PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



AUUIVALS. 

Jim, 19 — p M steamship Columbus, J M Dow, S3 dnj 

Panama, < la mtermediatfl port*, 
D S sloop-of-wor Porte uth, Capt Dormn, ll days and n 

boui ifVom Hon lu; all welt. 

US Q Mnster'e brio Gen Patereon, r» days from Son Diogo, 

Proceeded to Benlcla, 
Ship Telasaer, Mitchell, 243 dnya from New York, via Toica 

buanofia days; mdsa 
Br shi|i Pnkonham, Flannery, VX* .lavs from Cardiff; coal, 
Br hark Anita, (hi inn, 19 days fron. Capo Hi Lucn*; In hallail 
Bchr Odd Fellow, Hall, 2 day* fro™ BautuCruzi with 600 

BHoka potafcies, 
Scr Francisco. Killer, 9 days from Pajaro ; n Itb produce. 
Jan. 13— Sic"onniii|i i Solumbia, Doll 3 days from Astoria 
Soi| i Godeffroy, Chicano, 59 days from Valparaiso; produce 
Brut 'f-*"\ Paty, I2daya from Honolulu; coffee etc 
Beh'r S it Bailey, Garcia. 9 day* from Santa Cm . '<■"■ 
Bchr h M Valo, Smith, Pajaro; with 500*ach 
Schr Maryland, Bmith,9dayi ft"om Shoalwatoi B 

1700 bushels oysters, 
Schr Thomas, Eastman, 8 hours from BoUnac Baj lumber, 

Bchr Pasm, PliUHps, 5 day« from Humboldt Bay; i ber. 

Jan. 14 — Clipper ship Lotus, Lcdtto, ,, - >l iayi 

wiiii muse, 
Clipper dhlp Jacob Boll, Klfham, ISO days from Phi] 

w 1th mdse> 
SUiji Bowdlteh, Johnson, S45 daye from ria MODto- 

\ ill. mi B8 days i ad»e 
Br ebtp John Spnncer, Harrison, 990 dn 

Valparaiso 81 dayjs ; radso, 
Dutch dlnp Caroline, Do Beet, 187 dag 

pai ids i 61 daj i b i h coal, 
Hum bark Marbe, Peters, 13S layi Brono Ha 

parai 1 67 days; mdse, 
Barh Comet, Burnham, 132 doyi FromB 
Cbll bark La 1 oatui h Lan ta, 52 d 

with Hour, 
Bchi Iowa, Cm 
Bchr H ■ ■ 

n. 13 Bream dtp ■ ■ . ■ .■ 

■ mama. 
[p Peytona, ■ tland. 

CHppi rshl t, 11 f*e« York: mdae, 

CHppi ■ 

with una* 
Thre. 

■. ■ ■ . | 
Jan. 16 "«': ^W 

M feel Inn 
Brb - ' 

Bark i 

Han I 

: ■ 

! 
: ■ ■ 

S«'hr > 



DREXEL, SATHEB & CITDECH, 
Bankers^ 

DRAW AT SIGHT IN SUMS TO SUIT, ON 

Ocean Bank Now York. 

Brnlt ot Nortli America Boetun. 

Muchonice' and Farmers' Bank Albany. 

Drexel & Co Philadelphia. 

Josiab Loe & Co; Richmond. 

.1. B, Mortmi, Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen. Wm. Larimer Pittsburg Pa; 

A, .1. Wheelen Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A. D. Hunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J. R. MacmurdoA Co New Orleans, 

Also, on Detroit. Mich.; Memphis ami Nashville, Tenn., Co. 
lumbus, Oliio : Norfolk, Va. ; and. Charleston, South Carolina. 
" lm 



Daniel D. Page, 
Henry D, Bacon, 

St. L.iuie, 



i David Chambers, 
Henry Haight, 

| San Francisco. 



France W. Page, 
Sacramento City, 



VOLUNTEERS WANTED ! 

To THE GRRAT SAM: "i- 

JEWELRY AT JOHN W. TUCKER'S 

i .-luii i imim' commeuce selllnu off my entire stock, cow ■ i' 
of DIAMOND WORK, WATCHES, JEWELRY, S1I.V1 ii 
WARE, ote., etc, 

Amounting to more than *300,000! 

l have goi to sell all the atiovo poods beloru the ilr t oi June, m 

I have to robuild my store according to the now grade. Any 

pei"son who wonts a good article can procure one from me 

Cheaper than in any other City in the World! 

But I don't wish it to be underst I that I protend ti compete 

with those who soil trash j— persons who would not heaitote to 
guarantee n brass ring or a watch for pure gold ; — tlieaepersonii 
can (••■ll lower than i can. If l sell an article ul any Ittad, and it 
does uot turn out as I represent it, l will return the money. No 
person snail leave my establishment dissatisfied. Call and Bee 

i oe 1 ji -[. ii>- miii hui-ehasv i'l,--.' where. 

JOHN W. TUCKER, 
] i m 125 Mont^omeiy street, near Sacramento. 

TIME. 

PARTICULAL attention paid, as usual, to the cleaning and 
repairing of Watches, by 

BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 

1 City Observatory, M ontgomery st. 4t 

QUARTZ SPKOIMENS- POLISHED. 
Seals, Rings, Cane Heads, Snuff Box Covers, 

CUT AND SET BY 

BARRETT % SHERWOOD, 

Montgomery street, one nooR from Commercial, 
The only Lapidary Machinery in California, and the best 
workmen on the Pacific coast, arc now employed in our epinu- 
liBbment. * ""' 



PA.GE, BACON & CO,, 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California street; San 
Francisco, draw at fi^ht, in turns to suit, on — 

Geo. Pcabodv & Co London. 

F. Huth & Co = London. 

American ERchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York, 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia, 

JosIrIi Lee & Co Baltimore. 

Lomaiania State Bank New Orleans, 

Page & Bacon St. Louis. 

Hutchinga & Co Louisville, 

T. S. Goodman & Co.. Cincinnati. 

S. Jones & Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Duet and Exchange purchased at current rates. 1 4t 



BARRETT 4 POMEROT, 

CORNER OF MAIN AND MARKET STREETS, 

DEALERS /A ALL KINDS OF Bl ILI'IM', MATERIAL, 
Sawing and Planing done to Order. it !m 



SACRAMENTO CITY BANK. 

JOHN M. RHOADES, Banker. 
Fire-proof Building, corner ol" K and Second streets, 
Sacramento City. 
Will sell BILLS OF EXCHANGE on NEW YORK, on 
the STATE BANK OF OHIO, and on other points in the At- 
lantic States ; will receive moaej and other raluables on genera] 
or apt rial deposit) make collections, buy and sell specie, bullion, 

public -tuck'-, Ac. Stc. 

GOLD DUST purchased at the hlghesl roles, 
DRAFTS at par ■m Sim Francisco. 
COLLECT!' SN8 made on reasonable terms. 
i, ild Dust shipped to New TTork or the Mint at Pluladelphia 
r coinage 

DEPOSITS '-■ ■ ■ special or otherwise; and all 

.i_ promptly attended to. 1-tf 



PAINTS. oil.S, GL \ss. & c , 

OLIVER <fe BUCKLEY, Importers and who! 
the ni"". ■■ mi leh -. !■.' 'i hand thi ■ 



in be round In the city. 
:j lm 



■ ■ ■ 



GIBSON A KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALBBfl IN 

Groceries, Provisions, Foreign and Domestic 
Spirits and Wines, 

Nor. 94, 

a Lm 






FARGO .v CO. 

-Mr T -J —.1 (A hi* 



WELLS, 

(30UTH1 ' 
Daily Express l" 

San Francisco, Stockton, Columbia, Murphey'i Flat 
and Mokelumno Hill, 

> »rni«, 

luiiiUia. WEI 

chap IN » SAWTKR, 

HPOiml AND MFM 

BARDH uii: i mi i.i: \ rin 

Saddlery, Shoe Findings, N"tr. S« .nej. tr , Ice-. 
H. W. BRADLEY'S 

National Daguerrean Gallery, 

COENKft Or TLAT AND KKAI.VT .T.V 

ImiTortrr. mid Prwlfr. in 1)10 M qimlil;. 

Every Article required in the Bonneta, 

Portrr' .11. »H,u« Io am 

IMI'Tl ;. "*■ I l™ 



SIGN OF THE GOLDEN M0RTAE. 

JUSTIN GATES, wholesalo (md rctnil Druggist, 76 K street, 
Sacramento, otters fur sale at greatly reduced prices, a lorce 
and well pcIi cte I apHorrment ol" 

Paints, Oilf., Turpentine, Brushes, Alcohol, Lamp Oil, 
Neatafoot Oil, Quinine, Morphine, Opium, Camphor, 
Tartaric Acid, Creiun of Tartar, Soda, Tapioca, lions, 
Clovea. CnsBle Soap, Indigo, Bay Water, Congrera Water, 
Shaker's Herbs and Roots, Tilden's Extract, Scldhtz fowdeM, 
Supporters, Trusses, Syringes, Patent mid Botanic Modlctnej, 
Dental nnd Surgictd Instruments, Labia's Extrncts, 
Electric Concentraterl Prepanitione, Pcrramerj (all lunas), 
Osgood's Oholagogue, Townaend'e, Sands' and Myers H.irsa 
pnrill.i. Ayers 1 "Cherry recloral. Dr. Janes' LxpectoraiB, 
Alterative Pills, Moffat's Bitters and Pills, 

Green Mountain Ointment, IInlloway'8 Ointment arid tills, 
Wright's, Brandreth's and Cook's Pills, Davis' l'am holler, 
Mexican Mustang, Nerve and Hone Linament 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick, 
Superior old Port Wine Bitters. —. , 

Agents for Dr. Eobinson's Mountain Extract, 

CURES THE FEVER AND AGUE IN ONE DAT. 
Don't fbrget, " sign ofthe Golden Mortar, ,b k street, 
Sftcracaento. __»__ 



Miners' Exchange and Savings Bank, 

ami SAM FRANCISCO assay OFFICE, 
unn Mali,, sw raancisi 

■ ■<'>/ and Sacramento streets. 

IGIIT, AoasT. 

VI.l. MONE1 in Inter. 

.-hinuxl 
or la.ur.. .ml price paid lor ii 

■ale. 

GOLD 

GOLD DUST nance Bills ol 

Exchanee drawn nt, the l>r. at I at 



10,000 FR0IT TREES, 
Grape Vines, Fig Trees, Raspberry and Current. 

XXTE inriteaUwho intend planting Trees and Vines to call 

\\ ,,, us i re they make their purchases, as we can ,,i er 

(hem many advantages mat cannot "be lound etoewhere. Oo 

coHecooS m know, arettoe most extensive, and the qmil v 

,h, heet tbal can be had. We Iherelore lm ite all to call ... m . 

wthmtomir Exhibition Room., ttammples of CS. 

ctual ! """ „ « AI """ N 'sloica 

Nurs'TAiiH'ii null SfiliH' n, 

KubIco] H-ill BnUdln », Bra Pwm laco, 
and Ii J streot, Bac»monto. 



Wholesale Saddlery Warehouse. 
.!. C. JOHNSON I I 

IMroRTKR."* •?>.) W EI* mm*. 

' 130 .<«!)»«• ri><' 

l mpCJiIMwiI * ww wv. <*xtrnri»r rutalilichnVTit for thr 
i ul.. mil ill' 
b addition* arc conrtUit' 
niadr hy ' 

*ui£ klilcto othr grtml indace- 
-*-r*. 

Tinrirf. eomwClUakf ta put "1 : 
• ldlf« ; 



0eag« Orange. Raspberries and Carrant?. 

»>/\ / kJ W k Plunt* of Krona crw'wth. jttK rrenrrd 

that im-lui •■ in nirh t nrmhhle naMbw, 
Forv-ak.br 



h-m. r. rjtroL 

PATCH & CLAYTON, 

r^ t to pO« of CtSlonnfe Prodwrr, 

M-rrh*a,l»r {.rooifdj nUoJ « tCwVt tn»rt-X 

ratafe. 



Jan. \: 

:. 
Jan. IS 
■ 

M Bay: 
■ 
fcHjt TIst**- ■■**»■**». :' day l"r»m Uumboldt Bar; HIS M ft lum 

Jan. I9_i i. WIparMao. 



Wl 


"Wll-!!.! 


■■. 


■ 










1 
B 

- 






s 







OEMS FOR THE PARLOR AJTD OEMS FOR 

THE GARDEN 

Till: choice* Urarinth*. Tutpa. J ua « | a fl «, etc, b r *« parte 
aaataaiaal, 

' .v and rare FlowrT IVed* aad rkatt; 
Small oiua ju aw a l Plane, for b 

.inapna* IEDCE8.aa» cat 

the .atfeat aaal meet oraaanmtal b»4ca> a»o"». 
Jo« nv 

1! U Y A XT* 

Agricultural Ware 

*»*!.. "ax raawcaacav 

" 

^ fall aaJ eoanrdew aaora c< HAKDWAKE A> 



Hi... 
II..,- 

inn iii I 

l^anVr. ('. 

100 



J.-.- :•..-. 
a . i*m»^ 

I lm 



Sol. j .ad wmann 1 

■'par.; 

aa*l I '*! Hilt- ; 
S.th,r. H.nU.rei 
■I llarar* Lntacr . I' -root and raamrOa 
1« 






reaa, Tie Iticwayaa, 
'araerr. 

I 



New Diug Establishment. 

\i,eiri;ri having completed and moved oil 
. , . i. . .. met, baejutt opened and 
plcndid and iletoai ntol rro-hDrnaa 

-»i» ftomtlM E * i 

I' "' all hour.. 

i,, ""' A T Mel 'l 

ia No. is i " 1 ' 1 " r0 " 



NOT TNI': tiM.i ONKI 
\NOTHER MAN tS l\ THE FIELD 

Prepared to cut ttuartz Kock into any form 
desired. 



I wilt an 


WITH A PO 

N V.—'i 



thai I am 

nirU Hock, 
n-aoa. 

I 



There are Three Things I Do lot Do! 

I.i. Watch, and whan 
Tram SivF. I)oi.i.a«. for cleamac 
if, and har. "• after. 

■ uu fcr a chain, ami mD 
Tlliarv Six POLI-Aaa. and warrant It run- ««U, "hi 

,i hack ami per Kirrr 
Iioi.t . rhaln. 

a I do or* t. 



, I. 



■ n.w coon. enro. l_ frccrr. cao l. fTcaTXTAjrr 

win .Li - 
I \ /> STATIONESS' II.KI.L. 

COOKE. KEXirY *Co, 



laaoanen « CaadM. Fmrl aaal A 
Ibuan- wbofcaalr aad retrf Ml 
caakuaaoaa, Srhr-t aad Bkak Booaav 

AaeM. aad 4aalir> ki M a t aii a»«. ■ 



. ra Law. 



faarr aaal atapk- 

ar, Mofc.l. Jt» 



WM. XEELY TIloMi - 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Lumber. 



("Throoonv-tT :n«ta», 

c montlw. rethiM U» 

dHirx-rliimiiph. m*m*m 

dollab*. and ITEM dollam Tuorrforraii 

Tbrrr ar»- mmy other I do, which I may nan* 

I « J. W 

A CARD. 
Priw MatlaJa Awardad at ih. AfTtevJtnral Fair 

BY thf i wm fff a hole run-' - 
award**, tn Uw- w«<a*fa! romj*<itora at nmi V.xitititirm 
Many ..: thrrn ar* air*-- I otfcrra are 

P vin.-*hn-' are and will he on rxl.ilntwn at wr HaR 

Aa«oona#tbe kntr Plate and Coal «fn<nTf«l fn«tn IM> 
^^^wSl^llelT e«l*£d « the llall w*Om. 
an.lihe.b.mb«n.:i 
Dvenrav- 

:.ll » opaai ererj day. and w^aroalaaill aapje. 

W a*jal li.'l','p..ul.h..r. II ■•!' •'- -t. 



sfKtiUaXj g or Atx 

\\' Va(f»»ea«ih«.at»im 

»1 III aaOII I f-a^l — f . 



JBE 



.,<u. Sefl. 



of Trarr - fi "» t,mr ' 



IVj^ dan 'l 



i to e.ei . ^aw*. 



con 



Merchants 



mni.v) rU*bbav »oo» (Van- 



Jen I S-Br bark A t p. r a.Q, T eant , CWIlao. 



Ko ' 



ht 



Sad. of FrodBoa. 
Froait aad D«- 




— aa. a^re J n il. it l a. aaaaa thaa ft. 
b Hat He« aaraien w* teal a. *r aaoat 
oad flt ■ n lal r Payer, i 

^Lrla*/to rV- JC aa. 
rakeoor •» » taraaas . f*»» 
l u .aai ila. aw ■■«■ * . ! I J . aaal fter eaa 




aH rra^d apnad 






Foraafebr 



•ocTBwoaTH a ra 



AT TI CHER 
STLYBI 

100 Dtaawi TaMa I ji int . 
M Doaam TahU Porka, 



FRANK 
Carpet. Paper Haurmff aad Ue±oe»terT De?e«. 

WW H.E.-ALI. AXD atrTAn, 
US aaal OS Chey awaaa, Sao Fiaoaaaan. 1 1 




• ^»» .Oai l a ofrwa. 
tH.TB> flTCHtll AJTD OUFaL 
l.io laaaaoaaaa TUX- • «-a •• aa i.nr. aaeh, 

■to Onava Oajaoaa, aaar* H aa *» eetfc 
A trm of ahe too* Ja»xa ....... eaor aaaa. kakaf AM 

r Cafaoi 






.r-ev/ »<W 






24 



S'fyis ®«a^®awr tnidi .fastm^ 



THE AN3-EL-WATCH; 

OK, TIIK SISTERS. 

Adaiigiiter watehi d nf midnight 

Her dying mother's bod ; 
For live long nights -lie bad notelept, 

Aiid many tears wore ehrd : 
A vision like in: Angel came, 

Wlrieh none but her might see ; 
" Sleep, duteous child," tin' angel -iiiil 

"And I will watch fur thee I" 

Sweet slumber like a blessing foil 

Upon the daughter's fuce; 
The angel smiled, but touched her not, 

But gently took her place ; 
And oh, eo full of human lore 

Those pitying eyes did shine, 
The angel-aiiest half mortal eecmed— 

The alumberer half divine. 

Like ray« ofTight tfie>*leeper ? fl locks 
In warm loose curls were thrown ; 

Like rays of light the angel's hair 
Seemed like the sleeper's own, 

A rose-like shadow on the cheek, 
Dissolving into pearl : 

A something in that angel's fact- 
Seemed sister to the girl | 

Tin- mortal and immortal ejich 

Reflecting each were seen ; 
The earthly und the spiritual, 

With death's pnle face between. 
O human love, what «rrrn L -rh like thine! 

From thee those pmyer's nri^e 
Which, entering into IVrudice, 

Draw angels from tho slow. 

The dawn looked through the casement cold- 

A wintry dawn of gloom, 
A eadder showed the curtained bed,— 

The still and sickly room : 
"My daughter?— art thou there, my child ! 

Oh, hik-te thee, love, come nigh, 
That I may see once more thy face, 

And blees thee, ere I die)" 
" If ever I were harsh to thee, 

Forgive me now," she cried ; 
" God knows my heart, I loved thee rno^t 

When most I seemed to chide ; 
Now bend and kiss thy mother's lips, 

And for her spirit pnty !" 
The Angel kitted Iter ; and her soul 
Passed blissIiUly away I 

A sudden start !— what dream, what sound, 
The slumbering girl alarms ? 

She wakes ! she sees her mother dead 
Within the angel'd ami- ! 

She wake»— she springs with wild embrace- 
But nothing there appears 

Except her mother's sweet dead faco— 
Her own convulsive tears. 



GOD MADE THE MrND TO BE FREE. 

Free is the Eagle's win? 
As it cleaves the sun's warm ray : 

Free is tbe Mountain sprin-' 
As it rushes forth to-day ; 

But freer far the Mind- 
Priceless ie liberty ; 

No hand must dare to bind ! 
God made it to be free. 

You may fetter tbe Eagle's wing, 

No more through clouds to soar ; 
You may seal the mountain spring, 

That it leap to light no more ; 
But the Mind let none dare chain ; 

Better it cease to be ; 
Born, not to serve, but reign I 

God made it to be free. 

Free is the Bummjer'a breeze 

Floating from uiry height; 
Free are the flowing Beaa ; 

And free aesren'a golden light; 

But freer than light or air, 

Or the ever rolling nen, 
ft the mind, beyond comparol 
God made it to be tree. 

Guard well the gift divine, 

Than gems and gold more rare; 

Keep watch o'er the sacred shrine, 
No foe must enter there. 

Oh, let not error bind, 

Keep the freedom of the mind I 
God made it to be free. - 



Muaketos Under Glass. 

A friend of ours who has a taste for natural 
history is at present engaged cultivating musketos. 
and hopes to have them in full season during the 
winter. He keeps the larvae in glass jars tilled 
with water, and covered at the top with coarse 
inuslin ; and as the musketos emerge from their 
tadpole condition, they occupy the upper part of 
fee cylinders, where they deport themselves for 
3)ur days in a lively manner, and on the fifth lay 
their eggs and die. In this way he keeps up a 
succession of crops." and by regulating the tem- 
peraturc of the breeding room, will be able to con- 
tinue the musketo business until the natural sca- 
«on commences. The development of the musketo 
ia a curious process. In the first place the egg 
becomes what is called the "water tiger"— a brisk 
little clock-faced devil, that devours all the smal- 
ler animalcule with insatiable appetite. In a 
spectrum of a drop of water projected from a hy- 
droxvgen microscope, we have seen the shadows 
of one of these water fiends swallow the shadows 
of a dozen smaller imps— the larva! of midges and 
wach " small deer"— in less than three minutes. 
In due time a change comes over the monster. 
Natnrc envelopes it in a pellicle or senii-tnuispui- 
ent shroud, from which the attenaeof the musketo 
stick out at one end and the ail at the other, 
ftaallv the creature rises to the surface, the caul 
burste, and out Hies the insect, like an fnferual 
Castration of the fable of Pshcye. 



SELIM & EDWARD FRAXKLIN, 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS AND AUCTIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom, L02 Merchant st.. between 
Montgomery street and the Plaza. 

!t«n] estate nf al] dcpcripttonfl Bold at public and private efilo 
Particular attention (riven to ealca forAdminifltraii.iv. A-sr-n. ■■■■■ 

!■: ■■■ri'.n--. Mmi-i-,.,..,-,.., and others, nct-onli:,:: to l.nv. 

M:jui";- invr-tnl nud rente collecl d for nnrtieaat a diptnnce 
Loans effected on Bbndp and MortCTtjap. Titlea examined nud 

aurveya made by competent nai-Hes in ft [fico, and the 

nal biwiiiivrt exected by WILLIAM A. CORNWELL, Notary 

A register open to pvblic inspection of property for sale 
The Spanish and French \fmtnm%m epoken. 
Improved and unimproved Ranches and lands for Kiln iu 
-arioufl parts of the Stati — Spflniali titles. [ ft 



A. A. 8EL0VER. 



A. A. SELOVEH, Anctii 



R. II. BUTTON. 



WASHINGTON STEAM MILLS. 
WASHINGTON 1"I.0^R MILLS. 



■ hieh 



Tin: onderfigncd proprietor 
Mills take | li s un hi offe 
Superior Pointy ] t, , ir . Tamil 
our friend?, was awtudi tl the B 

alw nye etrii iog I uiutain I 

i'ii tomi ■-.- can i nd to n- in 
K! liiuheM i baracn r 
!n the sunn: wtnliUhlum-ni 
MILLS, cnpuldc nl ufrfbnnii 
desin rt, una to thy branch ol 
tioii ol [hi public. We 1 



if the Washington Plonrii ■ 
to laiiiili.;,- ;ti,.| [!.■■ trade, 
1 tippy te my to 
md wo el all !,■■ 
ion, bo i) ul our 
is they will re- 



Till 
uii 



SELOVES & SINTON, 

REAL ESTATE AUCTIONEERS AND AGENTS. 

Officeand Salesroom^ 13fi Montgomery street, 

between Clay and Commercial. 

Mespre. Ssxoveb & Binton reepectfally inform the publia 
that they have awociHted themflolvM together for the purpose 
ol conducting the Real Estate Baeinctt in all it- brnnchefl 
(or the prosecution of which they deem theniBelve? particular]} 
well qualified, having beenintimate with thrlui.-ine^ in t!,i^ c itv 
Blnce July, 1649. 

Particular attention given to all questions aflecting titlee, &c 

Great care wul be taken in oomplyuur with flie law, in side* 
"i Awiienees, Admuiifitratore, and other leaol Poles. 

A Register for property, i it public nr private ?-„\c, filwnysopen 
ut tliRir office. 

Tebms of Sals.— Titles entisfaetory, orno pale, ActsoJ 
*n] »t purchaser's expense. Ton per eent of the purchase 
tnonaywillbe required at tune of sale from all parties nol 
known to the Auctioneers, 

The services of a gentleman of long experience have been 
secured for the full and complete search and examination ol 
titles. 1 4 t 



thai wtll Bubh all kinds 
ner, and equal to anytii 
iniift promp'f nuutner i 
Weinvir. all 

amine our Mill- 
dvcxj ordi r in 



i: exti -. iv. STEAM SAW 
y kindoi work that iuaj be 
isiness we myite the oWen- 
TEAM PLANING MILLS, 



i work in tin- most workman-like man 
- pi nun- id in the country, and in tl i 



tfho ore contracting work, to call on us and ,-v. 
and m. can satisfj ihem ofourabiUh to supply 
ich branch ofourcxtem ive ratoliUshmcut 

D. W. VANI OURT, Proprietor. 
Near the Orlcntnl 



0*2 



JAaiES E. WAINWRIGHT. ALBEBT O, RANDALL 

JAME S K. WA1NWRIGHT , Auctioneer. 

WAINWRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 

REAL EST ATE AND STOCK AUC TIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom^ LOO Merchant Street, 
between Montgomery and, Kearny. 

Messrs. Wainwririit, R.vndall & Co. respectfully an- 
aounoc td their friends and the public generally that they have 
made this business connection, and re-established themselves 
for the purpose of transacting the Real Bstate basinesfi in all its 
bi'titichrfl, fur the euceeaaful management of which they deein 
themselves well qusJhled, bAving bad upwards of tour years 
experience in this city. 

They will give especial attention t<> oialtine public sales oi all 
tanda of property for Administrators, Assignee^, RiM-eivuv 
Mortgagee , and others, according to law. 

Particular attention paid to propuio; "Rancho" property 
for Bale, and every facility will be afforded to the holdew otaucli 
property for the transaction ol their business. Mr. Randnl 
i"'in»riiiiverr"iintwttii the Spanish language (having resided 
several years in South America,) will give hie pera inal attention 
to the tnualation of title papers, when required 

A practical Surveyor and Draughtsman will be in constant 
attendance at the office. 
A large amount of prope rty »t private sala 
Conveyaucing, under the Buperviwion of A- r;. RANDALL. 
wotarj Public, under, the law oflfl53— and Comnusaioner for 
the Stote oi New Hampshire. l u 



POLLEY & CO., 

,F THE BAY STATE MILLS, would announce thai for 

better accommodation of their numerous custc rs 

™*u trade ui general, tbaj thej havoojiened a branch of their 
buKim ss at the Fire Proof Store. No. 49 K street, l„ twem 
Second and 1 hird, where they will alwayi keep on band a large 
etock ni California PLOUR; also, Hnxoft and Galleao 

Public attention b particularly directed to tl Bay Sxath 

Lowes Mills' Brand," ,n articlewe have every contidenee 
inwarrantiiig, being made under our own inspection, from ne« 
Wheat, without imj adulteration, 

ground feed of all kinds always on band. 

Every exertion will be osed to merit n continuance of the 
invor herotolore so liberal! 



DONAHUE'S TOTION mON WOSKS, 

[THE FIUST BSTABX.I8RSII IN THE STATU. J 
1 ' ' ■ ■■ "" utreeU, Happy Vatlcy, >.■.. i 

1HE unden-hjwed colb du attention i .... Callfor 
nin luulOretftm to hi unequalled facilities R r 
. , " 1 '.' ,l »d cbeappess. Ha has made, and will •■ tintio 
make, ™<-h additions to bis time and labor-savin ■ mai I i • 
themercasmg wanuoftb State rcquire,and henw solicits pub 
uc imtrauogc. ' " 

Saw and Grist Mill Irons, 

Quartz Crushiug aud AiaalgaraaUng Macbinory, 
and Castings ol either Iron or Brass of evorj di ?criptioi i lavina 

m ■' extenwve assortmeul oJ ready made patteruj-) oiadt 
promptly t der, 

3TEAA1 ENGINES from H e manufactoriea of William Bur- 
don, Brooklyn, New York, and other celebrated mak. rs, a a- 
stnntlj on hand and forealc, 

BOILERS of every description furnished at lower niton than 

', .."•)... *■■! ,-l-™l,,r,, ,1,, ir o,.tl,...»„,..|„,„, ..',," 

. J ., — .,,,..; t,,,:,,,,,,.!,,,,,^ I„r .l,..»i„,,., ]„ ull .], ,„,„,., I „,,,„.. 

^..uMlm.,, , y 8 „.,„„ ,„„,,, Patent Strain ...idWalf, i ™ 

Stenm WtotlBB, Cock», India Rubber Stoura FHekhu Ready 

ide Bolts and Mute, Beleiiig Lace and other Eneuicer'j rind. 

!H l.-ir M\e. 

-' :ln ' JAMES DONAHUE. 



idedto 



[-31 



THE FOHMEH I 
MIMI STEEL 



THKODOBE PAYNE. J.JLIRE p. DEWEY. 

THEODOBE PAYTTE & CO., 

ni: vi. i:mtati : and stock aui 'Tium;j:i;s. 

OPFICE AND S.U.ESHOOM COHNEB CALIEORNIA AND MONT 
GO.MEBY STREETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE 



.-AUCTIONEER. 



I'AVNE 4. CO. rcajiectfullv i.ii'orrn tbe public 
ii. ni ffiej nave established themselves aa above for the purpose 
t.t tranaacDjic the 

Eeal Estate business, in all its brancb.es. 

HOT IM conducting of wluch they t.l.ni lliri.i,,-!,,, ..reulinrlv 
.pmliii.-.l. h> i.iuuig mven it their special ottcntion for over two 

■ v ' : " r '. ""-'•, ' "".. |l theinsclvM liimilii.r will, all questions 

nltectuig till,.., &r. &c. 

Tii..y will nil -i- their especial utlention to the public sales ol 

estate, by; Administrators, Assii;,,, ■,-,, It.- i,,.,. f , M,, rl .,„ 

&c, cnrelullv complying with the lonns of law 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sale 
always open at their office ' 



PEOBIA PKEMIUH STEEL PL0W3. 
FORMER 0EL1 l;l;in OJ THE PEORIA PRE- 

- --DM STEEL PLOWS, andthc unequalled si 

introduction in this State, would seem to preclude the ... 

cessitj < v rurther effbrl on our part to draw attention 

thereto : but m view of the transitory nature ol busiuen in 

pttnornl in California, and tho probabulty that sdme yhavc 

l0 »l ': tr estalilishmenl of i ttmurive and perm nl 

""'"'" v " 1 Plows I"..", in tho face of such enon - im- 

poTtntloneand exrravaganl prices of material, as an Impossi- 
b.liil— we believe it expedient to adopt this method »\ l.nir i,. 
It within the Bpecial noticoofnl] concerned, that weare now 

irnmufacturmg, and will have ready ti.r this season's derm 

threatl sandoi the most superior Plows over made or u od 

withui this Shite. 

Wc leol warranted in rnakins this assertion, from the Ihcl 
chat all who used our Plows las! Benson testilyUial they were 
stmerior: and we have studied so closely the immediate wants 
ot our patrons from ever) section of file State, that wo can 
now furmab Plows suitable to any particular kind ul roil know,, 

in tbo .^taio. 

Our in at. -rial l,„> all been selected in the Bast by oar of our 
nim and imported i.v us direct]; from the manufacturers 

1™" I 1 ' - " '" " l,r power te say confidently that nofhuut is 

lacking in qnabty, while we are enebli .1 to inake the plows al a 
cost great]) uclov. thai oi last Benson, ond are determined te 
si II ni prions within the reach «' every former who may wish 

'.. use Peonn Premium Steel Plow. 

" •'. 'be remembered that these plows will do double the 

work with ball the team required in usinc the ordinary cbsi 
Plow ; and that the work, when done, will be well done ' 
For particulars of prices, and descriptions df plows we refer 

J™"! subjoined card. The prices therein del I are 

" jstabhshed at our factory, and thai only alterotioiu from 

them thai we authorize our uacnta te make, is the addition of 
the cost oi transportation to their places of 5usine«— tliui ploc- 
ingtne plows at every ocoossible point ol i!„> stui.. for the 
exact pneechurged al the Factory, with thenecesaari i 
only added. ' 

Farmera ordoring our plows tbroug] icantile boa i 

would dowel] to write to usat the samo time, if they would 
ireol getting the right plow, for some are interested b 

representing that we ore nol Uin plowaat nil. v. in!.- othei 

"■"I not anil plows whe , can getotl acasl plow. W, 

Ebcrelorc recommend that orders should bn soul to us directly, 

BCcompaniod by an order in your merchant for the amount 

which yt on always know by a rejlcronce tothecard 

panj uig liu- circular. 

fin id.- -jlil, oi Juno the interest of T. Adams in our' 
ceased, In thosalool his entire interest thereiu to L. t:. ftfon. 
gan. Aside from this there has not, nor will there be, ftm 
alteration, as wo have Qui Ban fflclenl and thoroughly prac- 
tised band, in every department of our uu 

E. L. MORGAN -v CO., Successors to 
T. ADAMS i CO., 
Comer of Broadway and Battery streets. 



Italian Marble, Granite and Free Stone Warehouse, 
No. W Battery Street. 

O'ie'V!'"^. Monuments, Head Sti ncs, Imposing Si ni . 

meutinth »^ '" ' J ' '''~' U ' '"'''"' '""' '""' " '"""' 

Italian .Marbie Montola, of various patteme, richlycnrved Sta- 
tioner) -Mintils. 

All kindB of lettering done to order. 

Q yGranite, c..m ticut Free Stone, Some choice ■ 

terns ol moulded architectural Llnlels; Red and Freest, &c 

Weare constantly in receipl ol Iresh supplies ol Mantels'and 
Crates, together with buUding Ironbs, it, b! cUppers InmiNrnv 
,V" ■ '""' m ""' '" "" '■""•■' prepaiod to execute Job Work on 

Ihe mosl reas bloterms for sale, to arrive, 100 mantel ol 

"3 ™4'«P«norjst>les, to which we invite the attent 

In,. I'.. \\ e are deteniuned tOSell Cheap. 

CHIT & BEALS, 

„ Sign ofthe Marble Ohob'sk, 

W Battery street, corner of Clay, 



PROCLAMATION EXTRAORDINARY. 



w 



FAMILY FLOUK. 

II ORNEIC S P R E M 1 M F L [T K . 

UNION OITY MILLS. 

WE INVITE the particular attention of Families and the 
l rode, to the duality ul the Flour manufactured by us 

Our great aim has been, in tho establishment of our Hillste 
prooare the mosl perfect machinery, to emploi the oblesl mil 
l,,| :;.. 1 "'"' to'etoct puresl and Hnesl w i in t ountry. 

Ttot we have been able to accoompllah all this, the ProJuol 
ot our Mills now before the communfty is thebesl evidence 

The FLOUR we manulaetur.- has boon rohmlttcd to tbe ablest 
mages ol our State, and ofter tbo mosl rigid and thorough tost 
they hove awarded to na the "Pnnmnn Paiii,"and wc Bhejl 

have ofii-r the Bame OS "Horner's Preiiiilun Flour;" it nhnll In- 
our conslant ellbrt to maintain for it the reputation of bom- the I 
The Best Flour in the Land 
Orders left with HORNER & CO. at our Storcship, Broad- 1 
ay wharf, will receive prompt attention. 

HORNER. J 



5 -&~ II"' lollnwiu-urr- tlHomhli-hed prices for the Peoria 
Premium Steel Plows, at our Factory, and the only addition 
our Agents am authorised to make thereto, i„ the cost oj trans- 
portabon to their points ol l.o.-iiioss: 

SIZE. DESCRIPTION 

No. S plain 

■'>"-■ " 



7... 

(1... 
1C... 
IK... 

20... 

m!" 

2G. .. 
30... 
<0. 



ruanow. 

loin 

Igin 

" llin 

" liiiu 

clipper or prairie H in 

" 16 in 

" 1H in 

" 20ta 

" SSin 

" Min 

" " 3 

" :in in 

..40 in.. 



Subsoil Plows 

Cultivators 



..$10 

..Us 



..» 35 

..$ 40 
. . $ SO 
..$ 60 
. .* 70 
..$ B5 
..$100 
. $1111 

..lias 

. J150 
-.$175 
..$Q2S 



Woman's Rights 

VINDICATED AND M A I N T AIRED. 

HEREAS, from the creapon ofthe world, it „■„,- designed 
ly ino " Great First Couse" that 

Womans's Rights and Privileges 
inould br,-,,.,,p,„i to Kan's; and whereas, ahe has been treated 

by many men in all ages, up to H e present time, as rior 

i VhIn'.n ; "j"" l '"' r ' ''""'' '"' '' k """" """ '■ "- 

Winn's Fountain Head and Branch, 
,,-, '"1 •'■' , '"'-'•■ sums ol ni.,.., at the ftiCNTAIN 

■■" ,""',';' fn' "V",' 1 " "' ,| " n '^ 0| '"" :! ' ;i ■>- 

recommend that Woman behereafter allowed am ,,l 

,t , , ti„. .u-ibinv te corny „ll the or ges for wluch'she was 

li;,!:.,,,::;;:; 1 ''" " ; "<^vnn^-i«„ Msi , M 

BRANCH, 
corner Montgomery and Washinston streeB 

.-liallb,.,-. ,,iur,.,i win,,,., i ., oxc il) lo the Enjoyment 

and Comfort of Ladies, and sucl, Gentlemen ns know and 
- m eir worth. 

•V " ""' i.'.i-ii f many Ladies and Gentlemen 

pi". ivT'i'i tu '"- v I"'""""' ""'"• months since u enlai ge toe 

.I.AM H. -,, M te Bccommod tbo fast ban sain • patiunoSt 

1 ' ■ "' » '"" ■'■"> -■ add Tv, ., Bpociou. Stores on ,M in,-,., -r,' 

'. lotlu Ori«mol Branch, nursing the n 

MOST EXTENSIVE ICE CREAM 
And Kefreshment Establishments in California 

um»f US V;'!"';; 1 "'-'"'"''".!.^ unoodll.ronelilli. inud 

. > '--l> Press, bo that all may witness ivhul I „- I ,, 

' 7 1 " ' ; '" ''■■■ "• ' , lot ■'.... and .1 ilibicaiion 

\VI ,-, tf'S FOUNTAIN HEAD 

"' BO Long \vi,;„->, and Branch, comer rVoshington and 

nontgomer) streetc ; 

where Every Thine for the Ho ivs „.„, he foi from . 

Sugar \\ bisrle to » Bride's Cake el hall s ton 

M. I.. WIaN' Prnprietor. 



Gentlemen's Clothing and Furnishiutr Goods 

VJ _ posite Barry 4 Pattens, has on I, nud and f« ....._ 



constantly 



SUPERIOR FURNiTiTRE. 

THE largest tmd heat stock in Sacraineiitr, may at nl] limes be' 
lound at the Old Stand ol'B. p. & D.MOORE No 77 Tbirdvi 

street, where they still persist In Belling as much below rbeirl 
competitors OS their superior (anilities will admit of Havin-on' 
hand the most aplou.hd and fubetnntinl a-orl,oonl of all Unas Ol ' 

furmturo ov.-r r. ■.] in Sacramento, we reel Confident will 

pilceS to suit, that none can go away empty that may lavor n- 
With a call. J 

Our stock consists of Bureaus, Seerelnxies, Wardrobes, Stands 
lables, Iti.lst, ad- Lounges, Solas, Painted Mahogany, Black 
Walnut, Satin and Rosewood Setts— some of the finest and 
Cheapest ever offered in this market. 

Also, Mattresses, of Curled Hair, Patent Felt, Moss, Wool 
Strow, and Straw with Cotton Tops. Also, Feather I'dlows, 
and Feather, lor Beds wuh . large stock of auilrs, Comfort. 
Sheets, lllank,.,., Jtc., &e. Also, a very large stock of Chairs ' 
Wood, and Cane Seats of all descriptions : also, of Hair, Clolh, 
ojinii^' •"■•"•• ""' -■ — 



. t ' \ ',,","' ~" " — ■ «""M1-V unit" 'IJII-, WII [ 

kinds ; all ol which wall he sold at reduced rales 
1 " Also ut 130 Jackson street. Son Francisco, 



[For the addition of wheel and axle many of the above clip- 
per Plows, an additional charge Of |30,l 

L. E. MORGAN & CO., Successors to 
_5 T. ADAMS St . CO. 

PREMIUM PLOUGHS. 

■\J7"E invite the attention Of fanners to the assortment ot 
■ T " Premium Steel I'louebs," now at ourstnre at Exhibition 
Hail. These are the celebrated " Korean &. Ca's Peoria 
Ploughs,'' pronounced by the comnuttee the very best Plough in 
the United States. WARREN Si SON'S 
I Agri cultural Store. 

WARREN & SON'S 
HORTICULTURAL MUSEUM 

AND 
HALL OF SCIENCE. 

THE lubscribfilfl take pleoeun- in BlUOIlXIcIng to their frifnils 
and patrons that they open [hair Mull u« u Miieeum of Hor 
Beultnrc and KstursJ Sciences, Uavuuj now oamplctod dui 
ttrraffsmonta In Barope ond in this country, wc oro enabled to 
otter t.i the patrons oi tins estnblisbment (the Grst of tho kind 
in cuiiiiinuu) I'vi.'i-vtliniL' desirable connected with the scionce 
oi Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture 
CoMected mxh this establishment will boNurseries, Gardens. 

fruit OntluiRl.-, (.nipi'nw,Hii<l ' in-nl.ou.-f8 of the pronrietoni 

and Uierefore tbe iHiuonacan be aasured rlmi n j.-, much bett* 



I p. -Ho ll.iriy St rallrn-, has on iiUUtfai 

receJvine a splendid aseortme i g Is Ibr Gentlen 

imnnslnp;, n, part, fhricj Cuss res, \,-, ll;u ,.,.., ri ,.„.,; 

'lo ,. ,.,,„ ,„.,,- ... I..,- »Sd finest texture, d j 

ivuigh) the sicainers, direct from his Agents in Men iora>-L 
Messrs Crawly i Lent, 737 In. ...b-.m-,,,, „ , . „, ,.'„ 

IMNI ■•,"■ ;-'. ^mak^ofCassimere, velvet lace. S, bestevS 

no|...ri,,i. a mserhrdnatme public .« Invited to ,-aii and examine 

MILITARY CI.OTllINi;. 
Q, F w. ei>... this depar m hit , , 

'''7' 1 ,,, ; l "7> -"" ' der, from the best maional" 

Linn. ml. . ,1 ,o -no | , r:.rl siiiis'iaiioi,. 

BentJemenj Paahionnl Ie CI ins cut and madeequal toani 

hmiscinthoAujinticSl ,- „ „„,si,i,, 1,1 „„! ,„-, t f 

",'; '"■' I"" Iowa Is that ,,.. garment is dohveSd 

...l.i.i, ., ,,,., ,, j.,.,-,,.,-, ht| as ovary article i. fiued ..,, before 

, "->"- '"'"l thereby nvoidine the unpleasant nocessbi it 

Wring alter leavms tie store. Any garment thai is made nod 

dose not BtperlcctTy, is not expected to bo taken, aa hei -r 

■ abbsbing a business thai trill iii-.e sansiaetiou i„ ,'n 
ivbo may lavor Ian, will, their paCronage. 

v N i ','' — .'■"'" "•■""timie to take m, usurer to be made up in K,_ 
loik „■ Messre. Croney 4 Loot All orders sent 1,11 be re- 
ccivedby return sb * " 

GEORGE F. WALTER, 118 Monteomcry street 

1 lm Opposite Barry ,v Pi ' 



Plush Velvei and Caroe V otb „s, 1 'Lckersof™! ' KIT?™ "T |'" ™"",™» ' '"' ' » E • S 

id of which vi-ill be »ol,f „t miueed noes. "" Mn °' "' I for ftem to send ttcir orders to lirst 1 Is tin,,, t„ those who 



A CARD. 

T^REE EXHIBITION HALL.-We desire to nnnounee, and 
v -ut Zt '" !',"o' "'nieetfully, that hereafter, durin.. our 
Exhibition, our Hal enutniuing all the mnm.iticent specimen. 

?L\ « ,-r"-'','" , "',"i !-xliibirion. together with the ohoioe Paint- 

5™ Lmbnadones. and many rare and beautiful specimens 
bo ,S T n 'V"" ■''" " M '"" lH '"' "'" • S ""." '"'I '"' " '.' 

the iisiis o all who wash to exanune them, FREE OP CB MICE 

them Flt"t' I " *" '"IT"'?* '■'" ArtiH "' """ "" r "■'" '* "dbred to 
ofosH ' """ il, "" tt 'eir work for evbibition or sale, ann 

,1, Zi ' ,?•""'"""?" • V r "Mm specimens of anything oi 

lo.. -.tie rnanuflicture, that here Is a place the moe appn.,,™,.,. 

'.in bejiieiitoit. All who have works of art, or ahv of the 
eiinositn.. ol the country, or wonderful neehnen ,1 tb. v , 

culture ol C„li|„„,ia or the Pacific , -,. [ y | ' „ Slis K 

mo-i appropriate place for ,1 dabiii,,,,' oi,i,,.'' ,,,,',,'" "" U Ul ° 

We desire also to state that all the Agricultural post, and 
periodicals ol the United States and tho prtnelV' , .".io 
of Euro,,,, upon tl,,, Bubjecfai of Agriculture, 1 ,,-ti uli ,■ 1 
Plonculture, and other BC.entiflc subject-, and to our natrons 
U " J f° ""■■■■'"' Selenee, they arc over ,„ „,„..,' 

1 WARREH ii SON. 



............ o, ,,-i iris ,0 nrst nanus Hum to tbo-,- who 

collect here and there, at auction and elsewhere, where thOru 
can be no certainty of the genuineness of what they buy 

lhe Nurseries will be extensive, containing several hundred 
"""i"'"" 1 11 a grown under the eye ol tho propriel irs The 

Fruit Code,, will contain *e Choices! PrulB known In Europe 
and America. * 

Tbe Museum will contain specimens of Fruit in Wax, rare 
and curious specimens of everything else in nature, both in way 
md ma dried state; Oil Paintings, Drawing! and Paintingsof 
l-ruils, Flowers, &c. together with specimens in Nntunil His- 

t,.ry, Books on AgrlculturcHortictill and 1! lam; Garden im- 

plementsol aUdoacriptionE no.i ,.1 rnomost nppreved patterns. 

bLI.Ji.s. — Liurgc and Bujuerior oasortmenl of Gardes and 

F |<iu ' rr B w, comprising all the new and rare varieties. Field 

and Grass Seeds of warranted quality, wholesale and retail 
lue Seed, .old at tins establish,,!,-,,! w,ii be warranted pure 
andgenuine, true to their name and preserved in a proner 
0,100...- Dealers will rocelvo a libers] disc. uoi. 

B°xi .c - 1- for exportation at I5and upwards, so packed 
' ".' ''; tran port, d bo any pun of tho world. 

!'■.. .j.. ..1 Flower Seeds, containlna twenty varieties oi 

Annuals, 31 1 and I'. , ere, i. , Is. neatly packed in box,-, f,,,,., 

.. of !■ 1 nit and F..rc t Trees; Vine.. 

Shrubs, l.er.rcns, Dahlias, Hoses and Cr. enhouse I'b.ril- 

l.ui.l, .1 and Agril nllural S I , muv be b.,d on application 

WARREN St SUN, 
Nt'asunVMV.N, flKEnSMKN AND F10BI8T8, 
'•f Musical Hall Building, Hush si, San Frsuclsco. 



PIANO FOKTES FOE HERE. 

WOODWOBTH St CO.. l u ,p„,„.,s „l Plane Kortee, 130 
1 lay street, are now rcoeivtag ,, further supph l',, u ,o 
Fortes, ir m the celebrated "Stodard" manulact'n express? 
h.r hire. Al.,, now landing from the ollppore, a Iiiree rnusvrj 
ilientol inslimneuts suitable lor HOI.IDAV I'ltESFNTS eain 
I tl, li 'i and 7 octave.,, plain and car, td, a htfa nc 3 and' 
ivory keys, hkcivi.e F ' """ 

Prince's Melcdeoiis, \ to i octaves ; 
India Rubber I'inno Cier. ; 

French Piano Covers ; 

Rosewood Music Stools, Ac, oas, 1 4* 



\\' A K i ' , 'L , -T At ,l,l ' 1 t ' , '". , " l ' 1 A-emy and 

yy Ni. 87 Long whirr, 3d door below Sanaome « 1, up 

Houses, Farms, Lots (or sale or to Rent 
Merchants, Farrnere, Mechanics, Hotel Keeper . and Trieste 
Fauulies. supplied with help at the shortcsl ■ 1 
Merchants clerks, or.,., and servants can find Immediate 

empioyiiu 1.1 by applying ,.s ubora 

Money loan, ,1 ,,„ seeurilies, |.eis,,,,ul UOl 

„ „ „ , T. II. PERKINS. 

. 8. Particulart alien paid to run with 

"'I"'" '':;!'''.! upon rocoiving | . ,\, R | in wniinv 

io a. the, win ,, se specify the exact kind orhel, U re.f^ 

md the wngos. Address T. II. PERKINS St to. ^^^^ 

„, tatelhg. 

*" wliarf. 



W PRIZE ONIONS— ONION SETTS, ie. 
E have jusl received ajntpeidoi lotolOnloi Seed ofverr 
extra quality, to which we call the pai 
nl cultivators. Also, .'SKI lbs Ouiun Sen,, iu tine 
French Sugar Boot, foral " 

WARREN \ sons 
Seed v. 
Husical Hall, 8 

^ _____^_ And J sir, , 

ORASS SEED. 

IRABS SEEDS— TiranBM 

Iran, li., i 

, -Ira.s. 

Persons wanting the lOTy ,. „„„ 

aiieohe.i p. ih. lehove, WARREN d suns 

Hei-d \\ ... 
Musical Hull Build . ..cc. 

And J street, Hwnuncuso 



ORASS SEE 

1 I ),( )()C) or'ilerd.' Oral 
Clovor, K.sl 'Fop, Kentlnkl Floe lira- 



VOL. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, JANUARY 26, 1854. 



NO. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

ASD JOURNAL OF USEFUL SCIENCES, 

IS ISSCED AT THE OFFICE, ON BUSH STREET, 

EVERT THURSDAY MORNING, 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BY JAMES K. PHILLIPS & 00., Publishers. 

JOHN F. MORSE, Editor. 

Advejitisemtsnts. — A limited number of Advertisements 
will be inserted nt the following rates : For one agunre of eight 
line?, per month, 86. For business notices of five lines or less, 
per month, SI. A plight reduction will be made to regular 
advertisers. 



Beautiful Trait of an Actor. 

A most popular actor (his name will be known 
by-and-by), who had just played a series of char- 
acters with great effect, had remarked every even- 
ing in front of the curtain a young person of 
extreme beauty, who had watched his playing 
with an attention to which it was difficult to 
believe the motive a single one. Our actor knew 
well that he had inspired a profound passion, and 
he did not hesitate to respond to it with a full 
heart, although completely ignorant who the 
young and charming lady was that night after 
night cast on him her burning looks. 

In the meantime, a wealthy personage wished 
our actor to put himself to the trouble of calling 
at his residence. 

'■ Monsieur," said the banker, " I have an im- 
mense service to ask of you. It is to name the 
sum that will induce you to leave the city for a 
few years." 

To this strange proposition the artist replied 
with a loud laugh — 

" What do you think, Monsieur V I am now 
at the climax of my reputation and my glory, 
which are my fortune. I would not leave for a 
million !" 

" Well, I offer it to you ! Leave, and I will 
instantly count you out a million ; that will ma- 
terialize the fumes of glory." 

" But, Monsieur, can 1 know the powerful 
motives that induce you to make me such an 
oiler ?» 

" Yea, 1 will tell you. My daughter, my only 
daughter, I wish tu marry to her cousin, a young 
limn destined fur the highest office in the king- 
dom. My daughter is foolishly enamored of you, 
I cannot give her to you. It is necess.m . there- 
fore. I h:il you leave." 

"Monsieur!" replied the actor, after lie had 
surmounted the first promptings ofhla pride, " if 
that be all, make your mind easy. I will not 
leave— you will not spend a million; and your 
daughter shall marry her cousin." 

" What do you mean .'" 

'• Detain me I'm- jinn ir to-day, and plai 
near her." 

At first the hanker dared not to trust him j hut 
the act. it- insisted ami the other i ielded, 
were roan; ofthe wealth] to partake of thi 
ner— among others several bankers ami their 
wives. The guests ha.l alrcad} arrived, and the 
young lady of the house appeared at the same 

lime. 

I!ut what was the surprise the chagrin, and 
! of the actor, in recognising in this young 

i lie Very one of Whom he bad been 

Sionatol] enamored in front of the scenery of his 
theatre! 

she stupefied at seeing him at her lather's, 

stammered out a t; ■. „„i accepted his arm 

i go to the table. „• Nvas determined, 

let the consequences be what they might to keep 

the promise which he had made to ilie father of 
his lot 

\ii.l he did keep it. in truth : ami so well, that 
the young lady, on seeing what kind of a l 
abject person of a clown she had given hi I 
to. felt as if it would break. In fact, th 

had caused a thousand inconvenient 

eluded by insulting the guests so - 

most of them were anxious to leave. In a word, 

the scene became so stirring that as soon as din- 

r. the young lady herself, insulted and 
outraged, called the servants, and had the actor 
pushed outside the door. 

tint her cousin — her affianced — arrived in the 
evening. He recognised the eclehrati I 
The latter related to him how he hail just 
his own lies, annihilated himself by an 
role, in an incredil 
told him the whole atfaii 
Covered that she had bo. 
that the man she i. 
her. bad been immolated to her lath. 

ue forth, anl 

-- 

n uneasiness and jealousy 

had gone to join her lover, an 



hastened to take her from him. A fact soon 
proved to them that their suspicions were well- 
founded, and the justices were applied to, iu order 
to have the ravisher arrested. 

But the artist had not accepted the sacrifice of 
the young lady. He avowed his courageous sub- 
terfuge of the previous evening, and that he loved 
his admirer to distraction ; but he did not wish 
that she should be lost — dishonored. He cate- 
chised her, persuaded her, and brought her hack 
to her father at the very moment the latter was 
in search of him. The father understood the 
legal better than the passionate expression of this 
denouement, and gradually touched, moved, con- 
quered, it struck him he could do uothing better 
than to give the actor his daughter — he being the 
most honorable and honest man he had ever met. 

This happened to be actor Garrick, who was so 
much esteemed that, at his death, his funeral pall 
was borne by the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Cam- 
den, Earl Spencer, and Viscount Palmerston, fol- 
lowed by fifty mourning carriages, containing the 
most of the English nobility. 



A Magical Duet, 

Bonnet, in his Ilisloire de la Mitsique, gives 
the following extraordinary account of a mathe- 
matician, mechanician, and musician, named Alix. 
who lived at Aix, in Provence, about the middle 
of the 17th century. Alix, after many years' 
study and labor, succeeded in constructing an au- 
tomaton figure, having the shape of a human 
figure, which, by means of a concealed mechanism, 
played, or had the appearance of playing, on the 
guitar. The artist, alter having tuned in perfect 
unison two guitars, placed one of them in the 
hands of the skeleton, in the position proper for 
playing, and on a calm summer evening, len ing 
thrown open the window of his apartment, he 
fixed the skeleton with the guitar in its hands in 
a position where it could lie seen from the 
He then, taking the other instrument] seated him- 
self in an obscure corner of the room, and 

menced playing a piece of > sic, the pas.; 

which were faithfully repei choed by the 

guitar held by the skeleton, at the game time that 

the movement of its w Ion fingers, as if really 

executing the music, completod the illusion. This 
tran at drew crowds around fhi 

of Ah imcnt ; 

but. alas for the ill-fated artist, this sentiment was 

booh ohanged in the minds of the multitude into 
ost superstitious dread. A rumor arose that 
Alix was b sorcerer, and 
lie wa i of the Pi 

Provence, tad sent to be tried on the capital 

lie in- 
unfortunate artist invinee 
the judges thai the only means used t" g 
parent vitality t.i the fingers of the skeleto 
wheels, springs, pulleys, and other equally nn- 

l contrivances, and that the marvolloi 
suit produced was nothii riminal than 

the solution ei;i problem in mcchani a. II 
platiatii'iis and demonstri 
understood or fail. id and 

and a magician. This iniquitou 

i, firmed by the Parliament ul I 

which sentenced him t.i I 

princi|ial square 

equally innocent ai 

aivouipltee iu his nue> 

famous sentence v 

j ear I 

of all the faithful and del 



four barrels, all of which took effect. She charged 
with frightful speed right under the tree in which 
we were sitting, and was into the jungle in a mo- 
ment. Immediately after this, a peacock began 
calling, a sure sign of a tiger being near ; and. 
sure enough, in another minute out came a small 
cub about the size of a dog: this. Grice shot. 
We then began the ticklish work of "following 
up," generally done on elephants; hut, not being- 
rich enough to sport them, we were forced to go 
on foot. We traced our prey about half a mile 
into the jungle, which was so thick that one 
could not see more than ten yards ahead. I sep- 
arated some six or seven yards from Grice, and 
was in the act of looking down close to the ground. 
when I heard a frightful roar; and, before I had 
time literally to cock one barrel (I had impru- 
dently gone into the jungle with my piece on 
halt-cock), I felt myself jammed in the brute's 
jaws. She carried me about ten yards. My line. 
I believe, was touching her cheek, when Grice, 
with the most wonderful presence of mind, put 
two bullets into her car. She dropped, but still 
held me. Grice ran up, anil before she was actu- 
ally dead, pulled me out of her mouth. 

1 am told that there was not two inches of 
space between my bead and the spot where the 
bullets hit. Had Gricc's hand shaken, I should 
have been shot through the head, as he had a very 
small mark to tire at. I was perfectly conscious 
when pulled out of the brute's mouth. 

The skin, of course, I keep as a trophy — il is 
nearly twelve feet long. The accident occurred 
fifty miles from camp; and if it had not been for 
Grice, God knows howl should ever have been 
taken back ; but he is well known by the natives 
— in fact they are afraid of him (his nickname is 
"Tiger Grice") — and be told them they would 
he well paid if they carried me tu tin- next town. 

■laat, about twelve miles oil'. After some little 

. einent. they carried me tu .laat, where 
Griee is almost worshipped i ml of having 

last year killed a tigress which bad at din! ont 
times killed twenty-four of the villagers, and at 

the time GrioQ shot her. she was iu the a<-t of 

an unfortunate woman. Twenty-four men 

imp with a i' ■ ■ 

meet me. Qi : ' night bj m | side, and 

i me till within r. | camp, 

it hen he w.i 

more than ami been heard 

it but I hope be ! I Buffered 

ul I was bitten. My 
mother was always anxi 
■ Iron's constitutions; well, r very clever e 
told me that it I bid not had an iron 
tl would bl ) hard with DM. I am 

perfectly convalescent, walk about, and go out 
evening; the wounds are healing, but it is 
irritab! ns up. 

I should like very much I" send the skin I 
land, but it is very largv. ami difficult to pack up: 
otherwise, it would make a nice rug. 



to satisfy himself. ' ; Wa-a-11. guess it is ; it ft 
soporiferous, any how; smells rale apocrypl 
tew, don't it ? jest like old Mr. Slocum's 'pot 
cary shop, tew hum." 

A few steps brought us to the statuary, wh 
a number of persons were silently gazing 
Powers' statue of the Greek Slave. 

"Mister," said he, after a moment's inspect] 
pointing to the chains upon her wrist, "wftt 
that creetur hoppled for? " 

The bystanders roared, and we endeavored 
explain to him the nature of the subject ; and 
prevent him from handling it, as be was bent u] 
doing, pointing to the placard requesting visit 
■' not to touch the articles." 

" 1 lon't touch the articles ! " repeated hi 
" Why, she aim got the first darned article 
her I" 

We left. 



A Tiger's Jaws. 

Grice and I obtained two-and-a-half months' 
mthers. and bears. 
_• made our ; 
started on the iiimiloni 

drums and a pair 
loaded with 
let oil 
to frighten any animals out of the junel- 

when it was not. we had also son. 

thirty men to sit up a 

should like t ,„.| tomiac 



A Yankee at the Crystal Palace. 

n of the 



' let a 

pay nothin' : 
anythi 

for a Herald, and gin him an e 

fire, and when the man with the bra* 

ked around, 1 kinder edged in behind 

■mrse we expressed our indignation, and 
were al him, when he seized our but- 



Northwest Passage. 

The problem of centuries is solved. Comn 
tlore MelTure has discovered the Northwest I' 
sage. T'he sources of the Nile still remain 
the ambition of travelers. The mountains of 
Moon are still a myth. The Happy Islands t 
El Dorado are not yet inscribed upon maps. 1 
the great polar problem is settled; there i 
Northwest Passage, 

( If wdiat use it will lie. unless it should be fin 
(o conduct to Symmes's Hole, it would be h 
to say. The fact, being ascertained, must lie 
unimproved. Science will fie served by it; bun 
knowledge of the actual state of the ball u| 
which we are plunging through space will be 
creased. But no ship w ill ever thread its v 
through that dismal channel ; and Mel'lure. h 
self, the hero wdio has just secured a niche in 1 
toiv. has left final surmises as to his priilet 
fate Should he nc\cr return. No Chinese ei 

n ne will In- drawn along that perilous w 
\o such -hoii cut to the Pacific will ever lie 
proved, lest it should prove a shinier out I' 
Ocean ' The realms of the boreal po 

still remain lirouded in glacial gloom, That.; 
summer sea. w ithin the polar circle, of w Inch 
phrenzj of theorizers dreams, a- the thin tri 
en traveller fancies flowing nratei will still 
as fair, smoothly outspread in imagination, t 

they wdio list., and thej to whom th in! re 

dream of Sir Ji 

franklin's fleet ridini c upon that tram 

licve in that imp i blc ful 

i ■ thai b 
I lead him into wanner latil 
"iitry thai would ce 

i a Deity. 
lint, although it" use may accrue from t 

i is the fame of the li 

and tei 

led with much that is most admirable 
human heroism. The bi 

long pie: I lie- invincibility and moje 

of the human will. Boreal arm 

iumph, 1 

dure without a thrill of genuine admit 

-t the fa 






Bbei r the interest 






i ve mam at-out tnis snort 



assented, and he resumed : 



- 

hen he 
• wppaprr chaps, 'ea 
Been in the tine ari 
* winters — tighter: 



: ni'Tv • 
other breed. 



ii'i produce a r* 

*h. road or plow. They walk 
view the fine s p e cim en * of faster, and will ei. lure hard labor 
h were hosts made of solid any hones destitute of thsi atraia of * 
Eaakaal :.-..-.•:. . -:- >-, l/. -urn. 

. — . — 

I A rr n , ■> r boMs nare to ia*»r 

toowa, than af what w< are ignorant. 



I 
. t 

tl 

,—r 



u« wiUl wl 



26 



U§& ®M$®m§® §®$m&%< 



T \LIFORNIA FARMER. 



JOHN P MORSE, Editob. 

F. WARBEN, Assistant Editor. 



To the Friends of Agriculture. 

Ws ask of all to whom we Bend this number, win ore not 
already subscribers, to examine the Farmer, aud to giro it their 
rnQuonce. We trust t > hear from them and to know that they 
will not only bee >rae eub .cribors to our Journal, but favor us 
with their ccinuiuuicntions. We desire to call their attention to 
our term- of suu.-cri|,:iou for club*. 

Special Premiums for Subscriptions. 

In addition to the standing inducement fur the getting ot sub- 
scribe™ lor the " Farmer," we "ill make n present of HAR- 
PER'S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE to the person who 
procures the most Subscribers in the first six months of our 
publication. This we regard as one of the most beautiful books 
ever issued. Who will have the prize? 

A Premium — Farmers' Clubs. 

With the hope of inducing such oi our friends, and those 
who have a little leisure, to ride among their neighbors and 
introduce an Agricultural Paper, wo take pleasure in offering 
the CALIFORNIA FARMER : and, to make it an inducement, 
we say to such friends— if you will get us five subscribers, and 
remit the amount, we will send you six papers, or for TEN 
subscribcrs, twelve papers. We trust there are many friends 
who will cheerfully take a little pains to uid us, and thus extend 
the circulatio n of the Farmer, and make a useful vehicle for 
the Agriculture of California. 

Subscribers will please be particular to name the Post Office 
to which papers are to be sent ; or, if forwarded by express, 
which line they prefer. 

To Our Patrons. 

To Advertisehs. — We would call the attention of those who 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
the pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will roach sources of trade entirely new and 
unattainable by any other means, and thus secure a large and 
immediate profit to those who desire to make known their 
business. By a glance at our advertising columns, it will be per- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have space for but one or two of each 
branch, these will be the most prominent houses, and thus give 
more inlluence to them. 



Effects of the Frost, 

The oldest inhabitants of the country seem to 
agree that we have had an uncommonly severe 
winter, more cold weather and severer freezes 
than have been recognized for the last ten years. 
As might be expected where such frosts are 
unusual, a great deal of damage has resulted. 
Hundreds of thousands of bushels of potatoes 
and other vegetables were lying out in the open 
air, exposed to the action of the frosts, and as a 
matter of necessity, seriously injured. We saw 
some explorations made in large piles of bagged 
potatoes, and the frost had aifeoted, ami indeed 
ruined nearly all in the external layer of bogs, 
and we were told that in the unbagged piles they 
were frozen in for a foot from the surface. 

Such a general destruction of this vegetable 
might occasion an afflicting scarcity if there were 
not a preponderant quantity of them in market. 
But fortunately for consumers, the quantity raised 
last year was in all probability a great excess on 
the public demand — and the destruction incurred 
by the frost will not be so serious in its bearings 
as it otherwise would. 

Prior to this frosty visitation, potatoes had be- 
come reduced in price to one. and one and a quarter 

its per pound. The only effect, probably, from 
the foregoing loss, will be to increase the price 
and secure a more encouraging requitcment to 
the iaj-jners who had engaged in raising them. 

Grapes. 

Near the Mission of San Jose, we perceive 
there is an important consideration given to the 
cultivation of this invaluable fruit. Mr. Beard 
has a couple of the most extensive vineyards that 
it has been our pleasure to see. The vineyards 
are situated upon the western slope of a hill, 
which is very gradual in its ascent from the low 
table grounds of that valley. Their situation in 

epect to dry aud wet soil is about midway. 
They are regarded in their products as being less 
valuable than any other fruit which he raises. 

One particular thing to which we would refer 
was a difference of opinion in respect to the kind 
■of soil best adapted to the cultivation of the grape. 

The general impression we knew to be that 
.grapes would be most productive when cultivated 
upon a comparatively dry soil, and when pruned 
very closely ; but we were informed that a gentle- 
man in that valley had tried the experiment of 
roftting vines in a low, wet soil, and during one 
season had EOt pruned the vines. The result in 
this instance was abundantly successful. His 
grapes were Jarger, more of i.'itm. and marked by 
a. richer flavor, than those he raised upon highec 
and (bier ground, and from close pruning. This 
might have been a mere contingency, or singular 
and capricious exception from a general rule ; or 
ifrmay be a seurce of most useful information, 
which could be most profitably taken under ad- 
visement. The cultivators of this fruit can best 
appreciate the experiment, and they alone can 
demonstrate the fallacy or. correctness ef the con- 
clusions. 



Sweet Potatoes. 
During a recent visit to the valley of Pan Jose, 
near the old Mission, we took considerable pains 
to enquire in reference to this useful vegetable. 
From Mr. Horner we learned that he had experi- 
mented in the growth of sweet potatoes, but that 
lie had not succeeded to his satisfaction. He 
thought the soil of his land was not adapted to 
their cultivation. His manner of planting was to 
cut the seed potatoes and deposit them in hills, as 
in planting the ordinary kind of potatoes, using 
manure in the hills. 

Mr. Beard informed us that he had succeeded 
in raising very good sweet potatoes, but not in 
large quantities. He also thought that the soil 
was not well adapted to the culture of this vege 
table, nis plan of cultivating them was to first 
sprout the potatoes in warm beds, and transplant- 
ing them in finely pulverized soil, after all danger 
of frost had subsided. 

These gentlemen were both of the opinion that 
the sandy soil on the banks of the American 
River, near Sacramento City, was peculiarly 
adapted to the cultivation of sweet potatoes. We 
trust that the farmers in and about the above- 
named city will pay especial attention to this sub- 
ject and fully test the conjectures in respect to their 
soil. 



Bulbous Roots. 

We have now the pleasure of seeing in many 
of our dwellings several varieties of the choicest 
" Bulbs of Holland" and Japan and also the 
new varieties raised by hybridization in England 
and France. We have noticed in several of the 
dwellings of our citizens, the fragrant Hyacinth, 
Xarcissus, and Jonquil. Some of the finest 
blooms of Japan Lillies ever raised, the delicate 
Crocus, the pure Snow Drop, and the gorgeous 
Tulip, now frequently meet our gaze and tell us 
that here in California, we shall yet enjoy all that 
is beautiful in Flora. 

That our fair friends may be succesful in the 
cultivation of the genus, we append the following 
brief directions for cultivating them : They should 
be kept dark till the roots get advanced — if in 
pots, by covering two-thirds of the bulb in good 
rich mould, leaving the crown and eye above the 
earth ; if in glasses, by keeping them in a dark 
room, the water in the glasses only touching the 
lower surface of the bulb. 



Tomato Catsup. 
That our lady friends may have a fine quality 
of this most desirable luxury, we append a recipe 
from the ''Country Gentleman," a work published 
at Albany, and devoted to the science of Gar- 
dening. Take six pounds Tomatoes, and sprinkle 
with salt; let them remain a day or two, then 
boil, and pour through a coarse sieve or cullender. 
Put into the liquor half a pint of vinegar, clover, 
pepper, ginger and cinnamon — boil them one-third 
away ; buttle tight. It should be shook before 
using. 



Unequalled Potato Crop. 

In what part of the world can a farmer be 
found, who in one season raises four hundred 
thousand bushels of potatoes? It remains for 
California to exhibit such a husbandman. 

This was the crop of potatoes harvested by 
John M. Horner, Esq.. of San Jose Valley, during 
the last season; and Ids neighbor and previous 
partner Mr. E. E. Beard, raised, in addition to 
other immense crops, two hundred and fifty 
thousand bushels of the same esculent vegetable ? 

Can history furnish such evidence of enterprise, 
of energy and boldness in an}" two individuals 
since the world began"? Can we not, in Califor- 
nia, afford to be proud of two such farmers? 
Men, who unaided, save by their own herculean 
energy and masterly judgments have achieved 
positions of immortality as cultivators of the soil. 
If there were any previous doubt as to the ability 
of attaining fame through the channels of Hus- 
bandry, it must be dissipated by the celebrity 
which these two gentlemen have acquired within 
the last few years in this State. 



California Legislature. — In the Senate, on 
the 18th inst., the bill providing for the permanent 
location of the Scat of Governmentat Sacramento, 
was defeated by a vote of nineteen to thirteen. 
Mr. Hall then gave notice that at an early day he 
would introduce a joint resolution to remove the 
seat of government temporarily to Sacramento. 
So the " removal question " is still unsettled. On 
Friday last, the Senate passed, by a vote of twen- 
ty-live to one, a bill to repeal the "flour inspec- 
tion law," and it will undoubtedly pass the As- 
sembly. Wo hope this will give a check to the 
sale of damaged flour. 



[For the California Farmer. 
" Hope springs eternal in the human breast — 
M:ui never is, but always to b< blest." 
Especially has this sentiment been illustrated 
in the case of California immigrants. Led to em- 
bark in an adventurous enterprise, for the sake of 
accumulating rapidly an independent support, 
they have been allured by the sweet voice of the 
syren Hope, to pass through trials and to dare the 
most desperate risks. 

The present is an age of speculation, and all 
who have come to this side of the great con- 
tinent within the last five years are engaged, to a 
greater or less degree, in some kind of speculation 
— "making haste to be rich" is the order of the 
day, and none are content with the old mauner of 
plodding on in regular business, making slow but 
sure progress towards amassing wealth ; but, 
what was formerly in the older States accumu- 
lated by the labor of a life-time, must now be 
piled up in the short space of as many months as 
formerly occupied years to accomplish. This 
state of tilings has a great influence upon society 
— upon the minds and maimers of men — enlarg- 
ing their views and effecting a complete change in 
all their ideas, and causing their former homes, if 
perchance they ever visit them, to seem tame and 
■'slow," for California is emphatically and truly 
a fast country — its inhabitants are fast, its 
horses are fast, and unfortunate indeed is the 
steamboat which is not fast ; men cat fast, drink 
fast, talk fast, and the Telegraph has never done 
its duty quite fast enough to meet the views of 
some of our business men. 

The sentiment which has most tended to pro- 
duce this result has been Hope. This it has been, 
which has led men on through privations and 
miseries which arc almost incredible. Hope held 
out to them the idea of riches and independence, 
showed them, through the dim vista of the fu- 
ture, their wives and children gathered around 
them, enjoying the comfort which was to be the 
reward of years of toil and perseverance in a 
foreign clime. Hope has sustained them, when, 
worn down by days and weeks of fruitless toil, 
thay have been tempted to give up in despair, and 
lias whispered to them the simple words "try 
again ; " and, thus stimulated, they have tried 
again, and met at last with the success they so 
well deserved. 

The human mind is so constituted that, while 
it looks back with ever so much dismay upon the 
past, the anticipations of the future ever cheer and 
support in the trying hour of sickness, and aids. 
more than all else, the skill of the phyisician, in 
those dark hours. At the close of day, when 
night spreads her sable mantle over the world, 
we think with pleasure of to-morrow's dawn-*- 
to-morrow, which recedes as we approach, and, 
always coming, never comes. 

Where would be the enthusiast, were he not 
led on by Hope ? His bright dream of greatness 
and happiness — never, perhaps, destined to lie 
realized — is the load-stone which points onward, 
without varying, to the point, which, ever receding 
as he advances, still appears a bright polar star to 
his imagination. 

The boy at school looks forward witli beaming 
countenance to some hoped for reward ; and, as 
he advances along the pathway of life, finds that 
his principal enjoyment consists in the am 
tions of the future, rather than in the realization 
of his highest day-dreams. Honor aud domestic 
happiness may lie his, yet he still looks forward, 
ever hopeful, towards a goal which promises some 
new pleasure. 

The name of Hope is enrolled upon the bright 
list of angels, and she lends a charm which dis- 
robes life of much of its dreariness. Many call 
her a castle-builder, and some have pronounced 
her a deceiver, because her visionary schemes are 
arc not all true j yet, it is not the fault of Hope 
that her purposes are not fulfilled, or her promises 
realized ; this is rather to be charged to the ac- 
count of Time, that cruel spoiler, whose wings 
carry along with them the work of destruction, 
and bring about the various changes of human 
life. Time disappoints the fondest anticipations 
of Hope, blasts her noblest designs, and renders 
futile her most desirable projects; yet, though 
some of the most joyous prospects of Hope are 
somctimes defeated, she does not yield to despair. 
She ever has a bright side on which to look and 
form anew her plans. 

The California Farmer will always be found 
at Sullivan's Newspaper Stand, Kearny street, 
at the Bookstore of Mr. Murray, Montgomery 
street. 



Messrs. Adams & Co., arc authorized to re- 
ceive money for us, and receipt for the same, at 
any of their offices throughout the State. 



Important Changes taking place among 
Farmers. — A very important change is taking 
piacc among the most extensive cultivators of the 
soil in California. Those who have heretofore 
cultivated garden vegetables in large quantities, 
are now making arrangements to enter much more 
extensively into the cultivation of wheat, barley, 
oats and corn. This will exert a happy effect in 
the way of equalizing crops, and preventing such 
an excess as has resulted from the too general 
growth of potatoes the last season ; or, in other 
words, it will induce men to take up single depart- 
ments of Agi'icultuae, and thereby contribute 
mush more judiciously to the general demand. 
And, in addition to this, it will develope a much 
more perfect system oi farming than can be 
achieved in any other way. It is the first step in 
a series of changes which will result in making 
the best grain growers, the best cultivators of 
vegetables, of fruits or flowers that can be made 
by any system of education or practice. 

Shooting Affair.— A characteristic affray 
came oil' ou Friday last, near Jackson street 
wharf. Some boatmen, wishing to move the 
storcship Java, belonging to Messrs. Silas E. Bur- 
rows & Son, to accommodate a pile driver, went 
on board for that purpose, when one of them 
named rainier, was shot by Mr. 0. 11. Burrows, 
with a Colt's revolver. He fired twice, both 
balls taking effect— the first in the region of the 
spine, and the other in the left breast. Mr. Bur- 
rows gave himself up, and has been released on 
$10,000 bail — the wounded man being expected 
to recover. 

Since writing the above, Mr. Burrows has been 
acquitted, on the grounds that he had a right to 
defend his property, and to meet force with force, 
Palmer having endeavored to forcibly move a ves- 
sel with a valuable cargo in it, which was in Bur- 
rows' charge. 



C 



Steamboat Explosion. — On Friday last, as 
the fine new steamer Helen Hensley was about 
leaving the foot of Jackson street wharf, bound to 
to Bcnicia, one of the flues of her centre boiler col- 
lapsed, blowing out both heads of the boiler, tear- 
ing down the bulkheads fore and aft, and destroy- 
ing a portion of the forward part of the boiler 
deck. A great number of passengers were on 
board at the time, of whom two were instantly- 
killed, and quite a number badly scalded. The 
cause of the explosion seems to be attributable to 
the inferior quality of the iron of which the boiler 
was composed, and to the fact that no means 
exist on this coast for testing boilers before they 
arc put into use. 

Constantinoele. — This city occupies a trian- 
gular promontory of land between the Bosphorus 
aud its inlet, the Golden Horn. It is about three 
miles and a half in length, and from one to four 
miles in breadth, and is enclosed in a triple range 
of walls twelve or thirteen miles in circumference 
and entered by twenty-eight gates. It is built 
on an undulating declivity rising Inwards the 
land side. Externally it has an imposing ap 
once, with its mosques, cupolas, minarets and 
cypresses, and its piers crowded with shipping; 
but internally it mostly consists of a labyrinth 
ill ill-paved, crooked, dirty lanes, and low-built 
small houses Oi wood, or rough hewn stone. There 
are a number of public fountains, which amply 
supply the city with water. Its population is 
estimated at about 400,000, including Galata and 
lVra, and it is composed of ah, ml I ,11,01x1 (,'veoks 
and Armenians, 20.000 Europi ins, 60,000 -lews, 
aud the remainder Turks aud Armenians, There 
are between :',(ii) and -lull mosques in the city and 
suburbs. 4(1 Mahommedan colleges, 87 hospitals, 
29 Christian churches, 180 public baths, and 180 
khans or inns, besides numerous bazaars, coffee 
houses and caravanscries. The seraglio is to the 
east of the city, and comprises an area of about 
three miles, separately enclosed by walls, and ex- 
tending down to the sea of Marmora. The Cold- 
en Horn is a fine harbor, deep enough to fioat 
ships of the largest size ; it can receive 1200 sail 
of the line, and is always full of mercantile and 
Other vessels. On the north shore of the Golden 
Horn are the imperial dockyards. There is al- 
ways a strong garrison of troops in thisi ity, and 
many new barracks have been built by the late 
and present Sultan. The commerce of the port 
is extensive, but not so great as might at 1,1st 
sight be anticipated. The city is the see of the 
Greek, Armenian and Catholicu-Ainicnian patri- 
archs. 

Meagher's Leotche, — The lecture of Mr. T. 
F. Meagher, on Tuesday evening. was fully attend- 
ed, and the orator gave universal satisfaction. 
We understand he is to deliver another lecture 
this evening, on Mr. Henry (irattan. the cele- 
brated Irish patriot. 

The clipper ship Onward arrived at this port 
yesterday, 150 days from New Veil,. 

Messrs. Stilus & DODSS, Bcnicia, are our 
authorized agents for Beuicia. Martinez, and vi- 
cinity. 



%)):( GS<B!lttto9U<ltt ^(»«Q»JJ8 



Wreck of the Golden Gate. 

By ili<- nrr:val of the ■ a Diego 

on Monday evening, we ham that on the ah 

come nut of the harbor of San i 

on the bar, about two miles fr Find now 

bar, ] ■ wreck and total loss 

ebrokel er star- 

ond 

da; out from Acapulco, and whan about five hun- 

dred mi lanDi 

| .. ... [on Gate loft Panama on Sunday night 
Jan. 1st. and Di making an excellent run when 

ng aftor the shaft was broken. 

and v.. t* was lying to, the 

-poke her ahd passed on,tnecommon- 

. , the Golden Gate not wanting any ossist- 
Thc next morning after this, Capt. Isham 
[nit bis passengers on allowance. 

I he i roliah brings two hundred of the Golden 

... .. passengers. 

Capt. Isham reports 750 passengers as having 
been on board, and no deaths or sickness occurred. 

On the I4th. the Golden Gate made steam and 
got under headway, with one engine and one 
wheel, and arrived in the harbor of San Diego on 
the morning of the 18th, between 12 and 1 o'clock. 
The next day, on going out, she run her keel on 
the bar. and the Goliah, in trying to assist her in 
getting off, broke two cables, when the attempt 
was relinquished, and her bows swung round on 
the Bar. 

A short time after running aground, a heavy 

i ret in from the southeast, and carried away 
all her larboard guards and bulwarks, at which 
time she sprang aleak. At this time the fore-stay- 
sail andfore-topsail were set, in the hope of work- 
ing her olf; but the staysail was blown through 
the boltropes, and the topsail was carried away 

At this time the sea was so heavy that the Go- 
liah could not approach the Golden Gate, and the 
passengers were obliged to remain on deck all 
night, with the sea breaking over it continually. 
The rain, the sea, and the cold searching wind, all 
combined to make the condition of the passengers 
anything but comfortable. 

The next day the crew pumped all day; the 
firemen worked their bilge pumps, and about one 
hundred passengers volunteered with buckets. 
They gained a little on the water when the tide 
was on the ebb, but so soon as it flowed again she 
filled with more water than had been in her pre- 
viously. 

The Golden Gate now lies buried in seven feet 
of sand. So a passenger informs us, to whom we 
are indebted (or the foregoing information ; and 
he says there is no doubt in his own mind that 
the ship will prove a total loss. 

Tho Golden Gate is a very strong, well-built 
vessel, and had she been less substantial she must 
have gone to pieces during the gale, and every 
person on board have p irished. 

I'at limit, who was on board with some fine 

blooded horses, got them safely on shore. — 
Chronic! 

Below we give i lapt. It ham's I 
in this 'i 1 ' gii tng an account of tho addi a I 
Stbamsbip Gold 

i ID shore — San l>io;_o dan. '_' I . I 61 

E. ih int Esa. —Dear sir — I am obli 
repo] t to 3 ou thn on ; ■■ we broke oui 

litre haft, and drill ' ! o I atil the 

14th, by which time 
on ■ ong ine and one wheel. I ha 1 
onboard. [ came 
the |8th, bo! ween I" and I o"cl 
i all hand 

six 1 1 ; I ;, I. ( I If l 

when I lown.l In leavii 

'he on- 
roond; 

• d the 
The 
is at the time ' 

I in my 

1 made 

furiously j at 11 o'clock P. M 

ship and tl 
round and bl 
a'de I 












... ■ : 

lythi but to 1 . 11 
At I A. M. o 

tcl with 
• id tl p ad the Golioh to 

ol 
iv i II go ... : ... . 
balance on hore Bill il you send n 

a to take I hem up. 1 shall use everj 

i.: , 1 think she has started 

butts, but 1 hope, if we succeed in 
shifting her position, to be able to get her into 
San Diego. If not, 1 shall keep her in as shoal 
water as is necessary until I get assistance from 
San Francisco. I think you had letter send down 

a set of purchases and two or three steam pumps ; 

and. if we do hot get another gale, we shall suc- 
ceed in saving the ship. 

12, M. — 1 have sounded in two lines from the 
ship, and find that we must lighten the ship at 
least twenty inches to get her off. The Goliah 
failed in carrying out my anchors this morning, 
and I shall lie obliged to adopt other expedients. 
I shall send the mails up by the Goliah. I have 
announced to the passengers that the company 
will subsist them on shore until you send a steamer 
to their relief. 

I shall have one or two hulks alongside, and 
shall commence discharging freight, stores and 
coal to-morrow. J. B. G. Isham. 

The following are the resolutions passed by the 
passengers: 

1. That while we cannot repress the expression 
of disappointment in not reaching the port of our 
destination at the time we anticipated, we can 
neither forego the opportunity nor privilege we 
have to do justice to the conduct of Capt. Isham, 
commanding the Golden Gate; that his conduct 
under the unavoidable accidents during this voy- 
age, has commended him to our esteem and admi- 
ration ; and that we tender him our warmest 
thanks for the care he has evinced for the safety 
of all on board, for his general courtesy, and stiil 
more for the rigid order and discipline he has 
maintained, under circumstances where confusion 
and its incident danger might be expected. 

2. That the present hazardous position of this 
magnificent specimen of American naval archi- 
tecture should attach no blame to Capt. Isham. or 
any officer on board his ship ; that we look upon 
it as one of those circumstances » hich no human 
ken could anticipate or avoid ; that when begot 
under weigh to leave this harbor there was every 
promise and indication of fit ii- weather; thai 
sudden southeast gale, blowing with hun 
violence, consummated that which no skill or 
judgment could prevent ; and that it is our deli- 
berate conviction that no commander, having 
charge of so massive ■ vessel as th 

work hut a siiiele oscillating engine and one 
wheel, « lure two ore requiri tl 

ht of the era oka I i | roi 

upon one side, an ! 

ii, e- aril] and in. I ■: an 

than th 

3. i : 

I, now- 



Later from Lower California. 
th he : b • ■ receivi d the 

i Herald of Jan. 1 I. which contains the 
: . . broughl i" S "i Diego bj Capt. 
u : rho accompanied by an escort of 

a, Capt. Cutrell arrived on the Tues- 
. iou 10th. 

The letter contains nd important nows,being 
i laudator} of Gov. Walker and his follow- 

■ 

i mi QOABTBBS WAtKBH'8 BATTALION, I 

Port Mi Kibbon, i.. 0., Jnn. 7, 186* > 

Editor San Diego Herald : — Our expressman 

(Allen) was obliged to stop at. San Miguel, by a 
report which he heard that a parly of about 
twenty of the enemy were prepared to intercept 
him; but. by '■ hook or crook," he managed to 
send us several copies of your paper, and others 
so that at this writing we are in the midst of 
about such an excitement as is kicked up at San 
Francisco after an important steamer arrival. 

Among other things I perceive that doubts are 
felt and expressed by some of the papers at our 
success, and that they have only one reasonable 
ground for them — that is — that our accounts do 
not tally as to dates. Now the fact is, that men 
in camp, as we have been, do not keep the day of 
cither week or the month, and when we have op- 
portunities of writing letters, arc not in the habit 
of waiting to inquire the date, but go ahead, and 
if necessary, estimate all such matters. 

Your San Francisco cotemporaries wdto attempt 
to throw their doubts on us, do not, in this in- 
stance, show for the first time their fondness for 
the pettifogging, Tlocorder's Court style of argu- 
ment. They are of that class of " old fogies" w ho 
disbelieve in anything not comprehensible to then 
limited faculties, and hold that a thing cannot be 
done because it never has heretofore been accom- 
plished. Enough of these : we are of the practical 
sort ; the real simon pure : ' Young America." My 
dates to you were only wrong it one respect, (as 
to the time of lauding) which should have been 
slaied as the 20th of November, instead of the 2d 
December, as 1 had it. 

We arc occupied (the Battalion I mean) in gar- 
rison, at this post and La Grulla (Fort David -on ) 
drilling our men, reeonnoitcringroads and making 
surveys; and 1'rcident Walker, after sending oul 
one surveying party under Maj. Emory, (Topo- 
graphical Engineers) has just gone with a party 
as escort, to wan Is Nun Rafael, on an excursion the 
nature of which none of us know. In feet, the 
Colonel does not talk much to any of US, but with 
all his quietness, has more go-nhead-itivenesa in 
him than any man of his ace. Where is the 

oilier man who would have attempted what he 

has? And where above all, 18 the other man 

tcceeded no .' 'I he 

only fault abOUl him is. that thi '"' Bat 

can whip US if we have him with us; and perl 

think 

Sim 

individual bad ii 



Of his tend I 

tl d to him th 



Among other mi 
are in 

few n tin 









Mr. John Graham, and the 
the ship, v. 

n d in a manner worth] 

bilitY and i 

-I. 'i h 

; Dr. M'Y; 

and humaiu 

mid, and w hi 
such a 
contini 

us in this tribute to Dr. McXnltr. 

.nd we »re w 

towards (OMoeac. < 









Herald, 






— D 

rburn 



ure. 



. .M 



A Wonder in Naval Arc; 
The i Ireal Republic," recenl 
is said I • ■■ finest ship evcro 

is one of tho wonders of tho i 
Bun pe a better opinion of th ■ 
who live in the midsl ofj i llovi 
men! than any piece of astonishment that c 
pniS'd out of Sandy Hook. The (beat Kepu 

is the longest, sharpest and largest sailing shi] 
the world. She is 325 feet long, has 53 feet 
tremo bread h of bean 1 , 39 feet depth of h 
including 7 feet between the spar and upper d 
and 8 feet between the two decks below, 
registers 4,585 69-95th tons. She has four c 
plete decks, but no bulwarks; for the outliir 
the spar deck is protected by a rail upon tur 
oak Btanchions. Her lines are slightly com 
forward and aft, and her ends arc very long 
very sharp), particularly the bow, which prese 
its angular form to the rail. The whole fore b 
of the vessel is raised about two feet from astra 
line at the forefoot; but this raise is gradual 
sixty feet, and forms an arch where the stem 
keel are united. In oilier words, the gripe of 
forefoot, instead of being angular, is the coinr. 
arc of a circle. For a head she has the repre; 
tation of an eagle, as if emerging from below 
bowsprit; and her stern, which is scmi-ellipt 
in form, is spanned by an eagle, with the An: 
can shield in his talons. The ship has a wait 
9 narrow strakes, defined between mouldings 
sheathed with yellow metal up to 25 feet, an 
painted with black above it. xherailsand oi 
work on deck, are nearly white, ami the gang 
boards are of mahogany, mounted with hi 
She has five houses on the spar dock amid-sl 
The first forward, is a workshop for the c; 
and answers for a shelter in stormy weathe: 
she has no bulwarks. Its after part contaii 
sick hay or hospital. In the second house 
galley, a blacksmith shop, and an enginerc 
for she has a steam engine of fifteen horse po' 
designed to do all the heavy work, such astal 
in and discharging cargo, hoisting top, ails. set. 
up rigging, working I he tire engine, pumping s 
Ac. It is also fitted to work a propeller in 
of her long hunts; and is so arranged that it 
hoist itself out and in when it is required for 
ill the boat. Fitted a., .his boat is, it is ea 
lated to tow the ship in a calm, al the rat> 
three knots an hour. The Great Republic m 
ine.-. ! 500 tona but she w ill slow over 6,000 t 

i he has 4 masts, spreads 20,000 .\ s of can 

and will go the dii tance between New l'ork 

San Francisco in 70 da \ P. 



We extract the following from an arti in 
l.on. Ion Times givii : i reviev of th 
comm rcial progi 

■ ly apt to praise o 

ol ■ ' ■ 

"In oi 
tury, il inary pe 

■ t nun 

700 

The 






with when I 






tO OD 









~ 






■-'- rwuf the l.T.efli 



tall ■'■■: 



2* 



@j).s <$aa*i!08-ttft<o @mmw 



LIFOBNIA FABMEB 



iIJX F. MORSE, Editoh. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
Thursday, January 26, 1S58JT' 



Information most Needed. 

At the present time nothing is more essential 
to the advancement of Agriculture in California, 
than a free interchange of views in respect to the 
best, method of cultivating the soil. This infor- 
mation most oome from the experimenters. The 
husbandmen alone can say which is the season 
for breaking ground, for depositing seed and for 
harvesting the products of his labor. Theories 
constructed upon the experiments of formers in 
Atlantic States, can form but a very imperfect 
and unreliable guide. Xo man could either sow 
or plant by the lessons of husbandry received in 
any other portion of the world. We heard an 
extensive farmer remark, the other day, that in 
1850 he ploughed his ground and planted a num- 
ber of acres with potatoes in April. They came 
up and grew with a thriftiness and vigor which 
led him to believe that he would realize an im- 
mense yield. But to his astonishment, when the 
tops began to give evidence of maturity and he 
dug into the hills to find his anticipated luxuries. 
he was surprised to perceive no evidence of the 
bulbous vegetable. He suspected that the cause 
existed in planting so late, and the next year he 
broke up, prepared and planted his ground in 
January. The result was not only favorable, but 
so unusual as to excite his mind with wonder in 
respect to the power and fertility of the soil. 
From that time to the present he has been a con- 
stant experimenter, and now finds himself so ad- 
vised as to seldom fail in his ideas of the adapta- 
tion of seed, soil and season. 

And yet with him there are many things that 
he desires to learn. lie has never lived in a 
country in which sweet potatoes are grown, and 
knows not how to prepare for the cultivation of 
this luxurious vegetable. He says, from all he 
can learn, that his soil and the geographical posi- 
tion of his farm are exactly what they should be 
to insure success in their culture. This is the 
case with hundreds of farmers in California, and 
it indicates the kind of information which is not 
only needed, but which is absolutely essential 
And we ask the farmers of our .State if they wil 
not assist in our effort at collecting such informa- 
tion, and thereby enable us to put in a dilfusable 
and useful form a kind of knowledge indispensable 
to the progress and improvement of our Agricul- 
ture? There is nothing too simple in its relations 
to sowing, planting, harvesting, or stock-raising 
for publication and study. Indeed, if the utmost 
attention be at once paid to communicating this 
kind of intelligence, it cannot meet the present 
and growing wants of California husbandry ; and 
we would again urge the farmers of our State to 
send us every species of information which their 
experience has recommended to them as valuable. 
It will not make the knowledge less useful to 
them and it will subserve the highest possible 
pnrposc in elevating and perfecting tins source of 
revenue and respect. 



\rrments are produced and the statement is allowed to stand for 24 hours, subsequently being cular motion is calculated to break np, to pulver- 
madethat the loss of crops by drought in the well washed with cold spring water, the' serous ize, and especially to leave the root weed, ncor 



, , , off quite sweet ; and the latter part oi the mdk- 

how much could be saved m California, .' ,.,..', ■ ,' , , ■ 

' iing, which is rich in cream, is at once placed m a 

vessel containin 



portion of the milk was extracted. 

Western States, exceeds the whole cost of the Jn Laucasnjre aud Cheshire the practice is to 
federal government, an amount of over fifty mil- divide the milk into two portions: the greater 
lions. If this is the result of dry weather in the part of the first milk is set in the ordinary way 
fertile West, and this could be saved by deep tostond for cream, the cream being usually taken 
plowin: 

Oregon, and the shores of the Pacific, where our 

dry seasons are in dry, burning weather, as five The two (i. e. the cream of the first, and the milk 
to 'one i :ln '^ cream of the latter) are mixed before churn- 

We' do not hesitate to sav. that the cost of , »'S. "hen slightly sour The churn should be 
' c . . \ set at oh or oil (leg., and ll smart! v churned, the 

waterworks of all kmds for the purposes oi irn- ,„„,,,,. wi|1 ii come .i sometimes within an hour ; 
gation that could be saved by deep plowing, even ;ln ,i rar ely, if set at the above temperatures, will 
the present year, would be more than the cost of it exceed one and a half hours. Forty plunges a 
supporting the government. Will our Farmers minute of the chum is found the most judicious 
see to this, and give it that interest it so much 



demands ? 



the surface in a satisfactory manner. And what 
of the draught after all ? Diminish the surface 
covered, and fewer horses will answer; only it 
must be borne in mind that the wider tie 
the greater the probability there is of all being 
covered, and if seven or eight horses will take a 
three feet wide implement, a pair will be master 
the cream of prior milkings. ! of one with a cover of one foot. 

We have seen five letters from as many practical 
men in different parts of the country, all written 
about the same time, which quite agree in speak- 
ing favorably of it. operation from day today on 
their farms. We. however, do not wish this to l,,; 
taken for more than it is wnith, namely, that 
there are other trials, which, to say the least, 
proffer to act well, and to confirm the two more 
public experiments at Gloucester and at York. 

We hope the idea will be carried out, and great 



rate. Churning should be regulated by a ther- 
mometer, cold water being applied in summer, 



and warm water in winter to obtain the proper j practical results will follow. The plow has been 



Deep Ploughing— Subsoiling. 

We would most emphatically urge the atten- 
tion of the cultivators to this all-important subject. 
The large sums annually expended for windmills 
water tanks, troughs, hose, &c, can be mostly 
saved by a proper system of deep plowing and 
subsoiling. The greatest features of advancement 
in agriculture in California, is deep plowing. In 
a climate like ours, with months of dry and burn- 
ing weather, it is of vital moment that cultivators 
should give their immediate attention to this sub- 
ject, if they desire to be successful in their labors 
in the greatest degree. 

The system of plowing some six to ten inches, 
be it ever so well done, will not long furnish food 
for the vegetation upon it; and however much 
irrigation may be done, the more water applied 
the harder the earth will bake, unless it be kept 
cultivated. Even then it becomes baked solid 
around the roots, rendering it impossible for 
the roots to descend into the deeper and richer 
earth below. By deep plowing, by the use of the 
subsoil plow, opportunity is given for the roots 
to descend for moisture and nourishment, be the 
weather ever so hot and dry ; the longer the dry 
weather lasts, the deeper the roots penetrate. No 
one can estimate the value of deep plowing until 
they have tried it. An extended interest is being 
felt throughout the country on this subject. 

We notice a very able address by the Hon 
Horace Greeley, before the State Society of Ip 
diana. upon II, -object of deep plowing, subsoil- 
ing, irrigation, draining. Some most convincing 



Butter Making. 

FROM AN ENGLISH PIUZK ESSAY. 

A cow that has been exposed in the field all 
day, requires a greater quantity of unazotized food 
to 'support the heat of her body, than would have 
been necessary had she been protected from the 
cold ; but in the evening, if she is removed into a 
warm, well-littered stall where the warmth thus 
communicated is equivalent to a certain amount 
of food, we find the milk of the next morning con- 
siderably richer in butter. Besides the warmth 
of the sheil. ll SE butter is consumed by the oxy- 
gen of the air. In the stall, the respirations of 
au animal are much less frequent than in the field, 
and consequently less oxygen enters its system. 
Hence, it is a practice to milk those cows in the 
field that are distant from home, and to drive 
home to be milked only such cows as are close to 
tlie shed. The exercise required in walking home 
causes an increased play of the respiratory sys- 
tem. and therefore increases the amount of oxygen 
inhaled. The oxygen unites with part of the but- 
ter and consumes it. All good dairymen allow 
the cows to walk home at their own pace, and 
never accelerate it. When a cow is haira- <<l. 
and runs to escape the annoyance, her milk be- 
comes heated, diminishes in volume and richness, 
and speedily becomes sour. This is a well known 
fact to all dairymen. 

The quantity of casein (cheese) in the milk 
appears to be intimately connected with the na- 
ture of the food, being more abundant when the 
cow is fed with beans or oats; and would justify 
the conclusion that within certain limits the 
quality of milk may be made to vary in its com- 
position, by regulating the food of the animal. 

The milk obtained from various breeds varies 
greatly with respect to the butter which it con- 
tains; and still more with respect to the milk 
drawn from the cow at the commencement and 
near the conclusion of the milking. I)r. Ander- 
son found the cream in the lost cup of milk drawn 
from the udder, compared with that of the first 
cup in the proportion of 113 to 1. It is conse- 
quently of the greatest importance that the con- 
should be milked perfectly dry at each meal. 

In milking, the cow should be milked " clean" 
,il once : some are in the habit of doing this twice 
or thrice. The cow is a sensitive and capricious 
creature, easily offended; and if the dairy-maid 
rise from her before the milk is all withdrawn, 
the chances are that she will not stand quietly, 
with the further probability that she will hold 
back her milk a second time. During the Uush 
of grass, when lie' COWS are loaded with milk, it 
may be well always to round a second time, after 
having milked clean, by which means frequently 
some considerable quantity can lie obtained. 
.Milking should be doiie/i/< to draw off the milk 
as quickly as possible. Some cows yield their 
milk with a copious Mow on the gentlest hand- 
ling; others require great exertions. The udder 
of the former will have a soft skin with short 
teats; that of the latter will possess a thick skin. 
willi long and tough teats, 

livery utensil connected with the dairy ought 
to be kept perfectly clean and sweet; scalded, and 
washed with cold water. Lime water, or weak 
saleratus water, is useful lor occasional use. the 
milk should be put into a vessel to cool, but it 
ought nut to stand so long as to allow the cream 
to partially separate. Being cooled, it should be 
strained into dishes, from two inches to four 
inches deep. In a dairy maintained at a proper 
temperature, the cream should be gathered every 
21 hours ; but in hot weather every IS hours at 
the utmost. 

The result of a number of careful experiments 
in churning was as follows ; — 1. The addition of 
some cold water, during churning, facilitates the 
process of the separation of the butter, especially 
when the cream is thick, and the weather hot. 

2. Cream alone is more easily churned than a 
mixture of cream and milk. 

3. Butter produced from sweet cream has the 
finest flavor when fresh, and appears to remain 
the longest period without becoming rancid. 

4. Scalded cream, or the Devonshire method, 
yields the largest quantity of butter; but if in- 
tended to be salted, is most liable to acquire a 
rancid Savor by keeping. 

5. Churning the milk and cream together, after 
they have become slightly acid, is the most eco- 
nomical process for districts where buttermilk can 
be sold, while at the same time it yields a large 
amount of excellent butter. 

0. The greatest quantity of butter from a given 
quantity of cream is obtained at (JO deg. Fahr. ; 
and the best kind at 55 in the churn just before 
the butter comes. When the heat exceeded 65 
deg.. no washing could detach the milk from the 
butter without the acid of salt ; but when a quan- 
tity of salt was wrought well into it, and the mass 



temperature. When the butter is made from 
cream alone, xi^ry early in the morning is the best 
period of the day for the purpose. After the but- 
ter is taken from the churn, it must first be well 
squeezed or " worked" by the baud, and all the 
water that can possibly be, must be pressed out, 
it being for this purpose kneaded, washed, and 
rolled '.nit several times with clean cold water, 
and the last time a little pure salt should be 
kneaded into the mess, which will have the effect 
of causing the greater part of the remaining cheesy 
matter to exude when subsequently washed in 
cold water, salt appearing to have the property of 
dissolving casein. The wdiolc secret of Dutch 
butter making consists in this fact. If properly 
made and washed, half an ounce of salt to one 
pound of butter is sufficient for winter butter ; 
and one-fourth ounce of salt to the pound if for 
immediate use. In Germany and Ireland it is 
invariably found thatjthe best made butter is pro- 
duced in dairies where the milk is customarily 
placed on the floor. It is universally agreed 
among good butter makers that the cream should 
only be slightly sour when it is skimmed, and 
not much more so when churned. Cream allowed 
to remain very long on the milk and become very 
sour, will rarely or never make good flavored or 
keeping butter A chemical change appears to 
take place, whereby the cheesy matter becomes 
united with the butter, without the possibility of 
again separating it. We suspect that this is the 
Chief cause of O great deal of inferior butler. 
Try the experiment and test it. Pure butter, 
properly salted, cannot spoil ; it is the butter-milk 
and cheese incorporated in it. that spoils it; and 
the smallest quantity, if corrupt, will give D 
flavor to tlie wholi 

cannot get it good, can you do better than put 
this paper into the hands of your dairyman I 



n operation for at least four times ten centuries, 
and with very little real alteration, so far. at least, 
as regards its plastering and consolidating of the 
subsoil ; but let other powers of stirring, mixing. 
and pulverizing, lie brought into operation, and a 
more open subsoil, a deeper soil, and, as a conse- 
quence, more yielding and productive crops will 
be tlie result. 



History and Culture of Mignonette. 

It is now an age since this fragrant weed of 
Egypt first perfumed the European gardens, and 
it is so tar climated as to spring from seed of its 
own sowing. The Reseda odorato first found its 
way to the south of France, where it was wel- 
comed by the name of Mignonette (Little Darling) 
which was found too appropriate for this sweet 
little flower to be ever afterwards exchanged for 
anj' other. By a manuscript note in the library 
of the late Sir Joseph Banks, it appears that the 
seed of the Mignonette was sent in 1743, by Lord 
Batsman, from the Royal Gardens at Paris, to 
Mr. Richard Batemen at Old Windsor; but we 
should presume that this seed was not dispersed; 
and perhaps not cultivated beyond Mr. Bateman's 
garden, as we find that Mr. Miller received the 
- id I) mil Dr. Adrian Van lloyen. of Lcyden. and 
cultivated it in the Botanic Garden at Chelsea in 
the year 1752. From Chelsea it soon got into ike 
gardens of the London florists, so as to enable 
them to supply the metropolis with plants to fur- 
nish out the balconies — a tact noticed by Cowper, 
who attained I he age of twenty-one in the year 
that this flower first perfumed the British atmos- 
phere by its fragrance. The odor which this 
| ! little flower exhales is thought by some to be too 
f you buy your hotter, and ,,„„.„,-„, for the houso . fait even th 

we presume, would be delighted with tin- fragrance 
which it throws from the balconies into the streets, 
giving something like a breath of garden-air to 

the ''close-pent man" wl swill not 

permit a ramble beyond the squaresof tin- fashion- 
able part of the town. To such persons it must 
lie a luxurious treat to catch a few ambrosial 
gales on a summer evening, from a heated pave- 
ment, where offensive odors are hut too commonly 
met with. We have frequently found the per- 
fume of the Mignonette so powerful in some of 
the fetter sheets, that we have considered it. effi- 
cient to protect the inhabitants from those effluvia 
that bring disorder with them in the air. This 
genus of plants, of which there are a good many 
species, was named H.sada by the ancients, 
i, sedate, to assuage, because some of the sp 
were esteemed good for mitigating pain. 

The Mignonette is transformed into a perennial 
shrub, which dispenses its odors at all seasons of 
the year, by the following simple treatment: A 
young plant should be placed in a garden pot, 
with a stick of about eighteen inches in height 
inserted by its side, to tie up its branches to; as 
it advances in height, the leaves and young 
branches being kept sUipt oil' from the lower 
part, so as t" form a stem to the height required, 
this stem will become sufficiently hard and woody 
to endure the winter, by being placed in a green- 
house or the window oi' a sitting-room, and may 
be preserved for several years, it air is given to it 
whenever the weather will allow, so that the 
young branches do not become too delicate. As 
soon as the seed-vessels begin to form, they should 
be cut off, which will cause the plant to throw out 
a fresh supply of blossoms; but these plants 
should never be suffered to perfect their seed, as 
it would greatly weaken them, and would gene- 
rally cause their entire decay ; for the sweet Ke- 
sada is an annual in its proper climate, aud there- 
fore naturally decays when it ripens its seed. It 
is frequently' observed that the seeds of the Mig- 
nonette which scattered themselves in the autumn 
produce finer plants than those that are sown in 
the spring, which should teach us to sow a part 
of our seed at that season of the year in pots or 
boxes, kept in frames through the winter, or in a 
greenhouse. — Turner's Florist. 



Samuelson's Digging Machine. 

We give the brief remarks of the editor of 
Mark Lane Express, on the working of this in- 
strument, as suggested at the recent trials at York 
aud Gloucester: 

The machine itself is quite the reverse of the 
plow, 'the latter is a pressing — the former a 
lifting operation ; the one consolidates the subsoil 
— the other fractures it ; the one plaster's like a 
mason's trowel — the other lightens like a fork. 
The one is the operation.- of a icedgi — tlie other 
of a/ever. Hence the result is not only different, 
but. we may say, opposite on the soil. 

The Gloucester trial was made inasoil perhaps 
too wit from the weather to give it a fair chance. 
To lie fair and eipial, especially in a new imple- 
ment, where it may lie supposed all the guai 
against contingencies are not [ully provided, ii is 
clearly important to have the medium on which 
it is supposed to operate in a stale lit lor its bene- 
ficial operation. In other words, the land must 
be in that state that the agriculturist would wish 
it to be in if he were about to sow itwith the crop 
for which it was intended. The perpendicular 
motion, too, is one where the wet soil would tie 
found to operate decidedly in an adverse manner; 
aud hence the natural difficulties of the Glouci s- 
ter trial were decidedly against the implement. 
And then it took seven horses, and for them it 
was hard work ; ami possibly it would, if worked 
for a whole day, have required relay-:, and might, 
according to appearance, have clogged before 
night. These are the unfavorable aspects under 
which it was presented. But when it is remem- 
bered that it loosens thoroughly a width of three 
feet ; that it then took a space before it of nearly 
four plows, which would have required eight 
horses instead of seven ; that the land had not 
been loosened in a similar manner before, the 
difficulty almost disappears, and it seems vastly 
more on a par with the plow than we could at 
first have imagined. 

The York trial was in fine weather, but it had 
been preceded by almost unremitting rainy days 
for some period previously. The land was one of 
those strong uutractable clays for which the val- 
leys of Yorkshire are many of them so celebrated. 
The horses were certainly below par ; but so tho- 
roughly did the machine loosen the soil, pulverize 
the clods, and leave the surface, that three emi- 
nent practical judges awarded it a prize of five 
guineas. 

Let it not, however, be thought we say that 
this machine has exactly answered all its profes- 
sions. We say not whether this individual im- 
plement is calculated for general use or not ; but 
we do say, most unhesitatingly, that the principle 
of a digging or forking machine— which this is 
more particularly — is fully established. We 
leave it for others to work out that principle, and 
to adapt details to the circumstances of each case 
of soil and crop ; but it appears to us that the cir- 



Pkesehvinu Peaches. — To 12 lbs. of peaches 
take six lbs. of clear brown sugar, and one pint 
ol the best cider vinegar. Simmer the sugar and 
vinegar together, which will make a clear syrup. 
four foiling water upon the peaches, and remove 
them in two minutes from the water and wipe 
them dry without breaking the skin. But them 
into the syrup, and boil gently until the fruit is 

i ked to" the stone. Keep the preserves in jars 

w hiih must be kept clo.-cly covered and in a COO] 
place. They should be inspected occasionally. 
and if a white mould appears upon the surface of 
the syrup, it must lie carefully skimmed off, and 
the syrup scalded and returned to the peaches. 
This is themosl economical, and. to our taste, the 
very best preserve we know of. — ProvU 
Journal. 



%\):i ttiiUUl^Ml Junius* 



29 



Lecture upon Chinese Agriculture. 



BY THE REV. WILLIAM SPEER. 



streams, and provided with flood-gates by which 
the water is let in upon the rico fields. No 
as in CI 
itries; but the inhabitant 
' the Musical Hull, on Thursday for the sake of inul 

and thieves. Nor is the coun i 
Mr. Speer ■ " 1 his discours dyl 

remarks upon particular words in our language, the only mean ofcommi on. In- 

origiu may be traced to remote ages and to the produce of the country is 

us inhabiting the farthest ends of the earth, carried in boats upon the rivers and canals, and 
lb- coinpa >■ itself to the fruit of a in baskets swung upon poles borne upon the 

ion iis enormous trunk shoulders of coolies. The rich, when they g<> 
tin- trai ol extending through abroad, are carried in sedan chairs upon the top 

countless ages, « tiile the (reshnoss of its verdure of the dykes, or else conveyed in bouts from place 
indicate vij ir, There are. in it lim- to place 

pid and liquid s 1- from the nations of the Med- Bice, said Mr, S., is. as is well known, the prin- 

;i : ; nor jwc land mellowed Icipal grain. It is not only tin- chief article of 

ithern exposure; and on otherlthe food of the Chinese, but that of which they 

inon twisted and mossy with the Boreal are fondest. Two and sometimes three crops ore 

are the harsh and acrid offspring of soil in extracted from the soil, The mode of cultivation 

ml North. But sumo of the roots of consists in a rude kind of plowing, performed by 

trate to the primary rocks — far be- means of the buffalo of the east, an animal 

which constitutes this visible resembling out ox — the onl}' animal employed 

landscape. Many of the words in common use by them in agricultural purposes — and then 



have been handed down from periods of high an- 
ty, through the Greek, the Persian, the 
Ethiopic, and the Sanscrit, like cords to link re- 
am] ages, to contain and conduct human 
and inspired sentiments. Some of our substan- 
may he traced through many climes to the 
rthest East. Of these, he mentioned several in- 
!: is; amongst others, that of the word '' sugar." 
This is to be found alike in all the languages of 
modern Europe — in the Welsh, the tongue of the 
ancient Britons, and in the Greek, where it is 
mentioned as one of the products of India, and 
described as " honey from the cane called sacclta- 
row." Iu the language of the Eastern nations, 
the same sound is retained, and the Chinese die 
or chay may have been derived from, or be 
the monosyllabic origin of the same primitive 
designation. The word " cassia" was also in- 
stanced by Mr. S. in this connection, as another of 
the words which connect us with the old Oriental 
world. This delightful spice, he said, was intro- 
duced from the East, either India or China, into 
Western Asia, at a period/ar beyond the era of 
jiistory, and is mentioned more than once ill the 
Scriptures, and not unfrequcntly in Classical 
History. It is heard in the Hebrew kiddah, in 
the Malay kayu, and probably in its primitive 
form in the Chinese kwel. We have also in the 
English language several words taken entirely 
from the Chinese — such as ginseng, or " the 
man-plant" so called from the resembrance of its 
roots to a human hand ; tea, pronounced in the 
Court dialect cha, in the Fuh-kien fay ; nankeen, 
from Nanking, the ancient capital of China, which 
is destined to be the seat of the new dynasty; 
and china, the name which has been appropriated 
to the porcelain manufactures of the Empire, spe- 
cimens of which have been found in the pyramids 
of Egypt, and have been recently exhumed from 
the ruins of Nineveh. But perhaps the most in- 
teresting word is silk — a sound now known in 
nearly every European, Asiatic, and American 
tongue — the culture of which was introduced into 
China twenty-live centuries before the Christian 
era. Mr. S. quoted several passages from the 
Bible making mention of this material. It is 
noticed as part of the clothing of the excellent 
woman by King Lemuel, in 1'rov. .'!1 ; 22. But the 
word shevh used in Hebrew is almost everywhere 
else translated "linen." It was more likely the 
ancient byssue. In Ezekiol ICth, the word m'shi 
— used there alone- — is much more likely tobe OUT 
modern silk. Such is the rendering of tie- He- 
brew interpreters. At that period, titli I II. ('..and 
probably much earlier, it was carried to Western 
Asia by the Phoenician and other traders, botl 
by sea and land. A third recurrence of tin [ 
is in Rev. 18 : 12, when- it is included in the mer- 
chandise of the mystical Babylon, under the name 
tericon. or the '"seric" web. This is del 
from ser, a silkworm, and was the first desi 
tion of the Chinese in the European world. He 
also spoke of its use among Other ancient nation-. 
particularly the Romans, with whom it was sold 
at its weight in gold- quoting the following beau- 
tiful description of it from Dionysius: 

QOl . . u SorOfl ti'nit ; 

. in Hi :|.n\ it, ! !ol i the 

: ■ . ■■ ror i ■ 

,' cora ii Mi-Til.- 1 ■■ 
tout . . ■ 

; ■ : 

Aw- 
Arm. 

bese words, Mr. S. - A, by the re- 



sowing the seed broadcast over the fields 
covered with several inches of water. When 
the blades spring up, they are transplanted 
and sown ill drills. Arrived at maturity, the 
crop is reaped by means of an instrument re- 
sembling a sickle. It is then carried to the vil- 
lage granaries and threshed or trampled out. 
Sonic credit is reflected upon the Chinese, said 
Mr. S., by the fact that the invention of the fan- 
ning machine, of such vast utility to us, has been 
known in China for centuries. They were first 
carried from China to Holland, by the Dutch ; 
thence to Scotland, and thence to America. Ma- 
chines are often to be seen on the threshing floors 
of the villages, similar to those in use in the East- 
ern States. After these operations are performed, 
continued Mi- S„ the grain is laid up for safe 
keeping— deducting the tithes paid as taxes fo" 
the support of the Government, or else commuted 
at a fixed rate. Of the numerous methods of 
preparation, the most usual is by boiling. They 
display much skill in this matter, and prepare it 
in various ways, some of which are acceptable 
even to foreigners, particularly that called Pilao. 
Ardent spirits are distilled from the grain, and 
frequently used, particularly at meals. Mr. S. 
gave several details on this subject, and mentioned 
several varieties — from that of a quality approach- 
ing our South Carolina rice, to a coarse red rice, 
similar in appearance to wheat. The latter is 
exceedingly cheap, and large quantities are con- 
sumed by the poorer classes. 

Of wheat, Mr. S. said, large quantities arc raised 
in the North of China, of which a portion is 
brought South and sold to the foreigners resident 
at Canton and elsewhere. 

Cotton is also an important article of cultiva- 
tion, but full accounts of it could be found in 
numerous books, and he therefore considered it 
unnecessary to give a detailed statement in rela- 
tion to it. 

Hemp is also extensively cultivated. Then- are 
numerous varieties of it, some of a white fibre, 
from which an article of era-- cloth is man il 
tured. The French have lately introduced the 
• -tilt ivation of this article into our 01 a count 

Sugar cane is another great i ol 

Chinese agriculture. Much, it is well known, is 
exported to this port and > The method 

talieation is different from the 
used. The syrup is poured into shallow pans, and 
a bambo i pi iced in it. around 

sugar chri stalHzes in a manner similar t" that in 

k candy is made, it is afterward 

I, and employed in sweet near-, or laid up 
for use i 

'lie omboo 

is apjn ■ tO. It is -' 

to say thai a city D --ill. and its 

inhabitants provided with neoessarj lurnitureand 

utensil Nearly every por- 

uture. among the people 

on the be Gamed ol it. Then they 

p into 
spirits for a drink, and linalh 
ios, which ti' 
.Mr. S. then mentioned various minor produc- 
le water-chestnut, or wuttai; 
ing beans, - 
which migfa 
awn gardens and ft dubited specimens 

..- of them — of which a | dried 

in the sun, or otherwise prepared foi p 

and exportation ab 

into maccaroni, and cai 

markable extent of their and the uni- meats are p] a as the preserved A-wm- 

m all climes kirtit. a tiny orange: or the 

and ages, how great and widely known the pro- jelly obtained from a .-, in largo 

ductions of Chinese Agriculture had been in past quantities not only for find bat in the arts. This 

: l.ut great as they had been, they were in- should be boiled to be most palate. 

ed with that now opening upon A varietj "-ribed; 

us in the future, or even that which el plantains, pine-apples, pomegranates, guava, mau- 

scnt. In the account he should plowe d ' cocoa-nuts, 

of the latter, he -aid lie wished it understood that plums 

be spoke only of the Southern parts of the Empire, of oi 

In the northern portion of the Empire be had large] 

never been, and therefore would not assume to mclo. as large as a cocoa-nut, wi 

k except upon information derived from others. Several fruits peculiar to 
The best way in which one could form a jus 
Caption of the Agriculture of China woui 

said Mr. S.. i - If placed upon a -hell and a large acorn 
lofty emineir king a rich 

ailerons riee 
dotted oxer with cities and villages. 

(ornia. but utterly bare, with the . 



pava of naturalists) grows upon a tall palm-like 
tree, ami resembles in both external and internal 
appear.: .l.-inelo-j. Il is, however, in- 

sipid, and bosl when boiled and eaten like 
i lies. Apple- and pears come from Shantung 
province, hut are large, white skinned, hard lis 
tone, and porfectrj insipid- the, arc-good when 
cooked. There are two delicious varietiesof tin 

peach ; the /liil-ln. or fiat peach, shaped like a 

common tomato, and the hwang-to, or yellow 

peach, Which runs to the opposite extreme ol' 
length. Cur own peach probably came from 
China, by way of Persia and Italy, inon- than two 
thousand years ago. 

But the two products of China from which we 
may hope to obtain more benefit, are her silk and 
tea. Silk will at some future period he manufac- 
tured extensively by the Chinese population that 
will emigrate to various portions of the United 
States. 

t if the cultivation of tea. he gave many details, 
anil referring to the successful experiments of Br. 
Juntas Smith, of South Carolina, expressed the 
opinion that it might perhaps be introduced into 
this country. The soil of China best adapted to 
it is found in elevated localities, and composed 
chiefly of disintegrated sand stone or quartz. 
The plant passes through three or four pickings, 
and frequently each particular leaf is rolled by 
females or children. Considerable quantities arc 
prepared in the form of cakes — thence called brick 
ten — for exportation to Russia. The plant itself 
is difficult of transportation by sea, and Mr. S. 
said every attempt to carry it to England has 
failed, until the recent invention of " Ward's Air- 
Tight Cases," by means of which this object had 
been attained by an Englishman named Fortune. 
The cultivation of tea prevails in most parts of 
the Empire, and a coarse, hardy kind is raised in 
Canton Province; but the best quality of black is 
produced in a region known as the Mold, or Bohea 
Hills, four or five hundred miles to the north-east 
of Canton ; while the best green comes from the 
neighborhood of the Yang-tsze-kiang River. It 
is the opinion of Mr. Fortune, an intelligent bot- 
anist, that the two kinds are produced by one 
tree, and their peculiarities only the result of 
picking at a different season, a different mode of 
drying the leaf, or the addition of coloring sub- 
stances. 

Mr. S. then proceeded to speak of the garden- 
ing of the Chinese, an art in which they greatly 
excel, which seems peculiarly adapted to the na- 
tional taste. In the humblest and meanest tanka- 
lioat on the river, you will sec a neat little pot, or 
a row of them, with sonic pretty flower, which is 
tended with affectionate assiduity. These are 
often made to grow in glass jars oi water only, or 
upon a handful of white pebbles. The grounds 
of the rich arc beautifully laid out upon the prin- 
ciples of landscape gardening in vogue in Europe, 

and in accordance « ith which tin- I reason as had 
been created bj Shenstone. Theyan penetrat 

in ail directions by skillfully Contrived walk- 
leading to the best points oi' view, ornamented 

with piivillions. - with bells, 

painted glass ornaments, suspended by silk 
i to tinkle in the wind, ami poetical 
■ inn- pillars ; with grottoes con- 
structed of stones washed into fantastic shapes by 

the w < IP : with lalieilnl 01 

with edifices of various styles of architecture, 

- d to the family, some to literature or 

-.- or to religion ; with 

n Ith -old and silver th.li. or lovered 
« nh - 

ol-, . Tin- Chinese pecnliaritii 

ing were" applied in England with . 
by th -ntury 

I a very pleasing work on this 

-. which was published in London in 1767. 
The Jesuit Attir. t. wrote an account of tie- Em- 
hQUBeB, iu I ■ 

whieh. iii tin- height of 

"in these everything is grand and truly t 

well with r. ■_ 

I am so orach i nek with the 

different It-overs cultivated by them 



and the 
■ uianr. 



- 
ihcir wond 

neral skill and invention 

have many supefSOUOns 



peror introduced agriculture, and they worsl 
him as a divine being. In many Chinese cities, 
it is customary at certain periods of the vear II 
the mandarins to cause a huge ox to be made 
the body of whieh are placed many others mi 

of earth. After certain ceremonies, Hi 

broken, and the citizens endeavor to procure.it 
small portion, whieh they carry home to exercise 
a beneficial influence over their agricultural oper- 
ations of (he year. 

In conclusion, Mr. S. said, the question is, why- 
arc (hese people brought here ? For our benefit 
and theirs — that we may employ their industry 
and ingenuity; and that they may have the benefit 
of our science, our machinery, and above all of 

our morality. It is. said he. the ingenious theory 
of Goethe adopted by the botanists of the present 
day. that tile flowers mid fruits of plants are but 
modifications of the leaf; that the petal, the 
stamen, the ovule, the fruit, are but improvements 
upon that primitive type ; on the other hand, that 
this symbol of human worthlessness anil transi- 
toriness, this rubbish which nature sweeps from 
the completed architecture of the year, contain 
all the elements of the painted and odorous blos- 
soms. With this developcment cultivation has 
much to do. Now, China, with its vast popula- 
tion, is like a forest. Upon its hills anil plains, its 
myriad inhabitants have fluttered their season, 
and then faded and fallen like leaves. Trans- 
planted into this new countrv, we must, like hus- 
bandmen, prune and water and cultivate them by 
every agency God has put in our power. Thus 
these wild plants shall be made to produce sweet 
flowers and pleasant fruit, give additional beauty 
to the garden of the Lord, and help to enrich the 
garner above. 

Apples. — The original Ribston Pippin Tree, 
the favorite apple of the English, was flourishing 
fifty years ago, and perhaps is now. Sir Henry 
Goodricke, being at Rouen, in Normandy, pre- 
served the pips of some fine flavored apples, and 
sent them to Ribston. where they were sown. 
Out of seven trees, thus produced, five proved de- 
cided crabs. The other two proved good apples. 
They were never grafted ; and one of them is the 
celebrated Ribston Pippin. Suckers from this 
tree produced fruit in the Horticultural Gardens at 
Chiswick iu 1831. The old Golden Pippin, gene- 
rally supposed to he worn out, still bears excellent 
fruit if grafted on the Paradise, or Doucin stock. 
The Cornish GUlitlowor, one of the best English 
apples in the present day. was well known in the 
time of Charles I., and, as yet. shows no symp- 
toms of decay. It requires to be grafted on a 
strong stock. Of the Ribston Pippin, Downing 
says :' - It stands as high in Great Britain as the 
Bank oi' England, and to say that an apple ha- a 
Ribston flavor, 18, there, the highest praise that 

ran be bestowed. Hut it is scarcely so much cs- 
.: - 1 in the United Stales. In Maine and parts 

of Canada it is very Hue and productive," 

I lie nam.- Ran -t'r 1 ': applied to apples ftllil 
I :.l from an old Saxon word, 

,,1/liu. signifying early. The word rathe, mean- 

i,l,. is slid in use in the weald of Sn-sex, 

England, and the Bare-ripe apple is iii ! called 
Rathe ripe. So (hat, instead of understanding 

that the rare-ripe Peach rarely ripens, we mean 
that it is, or "light to be, an early Peach. 

Pn i I.OSOHH v is reason with the eyes of the soul ; 
by with the wings of the spirit. 



PROSPECTl S 

OF 

THE CALIFOBNIA FARMER 

And Journal of Useful Sciences. 

\\',. . i. or 

Aqbii i 
ginning of the 

.1. f. M < amento, (torn 

uion). 

r the 
all the most important practic I 

: -ire. in all i< 

of valuable 

marks 



1 all who feci an 

,..,;.„,: and fundal.. l.fli 



aces* for all matters 



- 



, 



I 
s, and along the bank 



h are dried and have air 

tckampet, or •■ yellow akin,'' a tart grape- 

oilfi. turd 

nrtuguese a! Mri-. or ■;. ic vn-sv 
M, or the wood melton," (the canca pa- 



rarelv. It r- ill | yd that the 

oessi ve rains or drought* over tl 

1 irioafc. and that they wi 

fence. The Chinese ii iiyr th 






ivl 



30 



@8)8 @(sa^ll®» ttfJui ^(Biruji^^ 



Leaves from my Chinese 3Jote Book. 
Udder this title I propose to send yon. from 
time to time, descriptions of Chinese gardens, 

; and other objects of natural history which 
il :'. dent interest to occupy a place 
in v.. ir columns. As many of your readers have, 
no doubt, heard of " Howqua's Mixture" I shall 
i by attempting to describe Howqua's gar- 
den. 

This garden is situated near the well known 
Fa-tee nurseries, a fen- miles above the crty of 
Canton, and is a place of favorite resort both for 
Chinese and foreigners who reside in the neigh- 
oorhood, or who visit this part of the Celestial 
Empire. Having occasion to be in Canton a few 
weeks ago, I determined on paying it a visit 
in company with Mr. McDonald, who is well 
len 'vn in this part of the world as an excellent 
Chinese scholar, and to whom I am indebted for 
some translations of Chinese notices, which ap- 

I very amusing to us at the time, and which, 
I dare say, will amuse your readers. 

Having reached the door of the garden we pre- 
sented the card with which we were provided, 
and were immediately admitted. The view from 
the entrance is rather pleasing, and particularly 
ingto a stranger who sees it for the first 
time. Looking "right ahead," as sailors say, 
there is a long and narrow paved walk lined on 
each side with plants in pots. This view is 

n a:;d apparently lengthened by means of 

tagon arch which is thrown across, and be- 
yond that a kind of alcove covers the pathway. 
Running parallel with the walk, and on each side 
behind the plants, are low walls of ornamental 
brickwork, latticed so that the ponds or small 

which are on each side, can be seen. Alto- 
gether, the octagon arch, the alcove the | 
ornamental flow r pots, and the water on each 

has a striking effect, and is thoroughly 

The plants consist of good specimens of South- 
era Chinese things, all well known in England, 
such, for example, as Cymbidium sinense, Oleo 
fragrans, Oranges, Roses, Camellias, Magnolias 

, ink of course, a multitude of dwarf trees 
without which no Chinese garden would l.e con- 
sidered complete. In the alcove alluded to there 
are some nice stone seats, which look cool in a 
climate like that of Southern China. The flooi 
of this building is raised a few feet above tie 
ground-level, so that the visitor gets a good view 
of the water and other objects of interest in the 
garden. That this is a favorite lou u id smok- 
ing place with the Chinese, the following Chinese 
■ ■'; we found on one of the pillars, will 
: '■_! careful ami earnest notice: This 
garden earnestly requests that visitors will spit 
Betle— (the natives in the south of China, like the 
Malays, are very fond of chewing the fruit of the 
Areca. commonly called Betle-nut) — outside the 
railing, and knock the ashes ol pipes also outside." 

;il line fruit trees and Others a.e growing 
near the walks, and afford shade from the ra 

of these we read the following: 
iVi ■ 

Ken' if the garden stands a substan- 

e, or hall, named " the Hall of 
notice to sm 
■i' Betle-nut is also put up here ; and 

there is another and longer one whicli i 

to quote. Il is this: " In this garden the 
ded to delight the eyes of all visit- 
ors, a great deal has been expended in planting 

r, and tile garden is now 
i ung to yield some return. Those whocome 
hereto about are earnestly prayed not to 

pluck the fruit or flowers, in order that the beauty 
of the place may be preserved." And then fol- 
lows a piece ol true Chinese politeness: " We beg 
ins « ho understand this notice to excuse it ! :: 
bag through the Hall of Fragrant Plants we 
approached, between two rows of Oli 

ornamental suite of rooms tastefully furni 
and decorated, in which visitors are received and 
inscription us that this 

lied ' the Fragrant Hall of the "Woo-che tree." 
Leaving this place by a narrow door we obi 
the following notice': "Saunterers here will be 
excused entering." This apparently kails to the 
private apartments of the family, in this side of 
the' garden there is some line artificial rockwork, 
which the Chinese know we'd how to construct, 
and various summer-houses tastefully decorated, 
one of which is called the ''Library "of Verdant 
Purity." Between this part of the garden and 
the straight walk already noticed, there is a small 
pond or lake for fish and Water Lilies. This is 
crossed by a zigzag wooden bridge of many arches, 
whicli looked rather dilapidated. Avery neces- 
sary notice was put up here, informing "sauntcr- 
ers to stop their steps in case of accident." 

On the outskirts of the garden we observed the 
potting sheds, a nursery for rearing young plants 
and seeds, and the kitchen garden. Here a na- 
tural curiosity was pointed out by one of the 
Chinese, which, at first sight, appeared singularly 
curious. Three trees were growing in a row, and 
at about twenty or thirty feet from the ground 
the two outer ones had sent out shoots, and fairly 
d themselves with the centre one.' When 1 
ntion that the outer trees are the Chinese Ban- 
nitida), it will readily be seen how 
the ap] they presented was produced. 

The Ion in down by this species had 

loviii,' I .,,,.| appeared 

have ready grafted there 
.1 it. 
1 am afraid I have given a \ . 
CriptiOn Of this curious garden. lhoSO v, QO 1 nnri 
is will understand me well 
li. hut it is really difficult to give a .-.nan;, r 
a of the Chinese style which 1 have been 



endeavoring to describe. In order to understand 
the Chinese style of gardening, it is necessary to 
dispel from the mind all ideas of fine lawns, 
broad walks and extensive views; and to picture 
in their stead everything on a small scale — that 
is. narrow paved walks, dwarf walls in all direc- 
tions with latticework or ornamental openings in 
them, in order to give views of the scenery be- 
vond halls, summer-houses and alcoves, ponds or 
small lakes with zigzag walks over them — in 
short, an endeavor to make small things appear 
large, and knee things small, and everything 
Chinese. There are some of these ornaments, 
ho ever, which I think might be imitated with 
advantage in our own gardens. Some of the 
doorways anil openings in walls seemed extremely 
pretty.' In particular I may notice a wall about 
len feet high, having a number of open compart- 

nts lilted witii porcelain rods made to imitate 

the stems ol' the Bamboo. 1 shall now close this 
notice with the modest lines of the Chinese poet, 
which we found written in the "Library of Ver- 
dant Purity," and which seemed to be an effort 
to describe the nature of the garden : 
" B 'I'll'' few stems 'i ; Baiul p]i il , 

A cottage btow lug round ; 

i —dome i it reca there, 

A, ill ii iin'w ur garden ground." 

— R. It., in London Gardeners? Cfin 



Eemarkable Supposed Case of Petrifaction. 
The Wheeling (Va.) Intelligencer, says: — 
"There arrived,. within a few days, at the depot 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in this city, 
an oblong box represented to contain a corpse, 
and it struck us assomewhat singular^il v. 
560 lbs., according to the freight charges upon it. 
Curious to know somthing more about this box 
than the external marks indicated, we instituted 
jome inquiries, and derived the following infor- 
mation, which, as we got it from prettj 
authority, we are inclined to consider COsrect 
until we receive a better explanation: — Tin' . 
ol" a gentleman living in Nelson county, in this 
Stale, died Si.me four years ago, and was intern d 

in the usual manner. Being i ive of Wood- 
ford county, Ky.. she had requested. before death, 

to be buried beside her kindred and in tic I 
of her childhood. From accident or delay, her 
request was not complied with until quite recenth 
her relations caused her remains lobe disinterred, 
they were found to be of the extraordinary 

weight mentioned above — over 500 lbs.! At (he 
time of her death her weight was about 110 lbs. 
tlnly the foot of the ei. bin. which was still iii a 
good state of preservation, was broken op.cn. when 
her feet were found to be in a perfect stl 
petrifaction, the stone partaking of the chari 
of the hardest limestone formations in the locality 
of the grave. The inference is that the whole 
body is petrified. The gentleman ill chargeol the 
remains is having them conveyed to ^ oodford 
county. Ky.. according to the request of He' de- 
ceased. We omit the names of lie deceased and 
her relations as immaterial to a matter which 
appears, as near as we caii judge, to be correctly 
Stated 38 above. Human petrifications are rare, 
among multifarious wonders ol nature, but as 
they have been found, as the records of sc 
we have no reason to reject this instai 
.me among the rarest results of a peculiar combi- 
nation of the physical elemi i 

* Agricultural Operations at the Tejon. 

Mn. EDWARDS arrived from the Tejon this 
week, on bis way to San Francisco. From him 
we gather the following interesting intelligence : 

On the Kith inst.. superintendent Bealo gave a 
grand F'iesta to the Indians, at which several 
.-lids were present, from all portions ol the 
Southern country : from as far north as the 
i Ihowchilla river ; from the western slope of the 
Sierra Nevada ; from the great desert on the east- 
ern side of that range; from the Tulare Lake, end 
from the Coa.-I Range. With them Lieut. 
had a long talk; explained the system he had 
d for their support, Idcsired their assist- 
in carrying out the proposed plan. They 
appeared much delighted with the prospect ol 
having farms for themselves, and were eager to 
furnish hands to assist in carrj ing out the work 
now going on. Useful presents were distributed 
among them, after which the dancing commenced, 
and continued until sunrise next morning, when 
they all departed for their respective rancln i ins. 
much pleased at what had taken place, and ex- 
pressing great satisfaction at the prospect of rais- 
ing, by their own toil, enough for their support. 

Lieut, Beale has now thirty plows running. 
(all worked by Indian boys) and expected, in tin' 
course of this week, to start as many more. The 
land selected for cultivation is wry fertile, and 
the prospect of a large crop next summer, induces 
all to work hard and willingly. 

For the last two months, Lieut. Beale has been 
upon the spot himself, conducting, with energy, 
all the work going on; and should the resuil 
at all commensurate with the care and attention 
he has bestowed, the Indians will long remember 
him as a benefactor. — Jjos Angeles Star. 



A Singular Marriage Ceremonial. — In 
South Carolina there is no law prescribing a mar- 
riage ceremonial. Hence the mode of the oere- 
mony and the character of the officiating functii m- 
ary are left to the choice of (he parties. Judge 
Frost, of the Court of Sessions, in a recent cl 
to a jury, remarked that if a' man and woman 
jump over a broom, the I'm mer Baying: "I taki 
liii Woman to be my wedded wife'" and til 
Or: "I take this man to be my wedded I 
and go to housekeeping, they "are legally married 
—having entered into a bond of union which can- 
not be aunullcd so long as they live 



Life in Australia. 

A rook has been lately published in England, 
entitled " A Lady's Visit to the Gold Diggings ol 
Australia, in 1852-^53," v. hieh contains many in- 
teresting statements, and among them the follow- 
ing: " You may see. ami hoar too, some thoroughly 
colonial scenes in lie' sheets. Once, in the 
middle of the day. when passing up Elizabeth 
street. I heard the iinniistakeable sound of a mob 
behind, and as it was gaining upon me. I turned 
into the enclosed ground in front of the Roman 
Catholic cathedral, to keep out of the way of the 
crowd. A man bail been taken up for horse- 
stealing, and a rare, ruffianly set of both sexes 
were following the prisoner and the two police- 
men who had him in charge. ' If but six of ye 
were my mind, 9 shouted he, 'it's this moment 
ye'd release him.' The crowd took the hint, ana 
to it they set with right good will, yelling, swcar- 
ii . end pushing with awful violence. The owner 
of the horse got up a counter demonstration, and 
every lew yards the procession was delayed by a 
trial of strength between the two parties. Ulti- 
mately the police conquered ; but this is not 
always the case, and often lives are lostand limbs 
>( ! ,.i in the truggle, so weak is the force main- 
tained by the Colonial Government for the pres- 
ervation "I Order. .Another day, when passing 
the post-office, a regular tropical shower of rain 
came on ral lei -e [denrj . and I ha itened up to the 

platform for shelter. As I st 1 there. l< 

out into Civet Bourke strci t, a nan. and, I sup- 
pose, his wile, passed by. He had a letter in his 
band tin- the post ; but as the pathway to the re- 
ceiving box looked very muddy, he made his 
take it to the box, whilst he himself 
from beneath his umbrella, complacently watched 
ii. ■ Colonial pub 

thought : as the happy couple walked on. Some- 
times a jovial wedding-] artj come dashingthroiigh 
iii" streets, there the} go, the bridegroom with 

M around the lady'.- v, aist, the other ' 

a champagne I Ottlc to his lip.-' ; the gay vehicles 

that follow contain company even more unre- 
strained, and from them noisier demonstration! 
of merriment may be heard. 1 r'swed- 

OTO all the rage; and bridal veils, white kid 
and above all. orange bloSSOroS, are gener- 
ally most diiiicnlt to procure at any p* ice. At 
times you may see men. half-mad, throwing 

like half-pence, out of their pockets into 

nets; and I once saw a digger who was 
looking over a large quantiti of bank notes, delib- 
erately tear to pieces and trample in the mud 
every i eed one he cume to; swearing 

all the time at th ;old brokersfor 'giving him 
dirty paper money lor pure Alexandc 

oTn'l carry dirt in his pocket — not he — thank 
Cod. he'd plei d loo.'" 



Lanoch. — A beautiful yacht schooner called 
the ■■.Matilda Heron," was launched at Iliueou 
Point on Friday last. The Sun ''does up" the 
event in the followirg unapproachable .>: j |e : 

"Well does this elegant creation ol 
and skill of our I olifornia mechanics me] 

pr I end • towed 

on her. Th lovely in the extreme. 

although severely cold; the bright sun 
danced in gladi 
tremblingly anxious to embrace the new hoe; 

and OS t] ' 8 ■>:" On 

that element, it parted with a silvery ripple, like 
the fond smile of affection with which a joyouj 
bridegroom first greets hi.- bin bine bride. 

" The feathery spray leaped Ireshrj to tli 
come of the graceful stranger, and the 
.tin lien melodies through the 
In r cordage, while olorsat her mast- 

heads fluttered in men, ri the music. 

The beaut iful rc elseemed in eel wit iii' 
cognizant of the ft lovely and accom- 

plished lady whose name she bore, was looking 
on with throbbing pulse and gri i this 

renewed token of the high estimation in which 
she is held by all true Californians. 

"Not a soul attended the launch who di 
feel that the compliment paid to the genius and 

worth of the fair l indium her of this chri 

was but a re hi. mi of their own sentiments 

and a tangible expression of their own admira- 
tion. May the Matilda Ueron 'walk the waters 
like a thing of file."' succes fully accomplishing 
tie' views of her enterprising builders and do 
credit to the name of the lady California 'delights 
in honor.' " 



MARRIED. 



In Si 'ohn M. 

Aim im M \ ... - li 

inn, , i ■ , i I iron House, by It 

Null!", Mi. A ■ Hivor, i. ml -V 
Wormer, ol u . 

In thl ill'. (.: .;, . .1 hi. - A. Mi Cir.'i. I 
Mi-. I : 

In toil i'iiv. .1 . -. hi, in ,'Vt I'. .' ,■ 'i'. Mr. Eilv 

wire mi.: man ,,:'.! [Udii J nea, Dot! tit cl ' 

In Son .in i', mi ; eiiii inat., 3. A. Clark and Mi.i. '■ 

McKoo, ni Cornwall, Conn. 

in Stockton, L8 i. i. t,bj B. G. Weir, Mr. Caleb Wardnnd 

Ai Bald Rock it li, Tuolui 16th il It, 01 thfl 

residence, ol Mr. Turner, n>. D. vt tshtngton Ucrron an 

,Mi -.inn I K. T. in. ■ 

'ii i ,. : . .- , , , , re, in ,i, Mr, rune, i.ii.l Mix Vi- 

In PhuadelpHb, D ■. 15*. bj Rev. J. C. Cloy, Mr. F I 

i , , i ■ 1 1 1 , ■ , i ■ 

. i . 



MARKET KEPOItTS. 

San Francisco, Jan. 25, 1854. 

The pant and present weea inm been remarked bj one of ed 

trome dullm?*H iii commercial affairs, and men l- -.''.-iiendf 

are dispirited. The Domestic Produce market baenoti ■ 
the prevailing Bullni tctiona in nil description! baa 

been limited. The recent ruin.- will probably resl 
to a niore pronupiiiLT state, and lead merchants t" nutitipad 
more favortihle advices from the interior. 

The demand for Whent has j_Tentiy fallen oft', and no -i ■■ - ■> 
importance have taken place, Incur knowledge 

During the past few days somewhat better leeung has bed 
manifested in Barley. The sales, hovvivir, have- ln-rn ol ri< 
importance. 

In Corn, but little is doing. 

Potatoes are at so low n litrure as to have become a complef 
drug in the market. 

JOBBING PRICFS. 

AGItlCUL'JTRAL IMPLEMENTS— 

Snoveta, Ames long handled, bright jh. oo </ 

do do shorbhandled 12 50 a 

do Fields', long handled H 00 

do do short handled, no sale. 

do Rowland'.-, long handled 12 <K> " 13 <x> 

do do tin. rt handled - 00 " 12 no 

do Kin---, long handled IS 00 S 13 1 1 

Spades, bright c. s. best make Hi DO iv-lH (JO 

do iron 10 00 'a 12 00 ] 

Coal and Grain Hc<jo]>e; ca*t steel 20 (.'II a 2-1 <*> 

do do iron lO(H) 319 00 

1 i . I li I in ', »*d I audle 17 00 ii 

dp Hum ', do 17 ,: " " 

Picks, Collins*, i' ■ to B-tfJ, solid eye 14 00 S — - 

do afcbei ". in on ,.'— - 

-<,. il -I '"I 

do do 'in ' oxc. '■'■ i" 1 a I SO 

Plows, best make l-l mi «:to no 

do steel :iu w air, uo 

in'- and !!■ i ae power. Hall & 
Pitts', no sale, aoiniuid, $600 to 8800: other 

llU.kl * Nll'fl |n St I M.I; I 

Straw c aol SO 'ft a 

Raki -, I oree imd revoli ingi di sale, 
do band, wood do 

do do Bteel 12 <-f> t?20 00 

no sale 

1 1'. ■ 1 1 ■ ■■■ ■ ■■. per doz <"> (t| i 5 1 

- — 15 u 13 

Flour Mill ."-. 30 In. |450. 

There probnblylnu nerei been a tim< when all tlicabon 

■ ■ii- rated articles hung more heavy upon the 

1 -..'itt. 
FLOUB— 

— We note targe stoclsAn hand; and sales heavy; holdea 
roalizGi 
Poi Gallego and Haxal^tra quote mo fobbing 

■ ..." 12 00 a 13 1 

Chile '" I" ■> 'i ''" 

■ -I 11 no icj 

Untii.-v Mill . (di mearic) 12 

Benicia Mills, .i.» 1150 a 

Meal, inbbls 6 50 S 3 00 

do Vi bbls :i 50 " 3 75 

Ih a— ^ 

ni; UN— 

Corn.1 - 

do Cabloniia — 3 

1 a 

do Cal. feodina — 2' i 

■ (Ol 'I — 10 « 10 ."''I 

— 4 ii 

do Beed — -i ■ . » — IH 

do O . mk't 

ilu Eastern — 3 W- — 31 

— -1 - 

tin 1 — 

'I" 'I" li I' iM'lilN'.' 

Austntlin, seed — I' 

— We n ■ ■ 

LUMBER— 

— Vi 1 ■ itilreJ 

n iiit d m di wnword tei di 1 ■ 

." 

Plank and Scai tUug, Oregon 

tern W. P clear 

Plank, Eastern 1 ah 

■ 
do d 1 !d miauQ 15 00 
G .... -00 
do On ; 

do niU.> iii 



10 00 

Ir, No. 1 

1 1 . — — 

do C ttornfn 





ONS— 
—All 1. .. ■ P . 

. . ]■ m ' 

6 

. :' ll< 

I 



' «.il 1 W 

u V7 

do ■■■■:. i.uy 17 

1 1 00 

1 J ; ( 

.! . ." M 

Laid, in kegs 

u lb I'- 
do 15— 20 do t5 

Pork, clear, g> bbl " ( ' 

do do '■■ bbl 12 00 

d 1 an bbl '< "" 

do do fedo Ifl 00 

KICK— 

Carolina, in bbia 

China, No. L, bo mala 

do No. 2, do ■ 

Manila 

VEGETABLES— 
i-. I'.- u Bayi I ■. ■ market, 



do do Hod.. 

■ i m 

'-" 

Va " 

, ' 

— ' 

i 1 . , 1 ii.-. in- m i- 

■ , 4F D) — '-"■ 



DiED. 



, n [j 1 

. . . I .'■!■. 

j ■ ■ . , ,, ■ ■ ., , . ,',; . ,■ 1 ■■ 1 !! ■ . '■' . 

I , ■■..■■. .-: ...... 

ed 47. 

■ 

.1 

are Idem ol Tuuluuoui a unty. 



, ,., t 

■ 

., 130 

a bo 

I 60 

. (II 


■ 9 

a s 



a 1 . 



a j 

,, 1 . 



n' . 



" ■ 



■ 






5V| 



:.,-. ,|U 



-I 



RETAIL VEGETABLE MARKET. 
In presenting the Retail Markel 
i.j show the weekly value and hat of famiK c 
rios (for good vegetables oi 

to ui- in our mi rki Vn ■ b marttott I 

can prosenl 

:10m tlm rden ovcrj day. 

It will seen thai 
and green pi ! "- c an 

■ ! -,i pp .in, I 

■ ■■/, 3 01) 

4 

'J ;'' 

r .iii.i- 3 

[ 11 |'l W'ftlt srnlri"iif 5 

1 4 00 

■ 
1 id Sn-eei Pjtatoi 





Onions, pr 

; 

1 ' 

■1 . 

1 

■ 







Sty*) QiiWUmviii §mww< 



31 



SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE. 



■ . 



i Mendocino, with 

troni VrI- 

!umbcr. 
imhcr. 
Bay, with 

i h 
,106 diiys 
i Now Yo 
giw.u William Lent, N 

SIoo]> C ■ ■ ■ W M ii lumber. 

. . ■ .1 om San Diego. 

r Odd Fellow, Ai m Carrier Pigeon 

■ ■ 
3 C 1 1( - Franel ■ ■ Pajaro, with potatoes, 

days from San Diego, 
. 

i Onward, Wade, 150 days from New 

'■ ■. i: .. Janeiro, with mdse. 
..■ Mi w York; mdse. 
5 days from Cape Mendo- 
lumber. 

lays from Port Orford, in ballast. 
Dog ' from the wreck of 

Scott, with coal. 

CLEARANCES 

... lunlap, Miller, Monterey. 

I . I ilaster, San Bins. 

... 82 — )'■!' -'iip S iringapatam, Strangham, Callno. 

rope, Broderson, nfazatlan. 
ltri_- /. '•-, Paty, Honolulu 
:.. ■ i i . Bunker, Umpquo river. 
Urij Col Fremont^ Atwood, Santa Barbara. 
Martha, Brown, Callao. 
i Arizona, Newman, Mazatlan, 
B : . ii molulu Packet) Parker, Vancouver's Island. 
n. S3 — Ship Wild Pigeon, Hanson, Hong Kong. 
~ eliiji Jolly Robin, Pipon, Callao. 
ii. 24— Ship Southern Cross, Paine, Calcutta. 
Bark Ocean Bird, Fairley, Portland. 
Br in i-' Se ita, Bcaplen, Sydney. 

ii. So — Ship Plying Fish, Nickels, Manila. 
poop Mount Vernon, Williston, Stockton. 



I kS, 'it liNEB & UO., 
Bank 

101 MOV 

ni time Kxciii i ■ principal 

1 hin. ■ ,..-.■ Inin 'in i- . 
Q >ld Di H D 

■ ■■ 



H. W. BRADLEY'S 

National Daguerrean Gallery, 

COHNER OF CLAY AND KEARNY STREETS, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Importers and Dealers in the host qualities of 

Every Article required in the Business. 

Portraits, large or small, equal to any in the world, taken at 
ort notice. Also, the most improved STEREOSCOPIC 
ICTURKS, a new and beautiful improvement in the art. 1 lm 



(hage Orange, Raspberries and Currants. 
)/\ f\f\(\ Plants of strong growth, just received. 
jV/»\_JV/V/ 500 extra size Raspberries, the far famed 

that produce in such incredible quantities. 

For sole by WARREN St son. 



W5T I'. PATCH. CHARLES CLAYTON. 

PATCH & CLAYTON, 

OMMISSION MERCHANTS AND GENERAL AGENTS, 
N<>. 92 front street, (in Gordon's Iron Block.) 
E3F* Faithful attention given to sales of California Produce, 
loordcra for Merchandise promptly filled at lowest market 

14t 



GEI£S FOit THE PARLOR AND GEMS FOR 
THE GARDEN. 
THE choices! Hyacinths, Tulips, Jonquils, etc., for the parlo 
. and unrden. 

Also — Now and raja Flower Seeds and Plants; 
Small ornamental Plants for borders. 
Osage Orange Plants, for GARDEN HEDGES, one of 
the safest and most ornamental hedges knov n. 
Just received al WARREN & ^os^ 

Exhibition n iXlj 



B H V A XT & GO'S 
Agricultural Ware House. 

;ORNER FtlON'T AND SACHAMIWTo 9TKBSTS, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Constantly on hand, a seclecl nssortment of 
Jfcl CULTURAL rMPLSMKNTS, MlNING Tools 

am) Garden Seeds. 

too, a full and c plote stock of HARD WARE AND CUT- 

I v\ 

Mil i.. MAcunvsnr of all kinds, 2 It 



\>]'i. PEBKINS. FRANK B. WEBSTER, W. NKKI.Y TlIOMFSOn. 

PERKINS, WEBSTER & CO., 

Commission Merchants for Salo of Produce, 

— ..VXD — 

DEALERS IN FLOl'R AND GRAIN, 
No. 63 Clay street, betweon Front and Davis, 
(84 Sax FUIWUOO, 

| jbWOOOKK. OXO. I-. KMStSY. geo. l, |T 

WHOLESALE BOOKSTORE 
A X I) S TA TI N i: R S ' HALL. 

COOKE, KENNY & Co., 

CORNER MICHCHANT AND MONTGOMERY FTRETS, 

Importers of English, French and I 
tattonerj —wholesale and retail dealers in Law, 

lllaneou ■ H I I ■ 

■■■ ■ ■ : . . i . B ■ ■ . 

Blank Books made to order on the Bhoi test 



\v.\l. NEELY THOMPSON, 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Lumber, 

\ mONT AND PUIS 

' ..|i*t.iiitlv on htuxi 4i3 



T\EN01SO w ;i 
.SO 

10 ton 

5 (1 80UTHWORTB i; CO. 



FRANK BAKER, 

Carpet, Paper Hanging and Upholstery Depot, 
\vn> 
133 ■ 



! In 



BARRBTT ,v POHEBOT, 

I OV MAIN AND MARKET STRKKT*, 

DEAI.KKS IH M.I. Kt ERIAL. 

Sawing and Planing done to Order. 3 lm 



L £' 



PAINTS, OILS, G 

• «r«! wholsnle d«lcr> i 

' on IijumI the m - 



PALMER. OOOK A 00., 

Drafts on the American Exchange Bonk, New York, 

■ 



JAMES II. LUCAS, 
JOHN SIMOND3, 
HENRI L. PATTERSON, 

lm St. Louis. MO, 



HENRT ■-■ ' i ■ ' ■■ 
WILLIAM T, SHI Ii HUN, 
BENJAMIN i;. N1SBET, 

Son Francifloo, Col. 



DREXEL, SATHBR & OHTJRCH, 
Bankers^ 

DRAW AT SIGHT IN SUMS TO SUIT, ON 

11 i B uik New York, 

Brnk ot North Americn Boston. 

Mechanics' unci Furmei -' Bank Albany. 

Drexel & Co Philadelphia. 

Josinh Lee & Co; Richmond. 

J. B. Mortun, Esq Richmond. Va, 

Gen. Win. Larimer Pittsburg, Pa; 

A, J. Wheeler Cincinnati, Ohio. 

A D. Hunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

J R. Macmurdo & Co New Orleans. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Momphis and Nashville, Tenn., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va. ; iiuil Charleston, South Carolina. 
2 lm 



ml HaOeck fCmtrt. 



GIBSON A Kl> 
1MPOR 

Groceries, ProviMons, Foreign and Domestic 
Spirits and Wines, 

v 't, $6amt*Jr? Ranery atrcec, tMarcontn- of Pi«e, 



Daniel D. Page, I David Chambers, j Francia W. Page, 
Henry D. Bacon, Hehry Hoight, Sacramento Ci^. 

St Louis, | San Franciflco, | 

PAGE, BACON & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of Ciilifornia street, San 
Francisco, draw at sight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabooy & Co London. 

F. Huth & Co London. 

American Exchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York. 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Josinh Lee & Co Baltimore. 

Louisiania State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon St. Louis. 

Hutchings & Co Louisville. 

T. St Goodman &. Co Cincinnati. 

S. Jones &. Co : Pittsburg. 

Gold Dust and Exchange purchased at current rates. 1 4t 



ADAMS & CO., 

Bankers, 

MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
Bills of Exchange drawn on any of our Houses in New York, 

Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Washington, Cincinnati, New 

Orleans, St. Louis end London. 

Also payable at the following Banks — 

Merchants' and Farmers' Bank ". Albany. 

Utica City Bank Utiea. 

Bank of Syracuse Syracuse. 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica I 

Rochester City Bank Roc 

George Smith & Co I 

Alex, MitcheD, Fire and Marine tna Co Mi 

MJehl . State Bank D 

Com. Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bimk Columbus, I ibio, 

Uonej and I Ii ild I >usl re i h ed i ! u '-its, and 

(tencral Dcpiwitc, reecivcil from merchants, mechanics, and 

others, ADAMs rt CO 



WELLS, FABGO & CO. 

SOUTHERN EXPRESS.— Mr Todd : 
lO interest in the Southern Express I ■■ i 
Daily Express to end from 
San Francisco, Stockton, Columbia, Murphey's Flat 

and Mokclumno Hill, 
Connctin n ith ■ Orau, 

and Mabtposa. 

1 inncisco to Co- 
■ 
3 



SACRAMENTO CITY BANK. 
JOHN M. RHOADES, Banker. 

•rerts. 

Will -it BILLS Of EM '■ 

GOLD DUST i lilghntratM. 

DRAFTS i 

COLLECTIONS mi'.ii on r. ■ 

■ 

. >*Ufa4<r »perial or athmtvr ; and nil 



Miners' Excha 



Sank, 



ARMOHV BtALl 

DR A. a WRIGHT. 

VI f nee will lw»r l 

« a«wr<Hl u thin olRc. t 
ire, ami the rerj 

■ 






tin; of 

GOLD 

K v h.u . 



Wholesale S 

.1. i 

IMPORTERS and Who*. 
Lent. 
S*n Fnif 

■ 
-until go 
tn»de to their tme 
■ 

at, wv uv egBfida 
LilCIltd to ikkIimmi 

iMndatneowni 

lUrasH; 
Cart HarocM ; 
Bttaxy and wagon do: 
an; 



psMagasK 



■ r ti . 






irin^ SHI to oSrr i 

a\ tommMhm is part of : 

Br>ll^. «t>l M.rt rul^. ; 
.^a'kT »n.l w»j* „ U".-..,» . 
M-^Mi.T.ir.l .-.pur.; 

S-MVtt Iludwirr : 



8» 



.Ttl 1 

CHAP1 W VKK. 

BAKU i [ \D r. I THKR. 

fcMkrr, Ihae Tini.nrt. Nrts. Mum. *c . tc. 
* >■» ir »awif m. paj WallinlM. Su Fi — 



. RI1> . 



VOLUNTEERS WANTED ! 

TO TH '■'■: OF 

JEWELRY AT JOHN W. TUCKER'S. 

I punll now com 

ON D WOU \ I ELRY, SILVER 

■ 

Amounting to more than $300,000! 

ire the first o June, as 
ade. Any 

le can proem o ■ '.v>iu oie 

Cheaper than in any other City in tho World ! 
Bui doi be. una irstood that i pretend to compete 

. h i ■ ■ i i . ; : ;■ pen om k ho would aol hesitate to 

guarontei a brat ring or a watch for pure gold ; — these persons 
can sell Lower than l can, If I '■■■' , u an article ol any kind, and it 
does noi turn oul as I represent It, i \v , in retura the money. No 
person sliall leave my eetnblishmenl dissatisfied. Call and see 
in.' before i ou purchase elsewhere. 

JOHN W. TUCKER, 
l lm i ! i Montgomery street, near Sacramento. 



TIME. 
)ARTICULAL attention paid, as usual, to the cleaning ami 
repairing of Watches, by 

BARRETT 4 SHERWOOD, 



' 111 .. Oh ii ratory, Uontr/iuner; ft. 



4t 



QuARTZ ;^^K!'l.^!^;.^'s polished. 
Seals, Rings, Cane Heads, SnuffBox Covers, 

CUT AND SET BY 

BARRETT if SHERWOOD, 

Montgomery street, one door from Commercial. 
The only Lapidary Machinery in California, and the beet 
workmen on the Pacific coust, are now employed in our estab- 
lishment. 1 4t 



1 In 



rr * beals. 

M Bin ■ ww. I 



■HASX AXQ OKXUCXmCAL TRZE&. 
1.000 E Manful Shad* Tim 
m rlM* n-a. t, ■ vtaar Tpw. rVraoa. to «w v. tavwMd ' 



N 



SIGN OF THE GOLDEN M0RTAE, 

JUSTIN GATES, wholesale and retail Druggist^ 76 K street^ 
Sacrameuto, oilers iijr sale at gi-eatly reduced prices, a large 
and well selected assortment of 
Paints, Oils, Turpentine, Brushes, Alcohol, Lamp Oil, 
Neatslbot Oil, Quinine, Morphino, < -nium, (.'amphor, 
Tartaric Acid, Cream ol'Tartar, Soda, T&pioCo, Hops, 
Cloves, Castile Soap, Indigo. Bay Water, Congress Water, 
Shaker's Horbs and Roots, Tilden's Exti-aut, S^idliiz Powdere, 
Supporters, Trusses, Syringes, Patent and Botanic Medicines, 
Dental and Surgical Instruments, Lubin's Extracts, 
Electric Concentrated Preparations, Perfumery (ail kmds), 
Osgood's Cholagogue, Townsend'a, Sands' and Myers' Sarea 
parilla, Ayera'Cherry Pectoral, Dr. Janes' Expectorant, 
Alterative Pills, Mortal's Bitters and Pills, 
Green Mountain Ointment, Halloway's Ointment and Pills, 
Wright'fl, Brandretli's and Conk's Pfllfl, Davis' Pain Killer, 
Mexican Mustang, Nerve and Bone Linament, 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick, 
Superior Old Port Wine Bitters. 

Agents for Dr. Robinson's Mountain Extract, 

| RES THE FEVER AND AOUE IN ONE DAY. 
13^ Don't forget, " Sign of the Golden Mortar," 76 K street. 
Sacramento. l-lm 



10,000 FRUIT TREES, 

Grape Vines, Fig Trees, Raspberry and Current. 

WE invite all who Intend planting Trees and Vinea to call 
on us before theymak< ■ i bos, as we can offer 
them many advantages that cannot oe found elsewhere. Our 
collections, we ■ . and the quality 

tin' best that can be had. We there ore invite all to call on ue; 
. or Exhibition Rectus, the samples of the 

actual fruit thq | ice, WARREN A SON, 

Niir-ii | ■ daman, 

Musical H . Son Prancisco, 

■ I mentfl. 



New Drug Establishment. 

AT. McCl 
• i 

■ 
■ 

I 

A T 

16r 



PIANO FORTES FOE KIBE. 

WOODWORTH .t CO , urmoi Piano F ii 

Clay Btrect, arc now re 
rum the celebrated " Stodnid" maim 
! hire. Also, now landina Irom heclipi i 
. . ;, ..i in ■ ■.'! ■ Itnblo for IB >L1 DAI 
skting of 6, 6 ty and 7 octaves, plain ani carveii ■■ I i 
ivory keys, Likewi ie 

Prince's Meli dcons, 41 5 octavi 
India Rubber Piano Covers -, 
French Piano < lovers ; 
Rosewood Mutic Stools, &c . ■'■ ■. 



TnTTAMTED— At the general Agencj I tntellk,i ■■ 

VV No. 87 Long wharf, 3d door beloTi Sunaome street, ■ i 

stairs. 

Houaes, Farm?, Lots for sale or tn Rent. 

Merchants, Farmers, Mechanics, Hotel Keepors, and I 
Families supplied will* help at the shortesl notice. 

Merchants clerks, laborers and aeTvants can find immo tiatc 
omploj menl by apjjlying as abova 

Money loaned on Bccuritiee, personal and real e 

J T. n. PERKI] 

P. S, Particular attention paid to furnkdiing Fonnes 
help immediatoly upon receiving their orders. And in ■.. 
to us they will please specify the exact kind of help requb 
andthewagtw. Address " T. II. PERKINS & Co. 
Intelligence ' WHc 

24t B. Los : 



PRIZE ONIONS— ONION SETTS, &c. 

WE have just received b superior lot ol Onion Seed, < . ■ 
extra quality, to which we call the particular attei 
of cultivators. Abo, 500 Ins Onion Setts, iu fine order. 2U0 lbs 
French Sugar Beet, lor stock. 

WARREN & SON'S 
Seed Warehouse, 

Musical Hull. S m FrtincisCO, 

2 4t And J street, Saoramt nfco. 



GRASS SEED. 
-i f\ AAA LBS. Ni'iW GRASS SEEDS— Thnothj) 
iv/*vJvJ'vJ or Herds' Gross, Red Clover, White 

Clover, Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass. 
Persons wanting the very best seed are requested to give 

attention to the above. WARREN & SON'S 

Seed Warehouse, 
Musical Hall Building, Han Francisco. 
And .1 street, Sacramento. 



Nut THE ONLY ONE! 

ANOTHER MAN IS IN THE FIELD 

Prepared to cut Quartz Rock into any form 
desired. 

I will say to my frirads and the public 

WITH A I 

N. B. — Quartz Rock purctwunl at the hi 



vllv that I dm 
■ Rock, i 



Gentlemen's Clothing and Furnishing Goods. 

G1 EORGE F. WALTER, No. 113 Moncomery Btrect, Dp- 
T posite Barry & Patten's, has on hand and is con-' 
receiving a splendid assortment of" goods for Genfdemen'fi 
comprising, in part, fancy Cassimeres, Vestinga and 1 French 

Clothe, of various colors and finest texture. He in t £ antlj 

receiving by the steamers, direct from liis Agents in New York — 
Messrs. Crawly & Lent, 737 Broadway—invoices of Paris 
PANTS, Benjean's make, ol Cassimere, velvet lace, the besl 
imported. A discruninating public is invited to cull and examine 
this stock. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 

G. F. W. gives this department in* especial attention. All 

styles of military suits made to order, from the best material; 

and guaranteed bo give perfect satisfaction. 

Gentlemen's Fashionable Clothing cut and made equal I 
house in the Atlantic States— -the workmanship bj the best Tail 
ors. The principle laid down is that no garment isdelivered 
which iB not a perfect fit ; as every article Is fitted on be 

being finished, thereby avoiding the unpleasant 

taring sfter leaving the bc n rmeni thai Is made and 

does not fit perfectly, is not expected to bo take - he ledesir- 

,„;.. of establishing a burin isi 111 give ■ ■ on to eD 

who may favor him with their pun oi 

N. B. — I still continue to tako measure tobemadeup in New 

■■■:■. & Lent. All Cffdara BOW will bo re- 
ceived by return Stee 

GEORGE P. WALTER, 11SM ml 
1 lm > Ippi ■■ 8 ■■' i 

DONAHtTE'S UNION IltON WORKS, 

(THE llitsT BSTADLI8USD OS TUB SX4TB.] 
Car. of 1 

TC ililoi 
■ 

■ ■ 

: 
■ 

Saw and Grist Mill Irons, 

Quartz Crushing and Amalgamating Machinery, 

■ 



There are Three Things I Do Vot Do ! 

l-t I An not eel ■ t'enMemn'i I 'eh, and wh^n 

bc mil* for it. rh&rsr him Twkvtv-Nivf Dollars for clnudng 
it, nod hare it ftop two boura *ft«v. 

4L I do rot Ask Ftmr Dollaos for a rhoin, and sell it fo 
Tinarr Hix Dou.au, ami warrant it I 

. ntd i*y Finr | 

1 1. ! •.» :<-.-.\ <■ i »"• :' -. ,: '.' L.-- <■!,.; ,.i .-_; C month*, r- '■:-• to 
Ty, without he pays me arxTT-rrrx , 
DolLajui, and t*n not.LAa.1 tnopr (nr r 

There are many other things I do not do, which T may name 
at SUM 1 4t J V. 

sn.\ 

100 Doten Table $p--n.«, 
85 D»ea Tabla Fcria, 

ISSDoMa TmrpxmMl 

M( with or wirho* rUrcfe. 
SILTEE PITCHERS AND CTJFS. 
100 ImiIiiiibii F ASH, wr,nh *2 to H00 aocfa. 

raoA Gi^osaa. worth $6 to t« each. 
A rw of th- tne-t Jkwtx Covuts erar son. benkg o%rt 

• 1*. aa»l Porio. 
t~f CoJ and cnsBka* thorn mod-, m 









Italian Marble, Granite and Free Stone Warehouse, 

■ 

■■ . ■ -. at -■ '■>'■'■ } ■ ■- 



■hnigomery 




I Muivu to tM wrcuw'u! 
r rtf tKrm *r* alrrorfy 

eand «vk 




t*t*. they wM be 



. and osJaBn orv soiv es- 
UMdaa««vBdL 
Cape ar»~ r 



PBl 

Woman's Eight* 

V I N n i c A I 






lTil.,M 



erery 4.T. mai w v. .lwwr. fc» 
Mot 



bHnt to I k mi -t» rtat I. M. 

Vbm't Fountain Head and Brush. 

b.. m; eramkri i.r.- .u.,» <* u»i 
for tbe cruOaCia of Ox wi- 

ri'r,-.,.:,-. .l«^»J;'«.l;- 

unci, 

CnifT I! r>u-.*.TTT «od WMfatajtr^. 
ilfcj hr r— i far- --..Kt 

i f Laiiw , mi M* CIlu i Ii m w m knu» « .1 



at maT 







tiiFn — wvwasiriii'.: -mm. 

Th*T wSH abwrw mm " Ow Hdi " ta . 



Iata*Bd 



*• »:l j ^WKiry la Arm ta« art 



*mr r m u mm* »■! iaV.li. mi t... ^»..-r rmtr 
(ra««.wl«na4>.wli.Maa«ra>Bamai 
- r*^.mi mmimmrmm mi fmtkmm. 1: 



W.UULE9 a KM. 



t»-.i.t ' ■■■*---. i ■ 

am rf ate IMr/ rna.n*Ma« _* . ---». 




vaor - 
»«jarWtta<fe- 



32 



Ufii)g (SaMta tn^n $&»«$< 



' G-0 FORTH INTO THE COUNTRY." 

BV MBS. JAMES GRAV. 

Go forth into the country, 

From !i world of cure ami guile. 
Go forth to the untainted air, 

And the sunshine's open smile. 
It shall clear thy clouded brow — 

It shall loose the worldly coil 
Tfiat binds thy heart too closely up, 

Thou man of care isud toil t 

(Jo forth into the country, 

Where gladsome eights and sounds 
Make the heart's pulses thrill and leap 

With fresher, quicker bounds. 
They shall w.ikc fresh life within 

The mind's enchanted bower ; 
Go, student of the midnight lamp, 

And try their magic power. 

Go forth into the country, 

With its songs of happy birds, 
Its fertile vales, its grassy bills, 

Alive with flocks and herds. 
Against the power of sadness 

Is its magic all arrayed — 
Go forth and dream no idle dreams, 

Oh, visionary maid I 

Go forth into the country, 

Where the nut's rich clusters grow ; 
Where the strawberry nestles 'mid the furzo 

And the holly -berries glow. 
Each season hath its treasures, 

Like thee all free and wild — 
Who would keep thee from the country, 

Tnou happy, artless child? 

Go forth into the country, 

It hath many a salemn grove, 
And many an altar on its hills, 

Sacred to peace and love. 
And whilst with grateful fervor 

Thine eyes its glories scan, 
Worship God who made it all, 

Oh ! holy Christian man. 



THE FORGET-ME-NOT. 

FHOM THE GERMAN OF MUCHLEBL 

By yon brook so softly streaming, 
Springs a flow'ret, friendly, fair; 

Gentle as the moonlight's beaming, 
Pass it not unheeded there. 

Bright as heaven's unclouded azure, 
Symbol flower of mem'ry's truth, 

To the pensive heart n treasure, 
Whispering words that cheer and soothe. 

Mild as starry hours, whose splendor 
Tells of faith that knows no spot ; 

From ofiir, its warning tender, 
Doth it speak, *' forget me not ! " 

When thy farewell tears are Bowing, 

When to part must be thy lot. 
By thy path its blossom blowing, 

Meekly pleads "forget me not f " 

Dear one I to this flow'ret listen ! 

Words of love each leaf have got ! 
See ! its tears arc dews that glisten, 

And it sighs, "forget-me-not ! " 



SEVENTEEN. 
Just seventeen ! the sweetest age 
That's entered on false beauty's pace ; 
Lips like the rose-bud cleft in twain, 
Eyes like twin stars beneath some cloud, 
That comes their sparkling light to shroud ; 
Rich tresses of the Auburn glow, 
Free waving o'er a brow of snow ; 
And the bosom heaving, aweDmg, 
Where trickling Cupid holds his dwelling : 
Of woman's life, no year, I ween, 
Like soft, sweet, pouting seventeen. 



Commercial Value of Honesty. — An old 
trader among the Northern Indians, who had 
some years ago established himself on the Wis- 
seva, tells a good story, with a moral worth recol- 
lecting, about his first trials of trading with his 
red customers. The Indians, who evidently 
wanted goods, but lor some time bought nothing. 
Finally, their chief, with a large body of his fol- 
lowers, visited him, and accosting him, "How do, 
Thomas, show me goods ; I take four yard of" 
calico, three coon-skins for yard, pay you by'm-by 
— to-morrow;" received his goods, and left. 
Next day, he returned with his whole band, his 
blankets stuffed with coon-skins. "American 
man, I pay now," with this, he began counting 
out the skins, until he had handed him over 
twelve. Then after a moment's pause, he handed 
the trader one more, remarking "that's it." I 
handed it back, said the trader, telling him he 
owed me but twelve, and I would not cheat him. 
Wo continued .to pass it back and forth, each one 
asserting that it belonged to the other. At last 
he appeared to be satisfied, gave me a scrutinizing 
look, placed the skin in the folds of his blanket, 
stepped to the door and gave a yell, and cried in 
a loud voice, " Come, come, and trade with the 
pale face, he no cheat Indian ; his heart big." He 
then turned to me, and said : " You take that skin. 
I tell Indian no trade with you — drive you otf 
like a dog — but now you Indian's friend, and we 
yours." Before sundown, I was waist deep in 
furs, and loaded down with cash. So I lost no- 
thing by my honesty. 



Artillery. — Archidames, king of Sparta, and 
son of Agesilaus, when he saw a machine invent- 
ed for the casting of stones and darts, exclaimed 
that it was the "grave of valor." The same la- 
ment was made, according to Froissart, by sonic 
knights, on the first application of gunpowder to 
warlike purposes. 

bbb are certain epoqucs when, in art, sim- 
plicity is an audacious originality. — Pourcelet, 



When the " Siamese Twins " were on view at 
Barn urn's Museum, we saw a lank, cadaverous- 
looking clergyman, with a white cravat adjusted 
to his neck at the precise point short of strangu- 
lation, go up to them and say in very measured 
and sepulchral tones : 

" Young men. may I ask how long you have 
been in this condition ? ;? 

They both replied, at the same time, and in the 
same words : 

"Twenty-one years, the fifteenth day of last 
September." 

"Umph ! " resumed their inquisitor, "that is a 
long time — quite a long time j you must be very 
much attached to each other ! " 

A fact so incontrovertible amused us a good 
deal at the time wc remember; and we have been 
newly reminded of it by the following dialogue, 
which took place between Chang and Eng on their 
recent visit to the East, and an inquisitive Yankee 
of " that ilk." 

After "dickering" some time with the door- 
keeper, he disbursed " the swindle," as he called 
it — a quarter of a dollar — and entered to see the 
"cur'ositjv' He surveyed the unique pair for the 
space of "five minutes without saying a word At 
length he broke out : 

" How long vou fellers been in this kind of a 
hitch ? " 

a Forty -two years." replied Eng. 

"Do tell! Gettin' kind o' used to it, then, I 
'xpect." 

" We ought to be, by this time " said the twins 
both together. 

' L Yes — 'zactly ; should say so, tew. myself. 
B'longto the same church, shouldn't wonder?" 

" Yes," said Chang, H we do." 

K Want to know ! " continued the Yankee. — 
" Well." he added, examining the ligature, " ef 
one of you dies, t'other '11 be in a bad fix won't 
he ? '■'■ * 

-It would be bad." said Eng, with something 
of sadness in his face at the thought. 

■ Don't drink nothin,' 'xpect ?" pursued their 
interrogator. " Ever go in to swim ? " 

" Sometimes," they answered. 

After gazing at and scrutinizing them for a few 
moments longer, the indefatigable questioner 
again burst out with : 

t: Look o' here ! s'posin' one o' yeou fellers gets 
into a scrape, and was about to be put into jail. 
How do you calc'late you'd get along ? " 

" Oh ! " said Eng, laughing at the idea, " I'd go 
Chnng'sbail!" 

B Sartain — yc-c-s ; you could do that — couldn't 
ye?" 

And here closed the instructive colloquy, and 
the inquisitor, whistling Yankee Doodle, retired 
and gave room for a fresh lot of examiners. 



Cotldn't but Laugh. — Wc were something 
amused yesterday, (says the Cincinnati Daily 
Columbian) on the shore, observing some newly 
arrived Germans, who, in their rural. Dutches. 
kind of clothes, caps and pipes, were looking 
around them to see how things were working. 
One of the young Duichmen was really the mos 
perfect carricature upon a live white man. wc have 
met for a long time. He was a Peter Sp}'ke in 
tone and finish, that would have convulsed any 
theater audience. His breeches ran up to his very 
armpits; immense pockets, in which he stowed 
wardrobe or edibles, until the pockets bulged out 
like plethoric saddle-bags. His vest was about 
six inches long, with bright metal buttons big as 
half dollars, plentifully scattered up in front. His 
coat was of the square-toed humpbacked order, 
and worth a heap of money to any comedian in 
the country. Peter had a cap, and such a cap ! 
His head was of the Wcsterian size, and yet he 
endeavored to cover it with a geranium pot cap. 
of the most grotesque style, and scarcely big 
enough for a baby. Armed with a furious, double 
barrelled merscKauftl. Peter was smoking away at 
his leisure, and looking about as docile as a pet 
lamb in a clover patch. In the simplicity of his 
rural innocence, a young Hoosicr comes up to 
Peter, and says : — 

!< Look a here, whore's Columby street mister?" 

Peter looked at his interrogator witn a blank 
stare, and giving his pipe a fresh draught, he re- 
plied— "Wa's?" 

" Where is Columby street ?" 

" Ein der brccht lakel's, condeitch spraken." 

" Look a here," says the Hoosier, breaking into 
Peter's speech, H what kind of stuff's that ; I ax 
you where's Columby street, and you rip out with 

a blasted Choctaw sputter, the could'nt get 

the hang of; now, I ask you again where's Col- 
umby street?" 

" Yaw," says Peter. 

" You be ," says the Hoosier, leaving. 

" Yaw," says Peter, straight along. 

A Delicious Domestic Story. — Inquiring 
Y'oung Lady.—" 0, dear, do tell how Charles de- 
clared his love." 

Expectant Wife.—" Well, Lucy, we were in the 
parlor, you know, and all at once he turned up 
his eyes so, I thought he was ill. Then he turned 
them down, and squeezed my wrist, and asked 
me if I'd have him— and — and" 

Inquiring Young Lady.—" Well, dear, what did 
he do next ? " 

Expectant Wife.— "Nothing, dear; but I said 
* Yes," and gracious ! how he kissed me ! Then, 
dear, I laid my head on his shoulder, and then 
wc talked, dear. 0, how I trembled. I thought 
I never could go through it " ! 

A young lady in Clinton, Mass., who married 
a rich man under pretence of being beautiful, is 
discovered to have painted, wore bustles and 
otherwise disguised her natural imperfections. 
Her husband sues her for obtaining money under 
ialse pretence. 



"WASHINGTON STEAM MILLS. 
WASHING-TON FLOUR MILLS. 

THE undersigned proprietor of the Washington Flouring 
MQlfi take pleasure in offerinzto families and the trade, 
Superior Family Flour. To diir Mill--, we are happy to Bay to 
our friends, woe awarded die Silver Medtdj and we shall lie 
always striving to maintain for it a high reputation] wo thai our 
customer* can Bend to ua in confidence, bi licving they will re- 
receive die lughesi character of Floui the tnarkel tuTords. 

In thesarae.estabUehmeni web re STEAM SAW 

MILLS, capable of performing evi ry kind of work that may be 
desired, ana hi tins branch of our business we invite die atten- 
tit h of thepublic. Wehavealso STEAM PLANING MILLS, 
that will finish all kinds of work in the mast w< rkman-like man- 
ner, and equal to anything performed in the country, and in the 
most prdmpt manner to order. 

We invite all who are contractu!:: work, to call on us nnd ex- 
amine our Mills, and we can satisfy them of our ability Go supply 
every order in each branch of our extensive eitfabhshment. 

D. W. VANGOURT, Proprietor. 

1 Nearthe Oriental. 



POLLEY & CO., 

OF THE BAY STATE MILLS, would announce that for 
the better accommodation of their numerous customers 
and trade in general, that they have opened a branch of their 
business at tun Fire Proof Store, No. 49 K street, between 
Second and Third, where they will always beep ob hand a large 
stock of California FLOUB : oIbo, Htuudl and GaUeco, 

Public attention Ib particularly directed to tin* " Bat State 
Lower Mills" Brand," an article wc have every confidence 
in warranting, being made under our own inspection, from new 
Wheat, without any adulteration. 

Ground Iced of all kinds always on hand. 

Every exertion will be used to merit a continuance of the 
favor heretofore so liberallv extended to us. l-3t 



PEORIA PREMIUM STEEL PLOWS. 

THE FORMER CELEBRITY OF THE PEORIA PRE- 
MIUM STEEL PLOWS, and the unequalled hoc 
their introduction in this State, would seem to preclude the ne- 
cessity of any further effort on our part to draw attention 
thereto: but in view of the transitory nature of business in 
general in California, and the probability that some may have 
looked upon our estabti&hmcnt of on extensive and permanent 
man •hicrure of Plows here, in the face of BUCh enormous im- 
portations and extravagant prices of material, as an impossi- 
bility — we believe it expedient to adopt this method of bringing 
it within the special noiiceofall concerned, that traare now 
mauufacruring, and will have ready for tbifl season's demand, 
three thouaana of die most superior Plows ever made or used 
within this Suite. 

We feel warranted in making this assertion, from the fact 
that all who used our Plows last season testify that they were 
superior: and we have studied so closely the immediate wants 
of our patrons from every section of the State, that we can 
now furnish Flows suitable to any particular kind of soil known 
in the State. 

Our material has all hern selected in the East by one of our 
linn, ami imported by US directly from the ni/Mniimt .in t . 
which places it in our power to say confidently that nothing is 
lacking in quality ..while we are enkbh d to make the plows at a 
■ ■ greatly below that o) last season, and are determined to 
sell at prices within die reach of every fanner who may wish 
to use the Peoria Premium Steel Plow. 

It should be remembered that these plows will do double the 
work with half die team required in using the ordinary cast 
Plow ; and that the work, when done, will be well done 

For particulars of prices, and descriptions of plows, ire refer 
you to the subjoined card. The prices therein detailed are 
those established at our factory, and the only alterations from 
them that wo authorize our agents to make, is the addition oi 

the ''"st of transportation to their places of bueini thus ploc- 

tngthe plows nt every accessible point of the State for the 
BXOCl price charged at the Factory, with the necessary expenses 
only added. 

Farmers ordering our plows through mercantile houses here, 
would do well to writeto usat the Borne nine, if they would 
maim sore of getting the right plow, for some are Interested in 
reproenti ■ '' l '" ! rnaking plows at all. while others 

wdl not .-''11 our plows when they can got off a cast plow, We 
ore recommend that order.- should be sent to us directly. 
ticronipuiued by an order upon your merchant for the mm. en;, 
which you can always know by a reference to the card accom- 
panying this circular. 

On the 24th of June the interest of T. Adams in our business 
ceased, by die sale Of bis entire interest therein to L. E. -Mor- 
gan. Aside from this, there has not, nor will there be, any 
alteration, as we have the some efficient and thoroughly prac- 
tised hands in even" department of our business. 

E". L. morgan ft CO., Successors to 
T. ADAMS & CO., 
Corner of Broadway and Battery streets. 

r^ The following are the established prices for the Peoria 

Premium Steel Plows, ot our Factory, and the only addition 

our Agents are authorised to make Thereto, is the cost oi trans- 
portation tu their points of business : 

SIZK DESCRIPTION. FVBBOW. PBICE. 

No. 





plain 


111 ir, 


* 30 


r.i.. 






... 12 in 


8 35 




i 




....Uin 

1C in 


t 4C 

$ 50 

8 CO 




. 




clipper or 


115.. 




.-..113 in 


* 31 




ii 


ii ■"" 


....18 in 

....30 in 


t 85 

$100 


"II 


<» 


...i 


» 


'• 


....23 ill 


Sill) 


94 


'■ 


'• 


....21 in 


tiai 


20.. 


" 


" 


213 ill 


$150 


.Ill 


« 






|17! 


40.. 


i' 


" 


....40 ill 


8225 









Cultivators *-•"> 

[For the addition of wheel and axle to any of the above clip- 
per Plows, an additional charge of $30.1 

L E, MOftGAH ^ CO., Successors to 
1 T. ADAMS & CO. 



PREMIUM PLOUGHS 

WE Invite the attention of farmers to the assortment oi" 
" Premium Steel Ploughs," oowai our store at Exhibition 

Hall. These arc the cdobroted " Morgan & Co.'fl Peoria 

Plouehe " pronounced by the committee das very besl Plough In 
1 ■ ,,,,.... ' WAKttEN & SON'S 



the United States. 
1 



Agricultural Store. 



WARREN & SON'S 
HORTICULTURAL MUSEUM 

AND 

HALL OF SCIENCE. 

TIIE subscribers take pleasure in announcing to their friends 
mill pmrons thut they open their Hull us a Museum ot Hor- 
ticulture and Natural Sciences. Having now completed our 
arrangement* in Europe mid in this country, we are enabled to 
otter to the patrons ot thiB establishment 'the ttrst 01 the kirn] 
in California} everything desirable connected with the science 
of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

Connected with this establishment will be Nurseries, Gardens, 
Fruit Orchards, Graperies, and Greenhouses of the proprietors: 
and therefore the patrons can be assured that it U much better 
for them to send their orders to lirst bauds thnn to those who 
collect here and there, Ht auction mid elsewhere, where there 
can 1." ii rtniniv "i the genuineness ol what they buy. 

The Nurseries will be extensive, containing several hundred 
thousand trees grown under the eye ol the proprietors. the 
Fruit Garden will contain the choicest Fruits known ui Europe 
and America. . . ^ ... ... „ „ 

The Museum will contain specimens ot Fruit in Wax, rare 
nnd curious specimens of everything else in nature, both in was 
and in a dried slate ; Oil PamtmgB, Drawings and Piui.tiucs ol 
Fruit! Flowers, i.e., together with specimens in .Natural His- 
tory Books on Agriculture, Horticulture and Bntany: Oarden mi 

plements of all descriptions and ol the in -l improved patterns 
SI'KIIS — \htr-e and superior ;h-i.i i.e..! ol (.anion am 
Flower Meeds, comprising all the new and rare varieties, t ted 
nnd Grass Seeds of warranted quality, wholesale and relief 
TheSefldssOld at this establishment will be warranted pure 
and -enulne, true to their nnine and preserved in a proper 
manner. Dealers will receive n liberal discount. 

Boxes ot Seed- for MLportatiou at |5 and upwards, so pack, ,1 
that they may l lolj transported le fnj pari ol the world. 

l'sekaees ol Flower Seed., containing twenty vaiietfci -I 
AnnuSsTBlonniiils and Perennials, neatly paokedm boxes, from 

'raSsoparateOataio^ue. of Frail and Forest Trees tVtae., 

g, „, rilll ., ir „. Eto.es and Greimhouse .Plants , 
Garden and Aericult.irnl Seeds, may >» hiidou application. 

WAlthhis t.v sun, 

NvaacRVMKN, Seedsmen and Flobists, 
i.tf Musical Hall Building, Bush nt, Son FranC-sco. 



SELIM & EDWARD FRANKLIN, 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS AND AUCTIO 

Office aw! Salesroom, 102 Merchant st... betweci 
Montgomery street and the Plaza. 

Real estate of all descriptions sold at public and private «ilfl 
Particular attention given to salee for Aaniinistratorp, Assignee] 
Reccivere, Mortgagees, and others, according to law . 

Monit'f invi sfo llectcd tor parti* » 

Loan* effected on Bonds and Mortgages. Titlca ■ ■ 

..ini.i- - miidc bj ci i' ol parties in the office, oud the Noti 

rial business exected by WILLIAM A. COBWWELL, Notar 
Public. . , 

A register open to prblic inspection of property tor sale. 

The Spanish and French languages spoken. _ 

Improved and unimj.rove<i Ram-he;- and lands for sine H 
various parts ol the State — Spanish tiflea, ] 



A. A. SELOVEH. 



B. II. SINTON. 



Offi< 



A. A SELOVER, Auctioneer. 

SELOVEIt & SINTON, 

REAL EST ATE AUCTIONEERS AND AGENTS. 

■fdiirl &ik*r~om,i. l-ti Montgomery street. 



between Clay and Commercial. 



Messrs. Seloyeh & Sikton respectfully inform the pnhli 

that they have associated themselves together tor the purpos 
of coudiictiii" die Reaj. Estate Business in all its branches 
for the prosecution of which they deem themselves particularl 
well qualified, bavins been intimate with thobusuicsa m tins Clt 
since Julv, 1849. „ . ..., . ] 

Particular attention fiven to all questions aiiectuis titles, OM 

Great care will be taken in complying with the law, in saia 
of A--i-n,cs, Ajirninistrators, and other lesa! sales. 

A Register for proporly.at public or private sale, always opoi 
at their office, , , , 

Tubus of Sale.— Titles satisfactory, orno sale. Actsc 

sale at om-chasei--.. expense. Ten per Cent, ot the purcnas 

neywillhe required at time of sale trom nil parties no 

known to the Auctioneers. . , 

The services of a gentleman of ions experience have oea 
secured for the full and complete searchand eMmunaHou I 

tin,--. 



JAMES E. WJUUWWOHT. ALBERT G. BANDAH. 

JAMES E, wainwrigiit, auctioneer. 

WAINWItlGHT, RANDAIX & CO., 

REAL ESTAT E AND STOCK AUC TIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom, 100 Merchanl Slrert, 
between Montgomery alnd Kearny. 

Messrs. Wainwuicht, Ra.noall >x Co. respectfully „_ 
bounce to their friends and the public -enerally that tin 

made flns business connection, and r. -.- Ushed thomselve 

for the purpose of transacting the Heal Estate business in all it 
hnuicl .-r, lor the successful luiinasenient ol which tin y 
themselva well qualified, hnrins had upwards of lour yeai 
,:.|n ri.tice ill tills citv. , , 

They will give especial attention to malting public sales ol uU 
kinds of property lor A.huiuistrntors, Assignees, Reel 

atorteagoes, and others, according to law. 

Particular attention paid to preparing " Raneho proper! 
for r ..le, mid every facility will be aftbrded to the boldiij. ot sue 
property!.,! the'tn.ii-iietion ol their business. Mr. Kiin.Uil 
being conversant with the Spanish Ikuluus. (linving resuli 
several years in South America,) will give In- personal attcntio 

to the tninslarion of title papers, when requireiL 
A practical Surveyor and Draughtsman will be in constat 
ice at the oflicc. 

A large at intol property at pnyate sale. j 

Gonveyancing, under the supervision ol A- G. kahual. 

Notnrj Public, under, the law of 1S53— and Commissioner 1 

tie Sr'aleofNew lianipsbirc. 



THEODOEE PAYNE. Slil'lEE P. OEWEV. 

THEODORE PATlfE & CO., 
REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AU CTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND S.VLES-I1003I COltNEB CALIFORNIA AND HON 
OOMEUV STBEF.TS. 



THEODORE PAYNE AUCTIONEER. 

TjP 3 Uessrs, PAINE A: CO, reBpectfully Inform the puH 

that they have established th.'iieeb.s as al.ove, lor the purpo 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conducting of which they esteem th.-oe. 
quahned, by having given it tl.. u special attention l«r over two 

years past,' and made iheio-eK.- lanullar with all qUCotioui 

an-ecting titles, itc. Ac 

They will -ivelh. ir especial attention to the public sales* 
BstatS, by Administrators, Assignees, K.c.-ivers, MortjsngeoB 
S .'.. g u-efultj . an, lying n Itb tl ml ol law. 

A Register for Property, at oittier public or private sahf 

: • :i at their Olbce 



FAMILY FLOUR. 
HORNER'S PREMIfM FLOUR. j 

UNION CITY MILLS. 
"TTrE JNVITE t'i!.' p-tti. ..1"! ! .i t ■ ..ii., ... 

V\ Trade, n i 1 "' uuslitj of the Flour induced by u^. 

Our great aim has been, in me csttiblishment of our Mills to 

procure the most per i njachinery, to enqdoy the ni.i.-i mil- 

l,. r - and to Bi leel die pure i and lines! n heal in tin 

That werhaveueon able to accconrplish all this, the Product 
of our Mills now before the coninuniity i- 1 1 . - I . . ■ - 1 evidence. 

The H.I 11*11 w. matiularUL-e ha- I.. , .a siilanill. .1 P- lb'- alih'St 

ia.ia.-,, .-'ale. aial alter the inert rigid anil thorough tCSfl 

they have awarded to us tlie "PllE.MIlM Pitl7F." mid we si nl 

Pro turn Flour;" it shall bf 

our constant effort to maintain for it the reputaOoii ol being thai 

The Best Floor in the Land. 

Orders left with HGKMEB A CO. at our St. n ship, lltond, 

way wharf, will receive prompt attention. 

lit 



HORNEH. 



SUPERIOR FURNITURE. 

Til r lar .est nod besl tttocK in Sacrain. nto may nl nil ti L. 
..a,,,,! at (he OM Stand Of B. P. .V D. Ml JURE, No. 77 Thiol 

.,,,,.. where thcyatill persist in Beijing as much below thorn 

competitor- s- If'' if supeiain- !.e - t of. EUvingfl 

hand the mosl splendid and snbstnntial asson ol ol all kinds* 

Furniture evof otTercd in Sacramento, we leol confident, wij 

prices to suit, that none can go ticuy emplyth.it only hvor ul 

with .. call „ .,,,.,-■, 

Our stock consists of Burenus, Seci ettines. \N aialrebiss, StatitW 

Tables Bedsteads, I. ounces. Solus, Piu I Mahogany, B 

Walnut, Batin and Rosewood Setts — some ol the Snesl ad 

,.li. ap.-'t ev.r .itteredfaitMs market. ■ 

Also, Mattra.ses, of Curled Hair, Patent ielt, Moss. \\ 
Straw and Straw With Cotton Tops, Also, Feather Pillow! 
and Feathers ior Beds, with a large stock ol Uullts, Col 

Blanket!, &c., die. Also, ii very large stock of Chair* 
Wood and Cane Seats of all descriptions : also, oi Hair, (loth 

Spring, PlUSO, Velvet and Carpel Pa.tlonis, with Rockers ill ol 

kinds rail of which will be sold at reduced rahas. 

I 4 t Also at 130 Jackson street* San Francisco. 



A OAHD. 

FREE EXHIBITION HALL.— We desire to announce, ana 
wade so most respectfully, that hereafter, during om 
Exhibition, our Hall, containing all the magiuhc. 

of the Agricultural Exhibition, together wjtji the chol 

Ulgsand Kml.roid, lies, and many rare uli.l beautllu spec In CJ 

„i,dcuri...-itie- rromtl 1- 1 \\, ,'il'u'l -K 

theyisitsolallwhowislltiiexainmetl,...,,. H.I.M f < UARO« 

We would a!-,, announce to ArtisB thai our Hall is ..It-rod t 
then, FREE, to oxhibit their work ta exhibition or *» 

wenirtherani ooel Iperaon hay. 1 miliums, similar 

Works of Art, Curiosities, or extra 

domestic manufacture, Unit lure un pi"'.' the. ii 

for its exhibition Ol SalO, I i ' esten.b.l nolle 

can be given to it, All who have work, ol ,.„. .., » "T «Jl 
liecui.tn.or wondeinil upeclmen of tb Affl 

/thePacincc I....1 ..no .hi.- Hall Ui 

ino-i approurii.te place for thei xhlbltton "I ii" 
u, , .,.• ah,, t. siaie thai all i slpa,«™a» 

. rfSie United SI 

■n , e ,„ thl sub 1- 01 I la-ullur.-^ 

,n 'alnreaod Oth-1 

„„d™ thoeauso 01 9cic , the; an »d uetendi 

"urb^Sdwdev, ■■•"'"" *i 

resultingfr '>■<■•<■ WARREN a 



3iiJif S®$ft»iB(Bll ®3 



UssHfiftll i &aUm&$< 



VOL. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1854. 



NO. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

A.\n JOURNAL OF USEFUL SCIENCES, 

19 ISSUED AT THE OFFICE, ON BDSH STREET, 

EVERY THURSDAY MORNING, 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BT JAMES K. PHILLIPS & 00., Publishers. 

JOHN F. MORSE, Editoh. 

Advertisements. — A limited mimhpr of Advertisements 
will be inserted at the following rates : For one square of eight 
liie-is per month, 96. For business notiees of live lines or less, 
per month, $4. A slight reduction will be made to regular 
udverti-- i 



A Deer-Hunt in a "Dug-Out." 

Some years ago I was on my way across the 
Rocky Mountains to Fort Vancouver, when cir- 
cumstances rendered it necessary that I should 
stop sonic days at a small trading post on one of 
the branches of the Columbia River. I was in 
fltct detained waiting for a party of fur traders 
with whom I was to travel; and as the post was 
a small one, with miserable accommodations, and 
scarcely room enough in its two or three wretched 
log-cabins to lodge half the company that hap- 
pened at the time to claim its hospitality, I was 
of coin's- ennw/ee almost to death. The surround- 
ing country, however, was beautiful, and the fa- 
vorite haunt of the fallow deer, and its near con- 
gener, the long-tail. It was not long, therefore, 
after my arrival, before I put myself in train for 
a hunt. 

After talking the matter over with my servant 
Dick, a half-breed, who happened to lie a good 
guide and a first-rate hunter, we at length decided 
to commence sport with a lire-hunt — not. however 
as is usually practised among backwoodsmen, by 
carrying a torch through the woods, but by carry- 
ing our torch in a canoe, and, Boating down the 
Stream, Shooting the deer that happened to be 
upon tiie banks drinking or cooling tbeir hoofs in 
the water. 

The next day, Diet and T proceeded in our pre- 
parations, In the first place, for the consideration 
of a few charges of powder, we borrowed an old 
canoe that belonged to one of the Flathead Indians 
— a sort of hanger-on at the post. This craft was 
simply a log of cotton-wood, rudely hollowed oiil 

. means of an axe, and slightly ro led at the 

ends to produce tie' canoe-shape, li was that 
, raft popularly known throughout 

the wesl as. a "dug-out, a phrase which explains 
itself ii was both old and rickety, but a] 
! :"ii in pection. Blue Dick declared il would be 
"fust-rate." 

(tin next move was to prepare our torch, for 
■:-, i'li i'l to make an excursion to the 
boring hills, whore we found the very material we 
w :t irl .1 Lhc dry knots of the p \ 

large segment of hitch baric was then sought for 
and obtained, and our implements were COCO 
At twilight all was ready, and stepping into our 
dug-out, we paddled silently down stream. As 
soon as w c In l got out of the neighbor! 
the posl vre lighted our torch. This wasp 
in a large frying pan. out upon the bow. I* 
blazed up brightly, throwing o the sur- 

face of the stream, and reflecting in red 
K-vvi-y object upon both hanks. We, on the other 
haul n ire completely hidden from view by in ans 

1 up between 
us and 

As ere fairly under way. I J 

n;» to mod to hun- 

II au-l 
illumed, i 
ne: my trusty ri 

I shall never forget the l 
is produced upon m 

el launched oui 
a picturesque character. 

Idled 
the aul 
had no 

rieli \ 

{I upon the 

- . 



bright and luminous. These objects were round, 
and close to each other ; and at a glance T knew 
them to be the eyes of some animal, reflecting the 
light of our torch. My companion whispered 
me that they were the eyes of a deer. 1 took 
sight with my ritle, aiming as nearly as possible 
midway between the luminous spots. I pulled 
trigger, and my true piece cracked like a whip. 
The report was not loud enough to drown the 
noises that came back from the shore. There was 
a rustling oi leaves, followed by a plunge, as of 
some body falling into the water. Dick turned 
the head of the dug-out, and paddled her up to 
the bank. The torch, blazing brightly, lit up the 
scene ahead of us, and our eyes were gratified by 
the sight of a fine buck, that had fallen dead into 
the river. He was about being drawn into the 
eddy of the current, but Dick prevented his, and, 
seizing him by the antlers, soon deposited him 
safely in the bottom of the boat. 

Our craft was once more headed down stream, 
and we scrutinized every winding of the bank in 
search of another pair of gleaming eyes. In less 
than half an hour these appeared, and we succeeded 
in killing a second long-tail — a doc — and dragged 
her also into the boat. Shortly after, a third was 
knocked over, which we found standing out in 
the river, on a small point of sand. This proved 
to be a young spike-buck, his horns not having as 
yet branched oil into antlers. About a quarter 
of a mile further down, a fourth deer was shot at, 
and missed, the dug-out having grazed suddenly 
against a rock just as 1 was pulling trigger, thus 
rendering my aim unsteady. 

1 nerd hardly say that this sport was extremely 
exciting ; and we had got many miles from the 
post, without thinking either of the distance or 
of the fact that we should he under the disagree- 
able necessity of paddling the old Flathead' 
out every inch of the way back again. Down 
stream il W IS plain sailing; and Dick's duty was 
light enough, as it consisted ping the 

cai head foremost in the 

Tl urrenl run al the rate ol I bree mi in hour. 

and therefore drifts int ra- 

pidity. 

The first thing th la return to 

oi us, was th- r.i.-i that our pine knots ha 
out j Dick had jugl piled the la - in the 

pan. At this moment ■ ded in 

ling of alarm : it 
was tii I 101 new 

the months 

1 into the one upon which we ■ 
over a jumble 

Of noisy rapids. lint that whieh we 
was directly ahead of ng, and 

than any we had hit 

We |oe( hot littl 

impulse 

sound w us to Stop '!"■ pi 

which in a few seconds 1 

had shown 
-harp taming in the rti 
of smooth wi 

iitary that fell into it lie 
this, Dick Ui 

next moment we passed the mo 
creek. 

We could see the fall at a 
little distance, thro of the trees 









te. 1 



me ; but I still believed that my bullet must have 
sped truly as it had been delivered with a certain 
aim. As I turned to Dick for an explanation, a 
new sound not unlike that sometimes uttered by 
terrified swine, but still louder and more threaten- 
ing, met my ear. I knew it well — I knew it was 
the snort of the grizzly bear. 

Of all American animals, the grizzly bear is the 
most to be dreaded. Armed or unarmed, man is 
no match for him, and even the courageous hunter 
of these parts shuns the encounter. This was 
why my companion had admonished me not to 
fire. I thought I had missed ; it was not so. My 
bullet had hit and stung the fierce brute to mad- 
ness ; and a quick cracking among the bushes was 
immediately followed by a heavy plunge ; the 
bear was in the water. 

" Good heavens, he's after us ! " cried Dick, in 
accents of alarm, at the same time propelling the 
the dug-out with all his might. It proved true 
enough that the hear was after us, and the very- 
first plunge had brought his nose up to the side 
of the canoe. However-, a few well-directed 
strokes of the paddle set us in quick motion, and 
we were soon gliding rapidly down stream, fol- 
lowed by the enraged animal, that every- now and 
then uttered one of his fierce snorts. 

Wlia! rendered our situation a terrible one was. 
ili il w< ild not now see lie- hear, nor tell how- 
far he might la- from us. All to the rear of the 
was a pitchy darkness, in consequence of 
the screen ol' birch hark. No objectcould be dis- 
tinguished in that direction, and it was only by 
hearing him that wecouldtell he was still some 
yards oil'. The snorts, however, were more or 
- tinctas beard amid the varying roar of 'the 
waterfall; and sometimes they seemed as if the 
snout from whi-h they proceeded was dose Qp to 
our stern, We kn laid bis paw 

upon the eanne, we should either he sunk or 

i to leap out and swim for il. We knew. 

BCh all event would be certain 

ie of us ( itt least. I n affirm 

D used bis paddle wilh all the 
' - was in my 
butt-end of my gnn, whicl 
i ot the hui i 
o reli -I'd it. 
We had aba ream for a hundred yards 

the prospect of an 

■ nted itself to our terri- 
fied in I hi- object was the sound ot 
falling water; bul i em tri- 

a fall of the river 
upon ■ 

is of it. ti 

until we In 
terror and warning from nr 









I had succeedod in keeping the bear out of t 
canoe by several well planted blows upon t 
snout, and Dick was equally successful in forci: 
the dug-out nearer to the bank, when a sha 
crack reached my ears, followed by a terrified c 
from my companion. I glanced suddenly rou: 
to ascertain the cause of the demonsiratioi 
Dick had in his hands a short round stick, whi 
I recognized as the shaft of the paddle. The bla 
had snapped oft, and was floating away on t 
surface. 

We were now helpless. The menage of t 
canoe was no longer possible. Over the falls s 
must go ! We thought of leaping out. but it w 
too late. We were almost upon the edge, and t 
black current that bore our craft alone-, won 
have carried our bodies with like velocity. \ 
could not make a dozen strokes before we shoe 
he swept to the brink: it was too late We bo 
saw this, and each knew the feeling of the othi 
for we felt alike. Neither spoke, but crouchi: 
down, and holding the gunwales of the canoe: \ 
awaited the awful moment. The bear seemed 
have some apprehension as well, for, instead 
continuing his endeavors to climb into Hie cam 

he contented himself by holding fast to the stci 

evidently under some alarm. 'lie- torch st 
blazed, and the canoe was catching lire ; pcrha 
this it was that alarmed the bear. The last c 
cumstanee gave US at the moment hoi I - co 
earn: the greater danger eclipsed lie- 
had lmriliy noticed it. when we felt that 
going over. The canoe shot outward as if pi 
polled by some projective force; then came a lo 
crash, as though we had dropped up 
rock. Water, and spray, and froth wer 
over our bodies, and the next mom onrst 

prise and delight, we fell ourselves still alive, a 
sealed in the canoe w bich was fioal nt - 

still smooth water. It w : quit 
torch hud i»-eii extinguished ; loo 01 i in I 
darkness we could porceive the i immi 

ami floundering near the boat. 

lion, we saw- li in, heading I 
- Hie distance tx 
us with all tie- haste he COUld in i 

on over the Ml 
ility. 

now half full 

by using |] 
dies. |; 

with thi 

ined. 

Apt 

,11 for nt .Mr 
unnaMcto 'head 



>t ll 



lid you get my booi 
and a good rea 

l ma see II 



> prripit»t. - ml ■ i .< -i-'i 
kpf«Uinic. >n>! our thought* raa 
, - 'j.-i 
r that to leas sternwar 

I vprm my rompaaioo to paddle 

e prvt. rrr-t. urnl^r *JI (timlD- 
i i jam in of a bad encounur 

■taanaat 



• 



Chancery ro 1 1 ud yea • 



34 



U§$ <&&H$®m§® §mmc(%* 



\LIFORNIA FARMER 



WAilREN, Assistant Editor. 



AGENTS FOR CALIFORNIA FARMER. 
Messrs Adams & Co., at all their offices throughout the United 

States or Europe, 
Messrs. Wells, Fargo & Co., at their offices throughout the 
Country. 

San Francisco — Messrs. Murray & Co., booksellers, Mont- 
gomery street ; Sullivan's newspaper stand, near the Post 
Office : Kimball's, Noisy Carriers Hall, Long wharf 

Oakland— Mr. Isaac Willard. 

Benicia, Martinez, v. — Messrs. Stiles & Dodds. 

ration Cili/ and Mission San. Jose — Messrs. Howard & Cham- 
berlain. 

San L>ii* Obispo — Dr. Thomas L. Harvey, P. M. 

Saeramt nto — Mr. Osear D. Avnline ; Messrs. Curie Brothers. 

Onion, Humboldt May— A. H. Murdoch, P. M. 

N. B. — We want Agents in all tl:e principal localities, and 
persons disposed to act can have the opportunity, it satisfactory 
to all parties, 



To the Friends of Agriculture. 

We ask of all to whom we send this number, who are not 
already subscribers, to examine the Farmer, and to give it their 
influence. We trust to hear from them and to know that they 
will not only become subscribers to our Journal, but favor us 
with their communications. We desire to call their attention to 
our terms of subscription for clubs. 

Special Premiums for Subscriptions. 

In addition to the standing inducement for the getting of sub- 
scribers for the " Farmer," we will make a present of HAR- 
PER'S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE to the person who 
procures the most Subscribers in the first six mouths of our 
publication. This we regard as one of the most beautiful books 
ever issued Who will have the prize? 

A Premium — Farmers' Clubs. 

With the hope of inducing such oi cur friends, and tin ibc 
who have a little leisure, to ride among their neighbors and 
introduce an Agricultural Paper, we take pleasure in olVerinj 
the CALIFORNIA FARMER: and, to make it an inducement 
we say to such friends — if you will get us five subscribers, and 
remit tin- amount, we will send yuu SIX r-APEns, or for TEN 

subscribers, twelve papers. We tru^t ibere are many friends 
who will cheerfully take a little piuns to aid us, and thus extend 
the circulation of the Farmer, and make a useful vehicle for 
t he Agriculture of California 

Subscribers will please be particular to name the Post Office 
to which papers are to be sent ; or, if forwarded by express, 
which line they prefer. 

To Our Patrons. 

To Advertisers. — Wewuuld call theattention of those who 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
the pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will reach sources of trade entirely now and 
unattainable by any other means, and thus secure a large and 
immediate profit to those who desire to make known their 
business. By u glance at our advertising columns, it will be per- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have space for but one or two of each 
branch, these will be tile most prominent houses, and thus give 
more influence to them. 

To Agents. 

fcSr"* We desire Agents to report as early as possible, thatwe 
may be prepared in our issues lor a sufficient number to supply 
the demand. Be 6uro and report promptly. 

Large Farms. 

In years gone by, when an Eastern man — a 
New England man— went West, he would, upon 
his return, tell of the immense fields of corn anil 
grain which he had seen — sometimes one. two, or 
three hundred acres iu one farm. This. East was 
esteemed almost incredible. What would our 
friends say, could they take a ride, as we have 
done, from Union city to San Jose ? Two proprie- 
tors there who are known now world-wide. Messrs. 
Horner and Beard, have in connection around 
their farms more than eighty miles of wire fence, 
and of the very best character;— some pails of 
this fence being extra, with iron posts, would 
make the value of fencing alone over one hundred 
thousand dollars. But the value is not in the 
fencing. Within these enclosures we find the 
following crops of the present year, as given to 
us by the proprietors themselves: Mr. Horner— 
Fifteen hundred acres of wheat, one hunderd and 
fifty acres oats, two hundred acres barley, six 
hundred acres Potatoes, besides acres upon acres 
of cabbage and other vegetable root crops for 
stock. Here wc find about twenty-five hundred 
aeres under cultivation. In addition to this, Mr. 
Horner will plant the present year two thousand 
five hundred Fruit Trees, and two thousand forest 
and ornamental trees. 

Mr. Board's plantations the present year will 
consist of eleven hundred acres of wheat six 
hundred acres of oats, three hundred acres barley 
and six hundred acres potatoes, besides acres of 
cabbages, root crops for stock, &c. Mr. Beard 
will plant this season ten thousand Fruit Trees 
and many thousand Vines. 

What glorious prospects ahead for this magni- 
ficent valley, and how nobly do the gentlemen 
expend tbeir wealth, giving employment to the 
hundreds of laborers, increasing the luxuries of 
earth, and adding to its beauties. 

It would be interesting for our friends iu the 
Eastern States to make estimates of the value- of 
the crops of such farmers as we have named ; it 
would give them a better idea of California than 
they have yet received. 



Railroad to the Grave. 

How fearful the thought ! We start at the re- 
membrance of the many speedy messengers that 
this fell destroyer has sent upon earth, sundering 
the dearest ties of kindred and friendship ; yet 
when the blow has fallen, and we stand beside 
the cold and lifeless clay, all thought of haste, of 
earthly excitement, of wealth, of fume, or of the 
many charms of ths outer world, are gone, yet 
our mind is with the quiet dead, and we would be 
alone. 

Thus has it been. But the scene is changed. 
The age of improvement, of progress^ gives a new 
type of humanity in all its phases. " Men make 
haste to be rich." Hays are too short to accom- 
plish all the desires of the human heart — to reach 
all the mind would grasp ; walking is too slow ; 
riding is not speed enough ; the cars will not do 
for great exigencies, and the lightnings flash forth 
to convey plans, make contracts, and carry for- 
ward the designs of man : and in the midst of all 
this, Heath lays his cold hand upon the projectors 
of these great enterprises, and the work ceases — 
not ceases all — the one mind may be silent — but 
the world around has caught the enthusiasm, and 
the Dead — the Dead — there must be no time lost 
now. The world's great maelstrom is mo ving on 
and time is precious, and where once the slow 
moving funereal train was in strict keeping with 
ili ■ scene and events around — now the age de- 
mands a speed corresponding to it. 

That which induce 1 these remarks, was the an- 
nouncement in a late New York paper, that, so 
great was the number of burials at Greenwood 
Cemetery, that it would be found necessary to 
employ railroad cars for the purpose of the burial 
of the dead. No more comment is needed than 
the simple announcement of this startling fact. 
We are indeed a fast people — for we live and are 
buried with railroad speed. 



Great Yield of Oats. 

We give below the data of a great yield of oats 
in San Jose valley, as related to us from one of 
the firm of Hawley & Cornell, upon w hose farm 
the product was harvested. 

The crop was harvested from seven acres 
amounting to two hundred and thirty sacks — 
weighing twenty-three thousand nine hundred 
and twenty pounds. The oats were very heavy 
— unusually so — forty-seven lbs. per bushel — thus 
averaging seventy-four bushels per acre of this 
extraordinary heavy grain. 

The usual weight of oats in the Eastern States 
is thirty-six pounds, and this crop would be in 
weight equal to ninety-five bushels per acre! 
What will our Eastern friends say to this? 



The Pioneer. 

We received a copy of the - California Pioneer," 
with the compliments of the publishers. We note 
its appearance wiih much pleasure. Give us 
books — give us food for the mind. California is 
prolific in everything — newspapers, books, perio- 
dicals, and well is it that the Press is so well re- 
presented. The citizens had better spend their 
money for such things than for thai which might 
do harm. If people do not read, they will rove 
away — perchance do something that will not pro- 
duce such satisfactory results as the reading a 
good paper or magazine. 

The California Pioneer is very creditable indeed, 
although the publishers promise great improve- 
ment in future numbers. 

The principal articles in No. 1 are — The Liman- 
tour Claim — Reminiscences of San Francisco — 
Poetry of California, principally a very severe 
criticism upon Quillom, the author of recenl 
poems — Fillibustcrism — Pearl Diving — California 
in 1851, &c, etc. We sincerely wish the pro- 
jectors success in their undertaking — they deserve 
it. 



We have filed for insertion in our next number 
the Reports of two of the Committees who made 
awards at the Horticultural Fair, as also the able 
Lecture of Dr. H. M. Gray. 



A New Plant. 

Some months since a notice appeared in a jour- 
nal of Washington Territory, the Pioneer we 
think, of a new and interesting plant, just dis- 
covered by Gen. Brooks, of Columbia. The plant 
was described in such glowing terms, that wc 
were induced to address a letter to the gentleman, 
making inquiries respecting it. We received in 
reply the following letter, together with a branch 
of the shrub and a parcel of the seed, and we 
take pleasure in gratefully acknowledging the 
' same, and shall endeavor to rear from the seed 
thus sent, the plant, under our own eye, that we 
may be enabled to study its character and know 
its value. We have the branches at the Hall, and 
they are still fresh as when sent — the wood is of 
a fine lively brown tint, the leaves a rich glossy 
green, covered over with a gum of considerable 
substance. 



The shrubs will prove a handsome evergreen, 
and very ornamental. The only drawback we 
fear from its introduction would be the coating of 
gum upon the leaves, which in our dusty latitude 
would soon collect the dust and sand upon it and 
thus rob the plant of one of its principal beauties 
— its evergreen appearance. 

Olympia, Washington Territory, ) 
November 20, 1853. $ 

Dear Sirs : Your letter of the 7th inst. is re- 
ceived, and I hasten to comply with your request. 
As the express from this point to the Columbia 
river is carried on horse-back. I shall be able to 
send you but a small specimen of the tree. I 
enclose you also a few* of the seeds. I hope the 
specimen I send, though a mere twig, may be suf- 
ficient to enable you to form a correct idea of the 
tree. It may be considerably injured on the pas- 
sage and lose much of its fragrance. In your ex- 
amination, I desire you to take a leaf between 
your thumb and fore-finger, and rub pretty vigor- 
ously with the thumb on the upper side, and you 
will readily perceive the gum which coates the 
same. When the leaves have become dry, if they 
are placed on a hot stove, the gum will ooze out 
like grease. 

Hoping that the specimen and seeds may reach 
you in safety, and that the tree may- meet your 
expectations. I remain, 

Respectfully yours, 
Q. A. Brooks. 



The Golden Gate.— Hark! hear the shout- 
ing ! This noble steamer is safe ! What a gene- 
rous, joyous, and sincere huzzah rung out from 
the noble-hearted seamen and brave officers of this 
beautiful ocean palace as she left the sandy bed, 
and swayed again into her native element. It was 
a proud moment, that — and hundreds, thousands, 
who have walked her decks, will feel that to them 
it is like the restoration of a dearly loved friend, 
whom they believed lost forever. These joyous 
shouts — we hear them still ; and, ere we go to 
press, we hope to hear the booming guns announce 
her sale entrance through her self-named portals 
into our harbor. 



Favors Received. — Wc arc under many obli- 
gations to Messrs. Adams & Co., for acts of kind- 
ness in the delivery of parcels, papers, letters. ,'.... 
for the Farmer. We are most grateful, and pray 
that they may be blessed in ' ; basket ami store." 

To Messrs. Wells, Fargo & Co., we arc under 
many and repeated obligations for similar favors. 
They are now indeed, — in their splendid new es- 
tablishment, — one of the corner stones of the 
Express and Forwarding Business of Uncle Sam's 
dominions. 



A Trip to Sunny Side. 

THE OLIVE, VINE AND FIG. 

Who would not be glad to find the "Sonny 
Side " such a winter as this. The very name in- 
fuses a pleasing glow upon the feelings, and we 
hope it will impart interest enough to take the 
reader along with us a brief time only to '■Sunny 
Side." 

Beneath a chain of lofty mountains, now cov- 
ered with the robes of white, from whence comes 
chilling blasts sweeping over a beautiful valley 
extending as far each way as the eye can reach, 
lay a group of ancient buildings, built of the 
"adobe." and covered with tile. The principal 
one, a dilapidated old mission church, reminds 
one of the legends of olden times, lor by its ap- 
pearance, — the old tower with its bells, the loo- 
range of buildings attached to the church, — there 
is evidence that the ''glory of those days" have 
departed, for in and around we find congregated 
in various places the former worshippers, and 
you can read distinctly in the eyes of all that such 
arc their convictions, that a new order of things 
lias been established. 

There is a mournful feeling that rises in the 
minds of all the generous hearted as they note 
such devay. however little they might sympathize 
with those who established these early Missions 

After a thorough view of all these marks of olden 
time, we turned our eye to objects more inviting, 
as we look to the mountains above us, they infuse 
a chill as cold and gloomy as the thoughts of the 
grave. Wo turn therefore to a brighter scene — 
the vineyards and fruit orchards that have been 
planted to take the place of the old stock, which 
are rapidly " passing away ;" along this chain of 
most splendid mountains, extending some miles, 
we note the "cattle upon a thousand hills," and 
while the lofty heights gleam up with their snow- 
capped summits, the lowing herds are cropping 
the tender grass that is springing up upon the 
gentle slopes that form the base of this long range 
of mountains. 

Broad fields of early grain are just coming 
forth to tell us spring is nigh, and the early violet 
and crocus are peeping out from their wintry 
hiding places in the warm ravines that here and 
there divide the mountain. For several days the 



biting blast of a wintry wind of unusual severity 
has prevented nearly all kinds of labor out of 
doors. Planting has ceased, the plow stands in 
the furrow and the ox remains in the stall. Grim 
visaged Winter has laid his frosty palm upon all, 
and the embargo must be borne as bravely as we 
can, and if storms must come, we know 

" Behind the clouds, the sun's still shiniiii'," 

and so it was at Sunny Side. The ice and snow 
and storm clouds were above us on the mountain- 
top — and we in the sweet valley below. Dense 
as were the clouds above us and cold as was the 
blast, the rays of the bright sun could break 
through the clouds and gladden us by its rays, 
and cheer us by its warmth — added to all this, 
we were within the "social circle," where the 
warmest and most genuine hospitality ever reigns. 

The "Old Mission Church," with its numerous 
ranges of smaller tenements, is not all we would 
note. There arc many very interesting mansions 
of the old Spanish gentry, who even now greet you 
with pleasure and pay you that courteous attcn- 
tion for which they are so noted, and there is 
many a neat and pretty cottage that tells of peace 
and plenty within. But there was one so sweetly 
located, that you could not but choose it first and 
love it best, as you would a beautiful rose-bud, 
from out a group of common flowers. Follow 
me, gentle reader, and I will lead you to it. Go 
with me now, past the decaying old cathedral or 
mission church, and winding round a portion of 
it, you enter the yard, find your way over the 
ruins of many a cell or cloister, and various work- 
shops and stables, you find yourself entering a 
large, open yard ; before you a neat latticed fence 
In shield the " pet flower" garden that adorns the 
spacious dwelling now before you. This dwelling 
you are about to enter has been constructed for 
the comfort and pleasure of the dwellers within 
— a long, villa like dwelling, spacious and capa- 
cious within and the whole extent of the building 
protected from the summer's sun by the broad ' 
veranda that guards the entire front, giving beauty 
and grace to all. But why talk of the building 
now? Have you not heard the music within, and 
see you not the wreathing smoke that tells of the 
blazing Are; enter and hear the melody of the 
one and feel the warmth of the other. These are 
the luxuries that upon a freezing day like this. 
will make you prize both. Well, dear reader, 
what of the music ? are you warmed .' 1 know 
you enjoyed them both, but was there not richer 
music iu the tones of the voice that gave you the 
generous welcome"? 1'id not that welcome warm 
your heart more than all the caloric that burn- 
ing fuel could furnish. Oh, is there not a charm 
most potent in truthful and courteous hospitality, 
that is beyond the thought or language to express. 

Go with me now. kind reader, and as we stroll 
around this beautiful " Home," look up to see 
those towering hills above you, and look along 
these endless, undulating slopes ; see the green 
grass, the growing grain, the early violet and the 
spring daisy, and then you may look far up at 
the chilling peaks above. Yel now you are look- 
ing at brighter prospects — here before you the 
long rows of the vine, that shall soon be fragant 
with blossoms, and the tempting fruit — these 
Stately trees, the beautiful emblem of Peace, upon 
whose wavy branches now hang the purple fruit ; 
and that graceful tree, though now leafless, it will 
soon be reelothcd. and although the "tig tree shall 
not blossom," yet ere long its beautiful foliage 
shall come forth and the luscious fruit shall bend 
its branches with its weight. These long rows of 
stately trees, planted by hands long since silent 
iu the tomb — they give you the delicious pear, 
the melting peach, the juicy plum and the plump 
cherry, and as you gaze upon all these glorious 
luxuries of earth — and as you look upon this fair 
scene, and feci the warmth of the bright sun now 
gladdening with its balmy breath, where, gentle 
reader, do you think I have carried you in my 
ramblings? 

I will tell you if you will obey me, and if you 
would enjoy what I have so much enjoyed. Take 
a fresh pony and an easy saddle, and hie away to 
the Oakland ferry ; cross quickly, mount and ride; 
sweep through that mighty valley beyond, north 
and east, take the whole length and breadth of it. 
for it is all beautiful and well worth visiling. and 
stop not long until you have found the place I 
have SO briefly pictured, and then you will know 
that the "half was not told you.'' for you will 
recognize "Sunny Side," and while your lot is 
cast here you will feel how appropriate is the 
name to such a spot, for here you will enjoy so 
much of the bright side of life that you will feel 
however your own lot may be chequered or 
changed, ion have indeed found, for the lime you 
have thus lived, the "Sunny Side of Life. 

January 2-. 



Elliot. 



Sfyft (!S<&lUiS®«f8$fl 0WVbto 



35 



To Legislators. 

We know of no bod; of men whose favor and 
and support we would more gladly conciliate than 
the peoples' representatives now convened at the 
capital. These gentlemen ran do so much to pro- 
i a grand development of agriculture in the 
Its ; they can impart such a healthfnl impulse 
to the of farm og in nil its detail, that we 

must make an earnest appeal to them in behalf of 
thei au80. They am oonvened together from every 
county in the State, and must know the varied 
wants of farmers all over the commonwealth. 
Such a complete representation could not be 
brought together by any other system of adver- 
tising or invitation ; especially as respects author- 
ity, for in their legislative rapacity they can give 
an impulse to the science of farming which cannot 
urcd in any other way. California is suffi- 
ciently old, and the agricultural interest sufficient- 
ly important to justify some specific assistance at 
the hands of the Legislature. There is no reason 
why the Legislature of our State should not lend 
its countenance and a small degree of patronage 
to the support of an Agricultural Association and 
an Annual Agricultural State Fair. Wc say that 
there is no reason why they should not; but 
there is a strong reason why they should. Legis- 
lators know very well that when any bill is pre- 
sented deferring the revenue for current expenses, 
that its leading reliance, its great resource is 
through the medium of taxes assessed upon farm- 
ers, upon the tillers of the soil. Without this 
means of support the finances of the common- 
wealth would be in as bad a condition as even 
without food. The real estate owners, those who 
are doiii" more in one year to dcvelope a perma- 
nent State interest than all the votaries of trans- 
ient employments will do in five, are the ones 
who are absolutely realizing less assistance from 
Legislative patronage than any other class of 
laborers. This we believe to be wrong, and we 
cannot see any good ground of objection to direct 
and specific aid being awarded through the Legis- 
lature for the advancement, improvement and. per- 
fection of Agriculture in the State. 

Cannot the Legislature appoint a committee to 
examine into the present Agricultural organiza- 
tion, and if found to afford sufficient inducement 
make it the agent of the Slate in maturing plans 
for an effective fair next fall, and for (hose experi- 
ments iu husbandry which, when properlj i m 
ducted and published, would exalt and ( itablish 
the farming interests i" the cotmtryt By thus 
favoring the individual efforts which have 
made, and by a small appropriation in support o( 
the cause, an Immense amount of good can be 
accomplished. 

It seems to us that it is too much a matter of 
propriety to requii Umcnts 

in favor of such Legislative I isi itna 
dered during Ibis session to so noble a source ol 

wealth. Wc therefore trui i thai our Legi 
who knofl and appri ciatethe impoi 1 1 
culture, v. iil | ive us some able and cheerful sup- 
ioi I in the way ol appropriations for the present 
F the members of the 

nsidcration and pre- 
ligh' to the 
Senate ibly ! Anything . 

aid them iti undertaking will be 

most i 



to a length of 12 ami 11 feet. We are inn li 
ing the growth of alfalfa and white clover, but are 
not prepared to say what success will attend it. 
We have a small nursery of apple trees (say fifty) 
of one rowth, from 8 in. to 2 ft. high. 

The different kinds of vegetables and quantity 

grown by us this year, art — potatoes, 10,000 His.; 

cabbage, 1,500 head; beds, 1,000 lbs. ; vegetable 

oyster, 500 lbs.; turnips, 800 lbs.; with other 
smaller ait iclcs. Wc raised a, small piece of corn 
which grew well, the most of M from 12 to 17 ft. 
high, ears filling well and getting ripe. 

Our season for planting is about the first of 
April, although this season we did not commence 
until the middle of May. Some of our potatoes 
were not planted until the first week in June, a 
sample of which I forward you. 

Yours truly, J. B. Polley. 

N. B. — I would not have you think that tlvis 
is a fair statement of what can bo done up here 
in the mountains. 



Ota i (y\y days 

I should have boon happy to have 

iiijr ;l , . .1 in what concerns the advance- 

ment ofagricultnr.il pin-suits in this count i 

silly in the mountains, you may 
upon mi cordial sup] I rt, : ! far as my means ami 
experience will enable me. ill tl 

hment of an agricultural jour- 
nal. I oe. let it be 

! to none in 
this 1 

In answer to ; 1 will 

you bear in 

menced. 

Ill re 

'■•d to 

und sugar ; 
rosemblinc soft i, »w ao gnus land : 

tile wild [»■» is luvurin 



The Seed Trade. 

The following from an English paper, though 
written for the latitude of London, will answer for 
any latitude where gardening operations are car- 
ried on, and we commend them to our readers : 

" That there is a good deal of humbug in the 
London seed trade cannot be denied ; but it is as 
notorious that the public have, in a great measure 
been the cause of it, and their indiscriminate love 
of quantity for money has brought it all upon 
themselves. A thirst for low prices has caused a 
most unwholesome competition. A scamp sets 
up for cheap selling, advertises retail seeds at less 
than he must pay wholesale to procure them him- 
self. Common sense tells us that there are only 
two ways to do this ; one by adulteration, the 
other by cheating his creditors, lie must cheat 
somebody, either those be buys of, or those he 
sells to must be taken in. Yet such is the rage 
for cheap things that thousands encourage the 
cheap seller. The fair tradesmen see the ground 
slipping away from under their feet ; they must 
either meet the public or lose their business. If 
none but sensible persons purchased seeds it 
would be no trouble to show them that thej 
duped by the tiers; but it is not so: a 

vast majority do not know a g I seed from a bail 

one, and nobody but the wiser can knOW the suit, 

that is. the particular variety, nor whether it be 

true or otherwise The most 'especial.!:- houses, 
where every precaution is used, arc occasionally 

deceived. They ma\ know the sample if 

and in good condition, but altl 

may grow the far from true to tl 

lie buy it fir ; in which 

their trade The 
to be grown 

aid pay tfa 

for all they can produce from that 

who, judging what will pay 
them best, will grow on their own account : but 
having established a reputation and a coun< 
they have no difficulty iii finding a market 

those who know lie in. bill "t what 119* . 

o only be bought at a full prici 
with the chea 

article which tells no la! 
for months, the public stem 
livery man who has a shilling to spend 
have the moral courage i" deal with fit 
ln.iisi s and pay a 
article, because he 

public is to adulterate the arf 

dead needs, and H 

extent 

them with an 

known, and w ha b. t-<r ■■ 

it to kill a; 

at the marts undei 

tioncers. and vet failure in th 

year, will no 

Mower-* 

to pre- 

- are pcrNOi.- 

buy t! 
wc ar 






ahy for running after bargains ; but in seeds a 
man is buying a futurccrop of something that 
may be good or good-for-nothing ; and if the lat- 
ter, he will have lost all his time and room as 
well as his money. We. therefore, strongly ad- 
vise ilu- public in avoid cheap things in allgardon 
matters. Avoid all auctions but those on a man's 
premises, whole there is a tangible reason for sel- 
ling, anil a cbancc of fair buying. Wc do not 
mean a sale where a man once a year pretends his 
ground is wanted lor building, and hasa sale with 
reserve upon every lot worth having. How often 
have we seen sales on the same premises, and the 
ground, after it was over, about one-third cleared. 
The best thing the public can do. if plants arc 
wanted, is to go to a respectable nursery, buy only 
what it. wanted, and of the size it is wanted. 
Avoid auctions altogether; leave them to the 
trade, who if they can buy worth their while, 
purchase, and if not. let things alone. A gentle- 
man may be sure that if he does get a bargain, to 
all appearance, there is something which the trade 
discover and which he docs not, and that nine 
times in ten such bargains are dear." — (Ftor. 
Cab., 1853, p. 112.) 



i 



Onions in California. 

We have often received communications relative 
to that important subject — rotation of crops ; and 
we are enquired of more particularly in regard to 
the staple product named above, how far the onion 
could be exempt from the general rule. We have 
made diligent enquiry, and we find in California 
many instances where cultivators of the onion 
have raised fine crops for many succeeding years 
upon the same soil. We beg our readers to favor 
us with all the facts in their possession bearing 
upon this point. As a general rule a change of 
soil and change of seed is of the highest moment 
to secure great crops — a change of seed always, 
and a change of soil generally. 

We give below an extract from a letter from one 
of the largest growers in Danvers, Mass.. who 
writes to the "Country Gentleman," under date 
of December ">. We leave the subject for investi- 
gation, and more practical results. 

Messrs Editors — In reply to the inquires 

b) 0. N. B., of Orient, L. 1., in your papei 

oi Dec. l-t. I beg leave to say that I have given 

much attention to the culture of the onion for a 

dozen i ad can say with confidenci 

I tin- same necessity for a rota- 
tion of crops in the growing of onions a 

in the growin othercrope. 1 am 

i bat I e.Npie t var- 

pressed by j o 
Nevertheless, tie- large quant 

and my fr ■ have 

ed their cultivation, makes me quite ascon- 
ttcr as any other of vegetable 
do know fields on which onion 

-, for twenty years or m 

without any apparent diminution of crop ' 
ntinned culture. 

rops in 

will do well without a ■ 

ii varying t! 
doubt ; and that 

g from 

pondent asks — v. 






was poor, she was industriou 

herself with her needle, late and 

her bread with "stitch, stitch. ndus 

triousrj at ! ■■ ., n ical ] uli 

for that day when she might I prid 

of a woman in being the wife ol I man sh 

loved, and which he bad prouii i d. 

He, too, felt the need ,,f money ; he, too. wa 
poor, was willing to iove a, poor'girl. He ha' 
every opportunity of knowing her character— h 
did know it, and he believed it to be such tha 
she w as a suitable match for the jiuur lover, Bu 
fortune favored him. Accident gave him a; 
office, 'flic use of the office made him a rid 
man. Whether as Mammon poured wealth int 
one scale, that which Love had filled gradual! 
rose to the beam, docs not appear, But a visit t 
the East, the entree which wealth gave to societ; 
and the opportunity thus offered to form wealth 
matrimonial alliances, effects a change. Thenth 
love of the poor girl, left toiling at her needli 
waiting for his return, and the fulfilment of hi 
vows, begins to be a burden and an annoyance t 
him. 

Then commenced a system a dela}', doubt, ill 
treatment, abuse, undoubtedly for the purpose c 
inducing indignation or disgust on the part of th 
lady, and a release from his engagement. Th 
poor man had become rich ; the lover had tunic 
into the libeller; the lips which had spoken word 
of affection now tried to damn the reputation c 
her whom for three years they had addressed a 
his future wife. Every means was tried to rni 
her. Justice was forestalled by industriously cii 
eulated libels. The low* and vicious manufacture 
falsehoods. Calumny rose above par. A defence 
less woman's name was made a topic of bar-rooi 
conversation by toadies and pimps. Creatures a 
destitute of honor as of all sense of chastity an 
virtue, tried to make her appear what they then: 
selves were. 

And when in self-defence, when hope, which ha 
been deferred until the heart grew sick — whe 
hope had died, and the crushed heart'- tide ( 

affection 1ms been forced back with a stranglin 
reflex to roll its currents, like a stream of liviii 
death over all future life — when, with soiled fane 
as well as blank disappointment, she applied t 
the only tribunal for redress, the man who ha 
SWOm i" be her protector allowed his counsel t 
state to the Court that they expected to prove th; 

be bad been in the habit of visiting a bouse < 
ill-fame! Vet. during that whole trial of eleve 
days, no attempt was made toproveit. '1 he , stab 
men; was made tor effect upon the jiny and tb 

public. Did not the defendan knowat the tin) 

that it was a falsehood ? 






Splendid Celery. — Wc jved froi 

E. A. I pton, Esq., from his garden near Sa 

■ : irgi Is ol fVh li 

it was wdi grown and orj ilid, an 

led to paidl 

'lad. M 

n 
ndy and pract 
tome rai 
We would vn j iil.ir attCI 

tioii to thco/i.; 

bicf point of i 

Tin: 1' 

ni ion on tic house of Vlau 

Wr. II 



Artificial Production of Diamond Powde: 









apple orchil 



ill mag- 






not familiar with t i 

The Breach of Promise Case. 

T fate 
■uid he sa 






IU 



sew citizen* : 
tt.-rtion had 



:. sank fore* a 
what hecaa 



.man's tn* 



36 



U%& ®MMm§® §mwm< 



T UIFORNIA FARMER. 



!OHK F. MORSE, Editok. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
Thursday, February 2, 1854. 

Horner's Ranch, Jan. 22, 1854. 

Well, here I am beneath the " vine and fig- 
tree," or rather by a warm fire in the parlor of 
Mr. John M. Llorncr, whose fame as a glorious 
Agriculturist has been so frequently heralded to 
the wide-world. I had the pleasure of his com- 
pany from San Francisco, and by his invitation 
am now enjoying the warm hospitality of him- 
self and his excellent lady. To say that I have 
been interested uuder such circumstances would 
be a very mild expression of a most agreeable 
fact. For a long time could I sit and listen to 
this gentleman's remarks upon farming, and be 
sure of realizing both interest and profit from his 
ich experience. 

The very idea of talking with a man who re- 
gards it as a rather inconsiderable thing to raise 
400,000 bushels of potatoes in one season, is quite 
as thrilling in its reference to the grandeur of 
farming as it is agreeable in novelty. It is suffi- 
cient in itself to enlist one's feelings in a visit and 
acquaintanceship with such an individual. But 
in a visit to such farmers as Messrs. Horner and 
Beard, we had greater sources of interest to pro- 
mote than a mere acquaintanceship, personally, 
with such men. We wished to see the immense 
farms that had been brought into an early culti- 
vation through the unequalled industry and fore- 
sight of these devoted friends of Husbandry ; we 
wished to know from actual observation the rela- 
tions of the foregoing farms to the beautiful val- 
ley in which they were located, and especially to 
see how far advanced these men were in the 
science of domestic life as tillers of the soil. 
These were our motives for visiting, and how far 
the objects have been realized can be seen by the 
record. 

After leaving Union City, which is situated 
upon the " Alameda Creek," at the head of steam- 
boat navigation, we took a stage and travelled up 
the valley nine miles, at which point Mr. H. lives. 
The whole distance from the city is marked by 
the most beautiful agricultural scenery that can 
be imagined. The road the greater part of the 
distance was located about midway of one broad 
and gorgeous area of rich and tillable land, — an 
unbroken, level plain of meadows of some five 
or six miles in width and so fenced oft' and im- 
proved as to be doubly improved in beauty and 
utility. 

One of the first matters of interest arising from 
artificial sources was the kind of fences which 
Messrs. Horner and Beard have made use of to 
enclose and protect their cultivated lands. The 
most of the fencing is composed of tightly stretched 
wire (some galvanized), which is supported by 
cedar posts firmly set in the ground and at various 
distances from four to sixteen feet apart. In some 
of these fences there are six, some five, and others 
but four wires. The wire fence thus constructed 
cost about §800 per mile. Mr. H. showed us a 
long line of fence, probably a mile and a half in 
length, which was made of round iron rods and 
heavy barred iron uprights. The uprights were 
about three feet apart and every third or fourth 
one double. This made an exceedingly firm and 
substantial fence, but cost about §3000, per mile. 
It was imported from England, where it was 
made to order. 

Mr. H.'s farm includes a large tract of the al- 
'ivial plain referred to, and the foot hills that 
line the valley on the cast. His house is situated 
near the base ridge and by the side of a little 
rivulet that steals musically down a sort of moun- 
tain ravine. The house in which he resides is a 
frame building, two stories high, and surrounded 
by a yard and garden which is being ornamented 
by fruits and flowering plants. Very near this 
building and to the east, stands a large adobe 
building which seems to be inhabited by his 
hands. The situations of the buildings are very 
pleasant, but we very much doubt whether frame 
houses can be made as comfortable in the varied 
seasons of California, as buildings composed of 
different materials. Yet the subject is one worthy 
of careful reflection. We have previously request 
ed fanners and architects to give us their views 
in this particular. Wo believe that high and pro- 
jecting roofs and capacious porticos will secure 
the greatest measure of comfort. 

Mr. Horner, in his own house reveals a charac- 
ter for kindness, for placid and agreeable temper- 
ament which must elevate him in the general 
scale of honorable manhood. He makes himself 
tha head and subject of affectionate intercourse, 



and seems while at home as if absorbed by the 
general magnetism of love and kindness that dis- 
tinguish a household of happiness. As far as 
gastric matters are concerned, no man could make 
more sumptuous provision. His table, we think, 
would be a difficult thing to be converted into a 
Spiriturl medium, especially about 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon. If under experiment, it gave ex- 
pression to any distinguishing voices, the phe- 
nomenon could be probably explained very readily 
by measuring the superincumbent pressure "of 
roast beef, roast duck, roast goose, apple flitters, 
fricasseed chickens, ham and eggs, etc., etc., plum 
puddings, various pies, and preserved fruits in 
superabundance. In short, Mr. Horner is a man 
who understands the physiological propriety of 
cultivating an agreeable relationship with the 
inner man. More anon. J. f. m. 



California Wheat. 

This great staple of California should now be 
the theme of especial and united attention of every 
permanent citizen of California. Every effort 
should be made immediately to astertain through- 
out every county the quantity of wheat planted 
the present year, in order to ascertain how near 
we approximate to the amount needed for home 
consumption. 

Could the facts be gathered, we have no doubt 
but that this State will grow nearly sufficient for 
home use the coming year ; but we have no cer- 
tain data. Will not some of our prominent men 
who are interested in this all important question. 
Some one, two or three in each county, take a 
little pains to ascertain, or near as possible, and 
send us the result. Would it not be information 
that all would desire to possess, for their own 
guidance; and would it not be invaluable as a 
public document. 

Let the cultivators of wheat look at this ques- 
tion rightly, and they will see it is for their inter- 
est to know these things. What a fact to send 
abroad, could such a fact be ascertained reliably ! 
What a fact to send abroad — California raises 
wheat enough for home consumption ! What an 
influence these data would have to check those 
who ship wheat to San Francisco, from Chili and 
elsewhere ! 

Is it not for the interest of the cultivator to 
check this importation? H it is, then let the 
farmer of every county take the matter in hand, 
and seeing how deepl} r they are interested in this 
question, let them aid us in gathering the com- 
plete statistics of the crop planted for 1854, and 
we will send forth a knowledge of the same to 
every continent, and if, as we verily believe, we 
shall grow enough the present year for home con- 
sumption, then we have the means within our 
hand to stop the importation of wheat from other 
places, and this we should do. 

Come, farmers ! one and all, see that every 
county prepare tables of the number of acres 
planted, and the average crop of the last year upon 
the same soil. These facts will enable us to make 
out data hat will interest all, and be of great ben- 
efit to the whole State. 



Chinese New Years. 

A singular manifestation of pleasure in the 
celebration of a public day by these natives was 
the continued explosion of " Chinese crackers." 
Standing on their balconies, they would light 
bunch after bunch, and throw them into, the street 
sometimes as many as twenty packs exploding at 
a time, and making a continual rattling, like the 
discharge of distant musketry, this afforded much 
amusement to the Chinese, and collected great 
crowds in the vicinity of their dwellings. 



Horse Exhibition at Springfield. 

We lay before our readers extracts from the 
publications issued as connected with this cele- 
brated exhibition. This was the first of the kind 
in the country, and the projectors of it have won 
to themselves great honor. It was completely 
successful, and will result in great good. 

We trust the day is not far distant when Cali- 
fornia will show what she can do in the way of 
Horses, and we think we can with reason be 
proud of our noble animals — and not only the 
Horse, but all kinds of stock. What say you, 
Farmers ? Will the year 1854 make the begin- 
ning? 

Big Beet. — Some considerable interest is now 
felt in the production of mammoth vegetables, and 
the ; ' Big Beet " of 42 lbs. is esteemed wonderful 
— it is indeed a fine one, and we should be much 
gratified if it reaches New York safely — it cer- 
tainly will surprise them. Yet Col. A. T. Hall, 
of Sacramento, has beat that Beet by 25 lbs. — his 
Beet, now on exhibit'on at the Hall, weighed 67 
when dug. 



The Potato Crop. 

THE EFFECT OF THE FROST UPON THE POTATO 
CROP. 

We desire to hear from the cultivators from 
all parts of the parts of the State relative to the 
effects of the late severe weather, the temperature, 
the average loss of the crop, and the value of the 
potato in each locality. 

~\Ye have examined Ihe subject briefly in the 
valley of San Jose, and have derived authentic 
information from the most extensive growers in 
that valley, Messrs. Ucrncr and Beard, and we 
should judge the loss to be one-fifth the entire 
crop now on hand. From information derived 
from many quarters directly around us, among 
the growers, and from the knowledge that large 
amounts were upon the wharves and other ex- 
posed situations in every city, town, and mining 
locality, we believe we can safely estimate the loss 
throughout the state, at one-fifth the entire quan- 
tity on hand. 

When the fact of this loss is announced, it 
would strike the eye of the casual reader, as a 
matter of but little moment, but we ask the reader 
to look at the figures, derived from undoubted 
sources, while we record only the loss that has 
fallen upon two cultivators in San Jose valley 
alone. The crop of Potatoes produced by J. M. 
Horner, Esq., the present year, is estimated in 
round numbers at twenty million pounds — it ex- 
ceeds that by one or two millions. 

The crop of E. L. Beard, Esq., of the same 
valley, is estimated at ten millions — in round 
numbers, it would exceed that. 

We have carefully estimated and ascertained 
from both those gentlemen that about one half 
of the crop has been sold, thus leaving fifteen 
million pounds to be affected by the frost. 

The actual loss in these two cases alone is 
3,000,000 pounds, and, at 1 l-2c. prr pound, would 
be the pretty little sum of forty-five thousand 
dollars. 

But here is but two instances of loss. Take 
the many cultivators in the other vallies — Santa 
Cruz, Pajaro, Bodega, and over our entire State, 
and one may estimate the loss at millions, 
of dollars in Potatoes alone ; and yet, while we 
chronicle this apparent misfortune, connected with 
it there is a bright side, which we always love to 
find under the dispensations of Providence, that 
never "permits a sparrow to fall " without notice. 

This wide spread loss will only be severely felt 
nhere the entire crop of the individual is lost, for 
all must admit that this calamity to this " great 
staple " must necessarily affect the market price 
of this article materially, and cause a rise in the 
price and an increased demand. 

The immense crop of the present year rather 
overstocked the market for a time, as all were 
desirous of realizing the proceeds of the crop, to 
enable them to prepare for the duties of the en- 
suing year ; and the quantity thrown upon the 
market has reduced the price to a mere nominal 
one. 

The effect now of this loss will be removed in 
a measure by the increased value of the quantity 
now on hand. In fact, this apparent calamity 
will prove, we trust, only " a blessing in disguise 
For example, there will be more dollars coming to 
the cultivators for each one hundred bags of pota- 
toes at market at 3c. than for two hundred at 
1 l-2c. — a saving of freight, of sacks, of drayage. 
and of labor, will put the gain where it truly be- 
longs — in the producer's pocket, and give him a 
new word of encouragement, under the many trials 
and discouragements which have been theirs the 
past year. 

We do not hesitate to assert, from all we ean 
gather of the loss of the potato, that those who 
have now saved their crop, or portions of it, will 
realize a fair remunerative price for the balance 
on hand, as potatoes must necessarily rise consi- 
derably in value in our market. 

The Disease and Preservation of the Potato. 
Among the many theories of the cause of the 
potato disease which has been so prevalent for 
more than ten years, and which has baffled all the 
skill of vegetable physiologists and practical ex- 
periment, the following conclusions of T. J. Hera- 
path, an English ehemist of celebrity, originally 
communicated to the London Chemical Gazette, 
have considerable plausibility, and are worthy of 
attention. 

1. That the potato blight is neither directly nor 
indirectly caused by the ravages of any parasitic 1 
insect. 

2. That it is a species of putrefactive fermenta- 
tion, or incipient decomposition of the nitrogenous 
or albumenoid constituents of the sap or cell con- 
tents. 

3. That this decomposition is either directly 
produced by a peculiar fungus, the " Botrytis in- 
festans" — to whieh public attention has been al- 
ready directed by other writers — or, what is in 
my opinion a still more probable supposition, the 



fungus referred to only makes its appearance after 
the fermentative processes have been in action for 
some time, and consequently is an cticct, and not 
tho cause of the disease. 

4. That the blight has been in some measure 
produced by a long-continued and indiscriminate 
use of animal and nitrogenous manure, which has 
over stimulated the potato plant, and thus ren- 
dered it more susceptible of disease, and has. in 
fact, produced the same effect upon it that alco- 
lic drinks, when taken in excess, do on the human 
system ; that is to say, it has injured the stamina 
of the plant, and rendered the organism more 
readily affected by atmospheric and other in- 
fluences. 

5. That animal or highly nitrogenous organic 
manures should be used with great caution in the 
cultivation of the potato, and indeed in that of all 
root crops ; the best manure for the potato plant 
being the inorganic compounds, such for instance 
as those which are, or were at one time, used in 
some parts of the continent. 

0. That the disease, having once established 
itself, lias become epidemic. 

7. That it is contagious, if not infectious. 

8. That the only mode of eradicating it is to 
restore the original constitution of the plant. 

9. That this desirable result can only be brought 
about by introducing a complete alteration in the 
mode of cultivation that is adopted. 

10. That the changes in question should consist, 
1st. in thoroughly drying the seed potatoes by the 
process now known in several parts of Germany ; 
2ndly, in steeping them for a short time in tho 
dilute solution of the sulphate of copper (blue 
vitriol or blue stone) of about the same strength 
as that used for picklingwheat ; 3rdly, in planting 
them in poor, well-drained land; 4thly, and 
lastly, in substituting for the farm-yard manure, 
&c, now employed, some inorganic compost 
similar to those before alluded to. 

In conclusion, I would suggest that the follow- 
ing simple experiment should be tried in storing 
the potato crop during the next season : — Let the 
tubers be stored in the usual way, but in the 
centre of each heap or sackful let there be placed 
a quantity of unslacked lime, not in actual con- 
tact with the roots, but enclosed in some porous 
vessel — an old wicker basket, for instance — and 
covered over with, and surrounded by a thick 
layer of straw or hay. By this means the tubers 
will be kept dry ; and as thepresence of humidity 
in the air is a great incentive to putrefactive de- 
composition, one of the main causes of decay will 
be removed. The lime, so soon as it has become 
slacked, may be taken away and employed as 
manure ; and. if practicable, should be replaced 
with fresh lime. The experiment I have des- 
cribed, it must be remembered, can be easily tried, 
and would cost but little even if carried out on a 
large scale ; it cannot be productive of any injur- 
ions consequences, and will be doubtless attended 
with beneficial results. 



Treatment of Milch Cows. 

If in treating of cattle I have not already con- 
sumed too much time. I should like to say a word 
;is to the bad treatment Jlilk cows are but too 
frequently subjected to in almost every piece ; a 
treatment as unwise as it is cruel. If it were 
confined to cities, where the poor animals are 
drugged with still slops and other unnatural food, 
by milkmen, so called, to excite the cows to yield 
undue quantities of what they call milk, I would 
not think it necessary to refer to it here ; hut the 
cruel and improper treatment of cows is not con- 
lined to cities alone — go where you will you arc 
sure to be shocked at the scenes of suffering and 
neglect these patient animals are made to endure, 
whether on commons, farms, stables or yards. If 
driven out after milking, or brought home to be 
milked, they never fail of being run, whipped or 
cudgelled by some unfeeling boy, who seems to 
think it part of his duty to deal them as many 
blows as he can while within his reach. Then 
often follow the blows of the milker, should the 
poor animals W"ince under the pressure on teats, 
lacerated perhaps by thorns or made sore from 
other causes. No wonder that this treatment, 
with scantiness of food and sometimes of water, 
reduces the cows to the wrethed condition in 
which they are but too often found in ewry quar- 
ter. Set a farm hand to clean the cow stable 
daily, to curry and brush the cows, and he will 
be apt to think you a fool, or that you mean to 
degrade him — if he comply, it will be with reluc- 
tance, and it is quite likely that he will take more 
out of their hides, or put more into them, than 
you bargained for. Ask the same worthy to 
groom your horse, and he will not fail to do it 
cheerfully. Why this prejudice, this folly ? Does 
not the cow stand in a more interesting relation to 
us than the horse ? He works for us and carries 
us, to be sure, but then do we partake of his flesh 
anil blood while living, in the shape of milk, but- 
ter and cheese ? and do we slaughter him for beef 
when we suppose him failing in strength ? No. 
Well, then, why is not the same attention paid to 
the cleanliness and health of the cow as is be- 
stowed upon the horse ? The same care that pro- 
duces so fine a condition in one, could not fail of 
having the same effect upon the other — and I say 
that it is the height of folly, and positive injustivc 
to ourselves, to withhold those attentions from 
the cow. She is a second wet nurse to us and 
our children, and if this nurse be in ill health, 
will not her milk cream and butter be imbued 
with her condition ? Would we be willing to eat 
of the flesh of some of those wretchedly poor ani- 
mals if they were slaughtered ? And why should 
we not feel the same repugnance to use their 
milk ? Let us be more careful in feeding thoso 
useful animals properly, and keeping them com- 
fortable and clean and in good, healthy condition. 
— Mr. Oowen's Addreta at Mercer. 



U$* ^aUiM^n &m<m%< 



37 



National Horse Exhibtion. 

SPBIHOPBLD, Oct. 19. — L'lic lirst national exhi- 

i ever held in any country, com- 

m i city this morning. The first day's 

-is are concluded, and it must be admitted 
hai stify the pro- 

irs as well as those who have been engaged 
in thorn. The day lias been most beautiful, and 
the marshals and other officers have bean polite 
and attentive, and the horses with their gilded 
trappings have appeared to the very best advan- 
tage. I he number of horses in town is as large, 
perhaps, as could reasonably bjtve been expected, 
considering that this is an experimental exhibi- 
tion. Some of the best animals of their respect- 
ive breeds and classes are present, and the show. 
there can he no doubt, will be productive of much 
1 od. 

The exhibition is held on a large plain adjoin- 
ing the Armory, and occupies a space ef 23 acres 
— nearly half as long as Boston Common. It is 
admirably adapted to the purpose for which it 
was selected, except that it is too far from the centre 
of business — being nearly a mile. The general 
features of the ground have already been pub- 
lished. 

The ground at ten o'clock this morning made 
a magnificent appearance. The ring upon which 
the horses are exhibited is just half a mile in 
length, and it was entirely filled, and some por- 
tion of the. way two deep, with the best turnouts 
the country can produce. The number of horses 
driven round the ring on the grand entree was 
about 340, single, double, and fours-in-hand. It 
was a magnificent scene, there in that warm au- 
tumnal sun, to see those mettlesome chargers, 
with arched neck, eye of fire, and thundering 
hoof all dressed in holiday attire, waiting for the 
word to start. 

" The steeds are all saddled and snort to the rein, 
Curved ia each neck, and flowing each mane — 
White is the team of their champ on the bit." 

When all was ready, Hon. Geo. Dwight, Presi- 
dent of the local Association, under the auspices 
of which the exhibition is held, and who is also 
Chief Marshal of the day, came before the judge's 
stand, and addressing Hon. M. P. Wilder, Presi- 
dent of the National Agricultural Society, in- 
formed him that the exhibition was ready to 
open. Mr. Wilder replied in a few remarks, con- 
gratulating all concerned upon the happy au- 
guries under which the exhibition opened, and 
predicting that much good would be the result. 
With the flourish of trumpets, the grand cortege 
then moved on, and finally dispersed over the 
field. When the teams had scattered over the 
ground, the sight was if anything more beautiful. 

The exhibition being thus opened, at twelve 
o'clock came the trial of farm or draught horses. 
This part of the exhibition was, in plain terms, a 
failure, as far as to-day is concerned. There were 
but four pairs of horses, and one single team upon 
the ground. The weight of the load for double 
teams was 5200 lbs. 

The animals drew very well indeed, but there 
were none that showed the capacity for drawing 
heavy loads that we see every day in the streets 
of Boston. 

The exhibition of breeding mares with foals by 
their side, took place at two o'clock. There were 
but nine entries. Some of the colts were good 
animals, and will probably turn out well. 

At 3 o'clock the exhibition of mares took place. 
There were 48 animals present, and among them 
some noble and beautiful specimens of the race. 
The show of mures was decidedly good. After 
this came exhibitions of the speed of horses, and 
there was some •' fast driving." There was much 
excitement attending the display of speed by the 
various animals, and although there was no licit ing. 
so far as I learned, there was all the interest of a 
regular race. One of the most conspicuous ob- 
jects in the array was the turn-out of Mr. F. 
Corliss, of Longmeadow, a team of four horses 
attached to a gig. They were well managed, and 
made a good show. 

The first day of the exhibition may bo consid- 
ered as successful. It is estimated that 4000 
people have been on the groond during the day. 
This number will he much increased to-morrow 
and next day. The receipts at the door were 
91850. This includes the season tickets, but does 
not include the entrance fee of the horses. There 
are now upwards of 400 horses entered upon the 
books of the Society, and it is confidently expect- 
ed this number will be increased another hundred. 
A large number of distinguished visitors are ex- 
pected on Friday, when the Agricultural Banquet 
will be held. Letters have been reserved from 
Edward Everett, Abbott LawretRe, Qov. Clifford, 
Kufus Choate, the Gov e rnors Seymour of Con- 
necticut and New York, Got. Fairbanks of Ver- 
mont, Hon. T. 11. Benton, and other distinguished 
men, who all express a deep sympathy with the 
obji cts of the exhibition, and promise attendance 
if possible. 

The exercises to-morrow (Thursday) will l>e 
nearly the samo as to-day. The managers have 
announced that the grand entree of all the I 
will lie repeated both on Thursday and 1 
mornings. It is worth a visit from Boston just I 
this portion of the exhibition. 

S ond Day. — The scene to-day has beer, 
enlivening. The seats for spectators, which will I 
accommodate about 4tW. have been tilled. ■ 
proportion being ladies. The enthusiasm which 
is quickly created for a particular hor- 
the mo- features, A favorite horse is 

1 with the most uproarous shouts, while 
•ach" is hooted and hissed, and .ir 
from the track. 

I bare been much interested in witnessing the 
operations of the groomsmen. The care 
bestow upon these dumb creatures is truly won- 
derful. It is a c on s olation to know that "even if | 



the horses are hard pressed in the ring, tie 

lor with far more assiduity than the drivers, 
some of whom, it is not too much to say, la 
hard as the horse. The operations ol the gi do 
brought to mind the lines of 1 J -» ron : 

"The C , hor*e, 

And mad 
And - : i 

And alack'd hi Lrth,sndBl . 

Awl _}■ 

Th..t -i ml fr miuet onul dawn 

Him diiw woold tbUow like a fawn." 

It is astonishing, particularly to the uniniatcd, 

many good points every horse possesses in 
the view of the owner. Every owner of a horse 
claims that his horse is as fast as any other horse, 
that he has as much action, and as good bottom, 
for the time being, every spectator is a connois- 
seur in horse flesh, and the claims of the different 
animals are canvassed with as much acumen as 
though they were "thorough bred : ' horse jockies. 
Every horse has its friends, and it will not be 
their fault if the value of their proteges is not 
doubled before they leave the city. 

The Springfield Republican has some items 
which will interest those who attended the exhi- 
bition : 

"The gross receipts of the exhibition were 
nearly $10,000, and the sum received will be just 
about enough to pay expenses. The leading 
items of these expenses are the premiums, amount- 
ing to about $3000, to which will probably be 
added many gratuities, over and above this sum 
bestowed upon fine horses present from a distance! 
the erection of the high board fence around the 
ot and the building of the stalls and seats which 
cost $1200 to ,$1500; printing and advertising; 
the banquet and the entertainment of invited 
guests. A large amount of minor expenses, many 
of which could not have been foreseen, and even 
now must be indefinitely estimated, were incurred. 
The managers were liberal in their arrangements, 
in proportion as the certainty of success enabled 
them to be. The receipts for entrance fees for 
horses amounted to from $1600 to $1700 and 
between $1000 and $1200 were taken for tickets 
to the banquet. The balance of receipts is from 
entrance fees from spectators. 

It may interest some to know the exact num- 
ber of entries as they appear on the Secretary's 
I looks, and we give them : thorough breds 7; stall- 
ions 7 years and over 56; stallions ol 4 years and 
under 7, 34; geldings 136j breeding marcs S3; 
breeding mares with foal at side :i ; matched 
horses 33; fancy ditto 16; stallions and fillies of 
3 years 10 ; of 2 years 10; of 1 year 7 ; farm and 
draft horses 6 ; ponies 21. The total numbei 
entries was 407, covering, as we reckon it. 472 
animals." 



Grape Culture at the West. 

We have deferred, for some time, an article 
upon the grape interests of our Slate and West 

generally. We wish we aould do the subject 
greater justice than the limits of an editorial col- 
umn give us opportunity ; for the grape culture. 

the grape and wine interests of our community, 
are fraught with very considerable imp. 

now. and must, eventually, heroine a grei 
absorbing feature of the State's prop. . 
of waving com. or golden tassolod wheat, are fair 
lo Hi- view, but picture to yourself lb.- east vine- 
yards that shall anon deck 'the hill and dale, with 
OUS and tempting, voluptuously ri. -I. 
I -aocllas, or CatSYWal 
Che third year alter planting the slips. the 

i lion of wine may ..mm. i 

There is more expense and labor in 
mencing the oultivatkm of tin- vim -. than is pro- 
bably attendant upon the planting of the usual 

i wards. From one tore 
planted with healthy vines, probably tra 
hundred to one thousand dollars' worth of wine 
may he produced in good seasons. The win 
generally brought oue dollar per gallon ha 
this year will probably bring twenty-five cents 
more. 

withstanding the immense annual increase 
of the quantity of wine manufactured in tie 

oinucs to improve, and it must do so 
as the wine becomes more i ineralh 
year, notwithstanding the mcreSM 
made in this neighborha.xl, the price has raised 
nearly twenty-live per cent. ; and the demand for 
wine is much greater than last year. So must 
this demand continue inert 
The crop this season has been very fruitful. 
-mg. in fact, any former yield known in the 
West ; the wine will be very pure and demand 
great. 

In Ohio there arc about 1,500 acres of land 
exclusively doused to grape-growing, between 
300 and and 400 of which are near Cincinnati. 
Within twenty miles ol this city, including a part 
of Kentucky, on the opp f the river, 

there are 1,300 acres, and double the quanv 

More have been planted this year than 
there were last. In Missouri near Hermann. 
there are 500 acres ; in Indiana. 200 or 3O0 ; in 
Illinois about 100, and Kentucky the same — mak- 
ing about 2.500 acres in all. It is estimated that 
ky will this year pro- 
duce at least half a million gallons of wine. The 
■season will be equal to 
Boas — allowing 2,400 vines to 
the acre, planted about three feet apart, in rows 
separated by a distance of three feet. Mr. Robert 
Buchanan, who is among the mast successful cul- 
rs of the vine, this year obtains about SOD 
gallons of wine from each acre of his vineyard, 
which will net him about $700 per acre. Some 
other vineyards will do equally welL Person*, 
however, are not advised to embark ia grape- 
growing, with the expectation of profit at rt shall 



he necessary to hire lahor. The German vim- 
dressers muster all capable members of their 
family into the service-^-the wife often being 
the most efficient. In this manner they realize 
an adequate income. It has bceu customary to 

reapiet f land, say fifteen or twenty acres, 

with a house on it, to tiies,, Germans, on the con- 
dition that, the tenant shall plant a certain quan- 
tity Of grapes each year, in a proper manner, and 
pay the proprietor one half the proceeds of the 
vineyard. The fruit is purchased from the vine- 
yard men for from $5 to $6 per 100 pounds, (or 
two bushels)— a bushel yielding from 3 1-3 (o I 
gallons of wine. It is then mashed by the iiaiiii- 
iacturers in the city, and pressed. The juice is 
then fermented in the cellars and the sparkling 
Catawba is in prime order for market at the end 
of fifteen or twenty months. 

A few days ago we visited the wine-vaults of 
Mr. Longworth, and the following facts were de- 
rived : There are three vaults, one of which will 
turn out 50,000 bottles every year and another 
100,000 bottles yearly of dry wine. Some por- 
tion of the cellars is occupied by immense butts, 
or cylindrical tanks, one of which holds 5,000 
gallons, or $5,000 worth of wine, if bottled. The 
staves are about three inches in thickness, and the 
heads curve inward, so as to introduce the arch, 
to resist the internal pressure. Other objects^ 
quite as noticeable, are the long rows of black 
bottles placed in a horizontal position, and stacked 
up, like cord wood, in solid piles as high as one's 
neck. In the cellars of the extensive native wine 
establishment of Longworth and Zimmerman are 
twenty-four casks holding about 2,500 gallons 
each, or 60,000 gallons altogether of the vintage of 
1850,.'51, '52; and it is expected to store 25,000 
gallon's of this year's wine. 

Mr. Longworth will this year have on hand 
and for sale, about 200,000 bottles sparkling Cat- 
awba; Messrs. Longworth & Zimmerman, some 
60,000 bottles dry Catawba, exclusive of a quan- 
tity of wine sufficient for 190 000 bottles ; Messrs. 
Bogen, Corneu & Son, Work, and others, from 
90,000 to 100,000 bottles sparkling Catawba. Mr. 
Zimmerman tendered us various samples of the 
present and past year's wines, and as far as our 
judgment in the matter stands, the purity and 
flavor of the vintage of '53 will prove the lines! 
specimen of Catawba yet bottled in the country. 
— Cincinnati Columbian. 



Merino Sheep for Mutton. 
In the Wool Grower for May is the following 
statement or advice:— "If you grow sheep for 
mutton, grow the large, coarse kind." Believing 
that the sentence contains a sentiment calcu 
to mislead men, and defeat their object, viz., the 
greatest income of cash from a given nunr 

d with sheep, V7e deem it a duty to 
examii! isc iti incorrectness. It i 

orally a conceded point that animals of the same 
kind, or breed, being of (he same age, flesh and 

temperament will consume food in proportion to 

their live weight — i. e.. an ox which weigh- 
lbs. will consume 25 per cent., or one qi 
more food, than any ox of the same bre. i 

and temperament that weighs onlj 
lbs. A sheen that weighs 200 lbs. will cm 

just double of one that weighs only 100 lbs. — the 

be breed, the- Bash, Ac- being alike in both. 

ut experiments, both in England and 

America, have established this axiom beyond all 

reasonable doubt. No scholar will deny it. 

ate of profits 
• ■! by the ten, and 
Here is tl 

[I an ten turn ofl ai 

than i ted with Spanish M 

i returns m dollars and cents, then 
the palm of honor must dc awarded to them. 

In il 
jmato the Merinos at their value for stock put 



mutton t. >, umber o 1 

a third st. 
will yield one-third more wool, and ei 

"h one-third more than coarse — so tl 
fleeces are w 

it is said by tradition, or self-interest, that the 
mutton of the Merino ia comparativ. 
We have, on hear us. ln-en re- 

minded of tl cannibal's repast on the 

flesh of his dead enemy or of the chap that man- 
aged to shed tears to sell at so much a pint The 
truth is the objection is without foundation - 
false and disreputable. Take a leg of Merino, and 
one of the fat South-Down, mutton, and have 
them equally well cooked, and not all the old epi- 
cures in America can tell which is which, if they 
be blind-folded before setting at the table. 

mony fr>m posers] 
om different States 



Ohio. — "A grade of sheep between course and fin< 
are belter for mutton than the coarse era 

English sheep." Says .loin. Young, of Bellcvil: 
(Oiio, speaking of Merino sheen,— " It is alio 
to be a good business to rear them for mutl 
Says .lames DeMott. of Seneca county, N. Y.,— 
'•medium size— from CO to 70 lbs., and atdeast one- 
half Merino — that they are themoat profitable for 
mutton — they show more fat when opened, and 
the flesh is better generally than the common large 
sheep, or English breeds." Sav.s Humphrey How- 
land, Ksq., of CnyugaCo., N. Y.,— 'The Merino, 
wether is fully equal to South-Downs for mutton." 
Says Mr. Samuel Good,of ScottsviUe, Monroe Co., 
N Y., — ''The Merino 'sheep are the most profit- 
able, both for mutton and wool." (See Patent 
Office Kcports for 1850-51.) This array of evi- 
dence might be extended, almost ad-inlinitum. 
Thousands in the vicinity of Brighton market will 
give in similar testimony. 

Aside from all this, the following are a few 
among many other reasons which the Merino 
claims as characteristic of the race: 

1. They are hardy, and endure the severities 
of the climate much better than the English or 
native breeds of sheep, for the best of reasons, 
viz., they are much better protected, having about 
400.000 wool hairs to the square inch, whieh com- 
mon American sheep have 62,000 only. 

2d. Their longevity is great. The) propagate, 
doing well, until 12 and 15 years old. 

3d. They never shed their wool when kept in 
uniform condition. 

4th. They are very quiet, and seldom jump a 
fence 4 feet in height, and hence take on flesh 
much easier than coarse sheep. 

5th. They will bear crowding in large flocks 
and do well, while coarse sheep iuvariably decline 
when heavily stocked. 

6th. They will do well on pasture so short and 
indifferent that on it a flock of coarse sheep would 
most certainly decline. 

7th. They yield about one-third more wool, 
which is worth one-third more per lb., so their 
fleeces bring double those of common sheep. 

8th. The wool hairs have 2,400 serrations, or 
saw-teeth to the inch, being much more than that 
of common wool, and consequently its felting pro- 
perties are unsurpassed. 

9th. The luxurious yolk of the fleece furnish 
these sheep with an impervious coat of mail, which 
resists rain and snow, and impurities that would 
injure the wool, and give to the manufactured 
fabric a softness and finish that odds 20 per cent, 
to its price when thrown upon the market. 

In short, we believe they combine more cxcel- 

ihan any other breed of sheep on the globe. 

and when their merits arc fully and everywhere 

known, will take the place of all others. — Carres. 

of Wool Grower. 

Death of John Delafield. 

We find in the last number ol' the Rural New 
Yorker, an announcement of the death of this ex- 
cellent and distingui : man, Though entirely 
unknown to us. except by his good works in the 
improvement of agricultm isequently of 

the b.,man race, yet we feil with those who loved 
him the most, that we have lost a man whose like 
we may not soon look upon again. His survey 
of Seneca County, N. Y I him an en- 

viable fame. The Kural New Yorker m 

'' Another ardent, zealous and most untiring and 
influential laborer in the cause of Agricultural im- 
provement is no more! lion ' lalicld, 
I'psident ..f the N. allege, 

I Ibis life, at his he . Hill, 

Dec. 8th. This 
event was as si I unexpected 

it will be I 
tant friends — for hi i lenly, after 

only a few minutes illne>- of the heart. 

Mr. I), was about sixty \ Few par- 

ticulars have reached UC inful intclh- 

which we rt. ly two 

had so zcal- 
■ 1 are! ably 

In th 

indeed the whole o 
loas while the event wili 
thousands of warm and 
an double tho*e from the I quaintances. As we ha 

I am aware that pages — " Such men as Mr. Delafled are rare- — 

nterest, that the would that each county i : seeseed one 

. valueless. | who could and vould do as much i- he has for 

i— and wherevcrand win 

receive the distinguished honor to which they are 

entitled. 



Issr.cTs. — Horace Or ate Indiana 

itural address, says :—- It has pleased the 
.c to subject Agriculture '■ 
perils of insect depredations, as «..ll as to weeds, 
drought frost, inundation, and other evils. The 
end of all these is benefit dnoon and 

discipline of man's capacities through the I 
sary counteraction and combat." The k 
Mr. Theodore ! needs occasionally some sneh tnuwuagesaent; for 
N\ Davidson, of Virginia :— ■ I can raise as many i the ravages of insects are sore trials of patience 
! pounds of Merino mutton to the acre, as any and u lignation, and, hot for the premiss of de- 
other breed, and I am sore, of decidedly better ! minion over every creeping tl 
qualitv I W. Chapline, of Virginia.— times almost extinguish hope, sad dash 

- The Merino highly recommends itself Sort. Bat to those whemen totkhtthe I 

mers." After enumerating several qualities m through, "tofind a remedy er bankrupt them 
'their favor over the coarse sheep, he add*.— -Their selves in the search ," the v»r 
mutton, when fat, is excellent being tender, juiev. . sects, that are written for the Farmer, are 
and of fine flavor, when well cooked." Says Mr 
| Bidkaeaa, of X. Y — -I know by experience, thai 
the Merino makes better mutton than the coarse 
English sheep ' Says Nathan Dnston, of Osl aae, 



'lawxas — B- 
aa it is a matter of great iaapert 



•38 



@S)s ($rfjMi!$miB$£ §mmi$< 



From the Sandwich Islands. 
By the arrival of the schooner E. L. Frost, we 
vr received files of the Polynesion to Jan. 7, 
ii oni which we clip: 

i'lic brig Boston had arrived at Honolulu in 
thirteen days from San Francisco. She had made 
tlie passage from Honolulu to this port and back, 
including detentions, in thirty-eight days, being 
the quickest passage ever made, by three da}-s. 

Hon. Luther Severance. U. S. Commissioner to 
the Sandwich Islands, sailed for Xew York, with 
his family, in the clipper ship Young America, on 
the 30th of December. Tha Polynesian says : 

Mr. Severance possesses in an eminent degree 
the qualities for the situation which he has occu 
pied with so much credit to himself and useful 
ness to both governments. Experienced in public 
affairs in his own country, accomplished as a 
writer, mature in his judgment, and possessing a 
frank and honest mind, he has accomplished his 
mission with the honorable success which was an- 
ticipated by those who knew him best. In all his 
intercourse, under all circumstances, be has been 
regarded as a sincere friend, in whom entire confi- 
dence could be placed. His efforts have been for 
peace and usefulness, and not for personal dis- 
tinction. And amid all the circumstances of 
irritation which have arisen here, his influence 
has been for law and order, for justice and equity. 
The Minister of Foreign Relations has given him 
a letter recrediting him to his own Government. 
as a representative whose course has been to the 
satisfaction of the King, and which is in the high- 
est degree honorable to both gentlemen. We 
should deem it a subject of congratulation to any 
country that their foreign agents of every character 
should provte so successful in the discharge of their 
duties, and it gives us great pleasure to believe 
that we can confidently anticipate from Mr. Gregg 
a career of equal honor ahd usefulness. 

Our society will regret the loss of Mr. S. and 
his family, who have contributed so much to its 
pleasure. They will be long remembered, and 
their influence long felt. And. in closing this 
i ir'ief expression of regard, we speak the sentiments 
vii this whole community in wishing them a plea- 
sant voyage to their native couutry, and a welcome 
by numerous friends and an approving Govern- 
ment. 

Ills Royal Highness the Lieutenant General 
Prince Liholiho and the King's Ministers were 
much disappointed by the early departure of Mi'. 
Severance on Friday morning. It had been ar- 
ranged, unknown to Mr. Severance, that they 
should accompany him to the boat, that the Royal 
band should receive him while approaching the 
wharf with " God save the King," and on taking 
his Seat in the boat under the flag of his own 
country, they should bid him farewell, the band 
playing "Hail Columbia." 

As a private man and public officer Mr. Sever- 
auce leaves on the Islands many friends and no 
enemies. 

The following passagi in the correspondence of 
I!. 0. Willie, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to Mr 
Severance, indicates a very friendly feeling toward 
the United States : 

The King gives credit to the United States for 
having largely contributed to the civilzation of 
this kingdom, and believes that they will ever take, 
very naturally, a deep interest in what is mainly 
thtji own wcrfe iiiKMru: it :s hie Mijestj s 
earnest desire that the relations betweenhis king- 
dom ami the United States should continue, as 
they have ever been, to be (rank, just and friendly. 

Now that your vast Republic has expanded 
itself to the borders of the Pacific, and that a new 
and rich commerce has been opened between 
America and Asia, his Majesty feels it to be of 
greater importance than ever that his Kingdom 
and your Republic should pursue towards each 
other a kind and liberal policy.'' 

Large Mail. — The mail for the United States 
by the brig Zoe, Capt. Paly, which sailed on 
Thursday, was the largest ever sent from this port. 
numbering 2.2IJ0 letters, and filling four large mail 
hugs. The postage collected for tin- 0. S. Govern- 
ment at the post office in Honolulu on the above. 
nted to Slid. 

A new street, 20 feet wide, is to be opened from 
Merchant to King street, running between the 
Seamen's Chapel and the old Police Station House. 
Private parties give about one half of the land for 
this purpose, and the balance belongs to the gov- 
ernment, which has devoted it to that subject. 

The Steamer Akamai. — This fine little stearn- 
.-p has again had her capabilities tested as a sea- 
boat, and comes out of the trial with an increase 
of confidence in her capabilities. 

She sailed from Hanalei on Saturday last, 
bound for Honolulu, with considerable freight and 
a number of passengers. As she opened out into 
the channel, she experienced heavy weather from 
the south, which increased as she proceeded, until 
it became a gale of great severity. Still she held 
on her way, doing admirably, and making head- 
way until she got half way across to Oahu, when 
her rudder chains parted. The tiller was imme- 
diately shipped, but the strain was so great that 
the rudder head split, which, for the time being, 
rendered it useless. It was soon, however, re- 
paired. In the mean time a brave fellow had 
gone overboard to mend the chain, which he suc- 
ceeded in doing, although it was as dark as mid- 
night and a cloudy sky could make it. At the 
risk of his life he performed the important task, 
which had no sooner been accomplished than the 
tiller broke, and the situation of the boat became 
precarious. At this juncture it was deemed pru- 
dent to put back for Hanalei to repair damages, 
and the dangerous operation of wearing ship in a 
heavy sea was safely performed without shipping 



a sea or sustaining any damage. Her return to 
Hanalei was accomplished in a few hours, where 
the damage was repaired, wood taken in, and she 
again sailed on Sunday evening for this port, 
where she arrived on Monday, at 1 o'clock P. M. 
The wind had hauled to the westward on Sunday 
evening, which facilitated her return to port. 



From China. 

By the bark George E. Webster, Captain Fol- 
ger, which arrived at this port on Tuesday last, 
from Hong Kong Dec. 13, we have dates from 
Shanghai to Nov. 29. 

The following communication to the China 
Mail gives the position of the insurgents at 
Shanghai : 

Shanghai, Nov. 20. — This city still stands in 
the hands of the insurrectionists; the relative 
position and strength of the belligerants continue 
without any material changes, cither for the better 
or for the worse ; and it is as difficult now as ever 
before to conjecture wdiat is to be the issue of 
these strifes. On the river, above and below the 
city, the Imperialists exercise control, while the 
insurrectionists, with batteries along the shore off 
the eastern suburbs, keep that part of the river 
open to all who please to go and come as 
their friends ; and during the last ten days, now 
and then a foreigner has been allowed to enter 
Mi,- city. 

Upon the whole, the sympathies of the foreign- 
ers are iess with the Imperialists than with the 
Rebels — or rather, it may perhaps more correctly 
be si id. that the imperialists are moredisliked than 
tin- ret els, and their conduct being more observed, 
is more detested, lint stirh warfare is every way 
and on all accounts to be deprecated, and parti- 
zanship with it is most blameworthy. Never- 
theless there are not a few among the foreigners 
take sides (with the insurrectionists;) and sea- 
men, it is said, are receiving from the imperialist- 
very high pay. greatly to the inconvenience and 
annoyance of the foreign shipmasters. 

But all these things, notwithstanding the busi 
ncss of loading and dispatching of ships continues 
to go on, and teas seem to be coming into market 
as freely as if no troubles existed. The Chinese. 
as you know, take things of this sort very quietly, 
and well it is that they do so — well for t hemsel Pes, 
and well for the foreigners. Troubles arc coming 
heavy and inure heavy upon them from month to 
month, and it is impossible to foresee wlie onr 
how these calamities will terminate. 

The real state of things, at Nanking and at 
other places farther northward, no one in Shang- 
hai can certainly tell. Some confidently affirm 
that the insurgents have poshed their way up to 
within a hundred miles of the Dragon Throne. 
and were, by latest dates, ready to advance on the 
northern capital, in the same manner as they did 
on Nanking last winter; others declare that they 
have all been exterminated, and that clouds "f 
cavalry are tempest-like pouring down upon the 
plains of Central China. 

Robberies are spoken of as being more than 
usually prevalent. 

The interest in the rebellion is concentrated on 
the army advancing towards Peking, and of this 
nothing is known with certainty, except that it is 
somewhere in Chihli, the province in which Pe- 
king is situated. All else at present is mere con- 
j gtare or fable. — Hongkong Register. Dec. 13. 

As an evidence of the increased spied in which 
communications are now made from between na- 
tions, it may not be uninteresting to State that 
the China .Mail of Dec. 8, now before us, contains 
extracts from the London Morning Herald of Oct. 
8th. 



latest Mining Items. 

In Sacramento, on Saturday evening last, a Miss 
Ilayden, formerly from New Orleans, was shot by 
a man supposed to be Alexander 11. Fash. The 
wound prov.ed mortal. Miss Ilayden died at (i 
o'clock on Sunday morning. Fash, it. is supposed, 
shot Jliss Ilayden, supposing if to lie his wife, at 

whose house Miss Ilayden boarded. Fash has 

mil yet been arrested. We were informed that it 
is supposed that Mr. Fash designs giving himself 
up to the law, as overtures were made to some of 
the officers to know if the offence was bailable: if 
so. it was probable that he would surrender him- 
self. 

The river rose about two feet yesterday, caused 
by the melting of the snow on tiie mountains. 

Real sleighing was indulged in last week near 
Diamond Springs. 

The Placerville Republican says : — From every 
part we hear cheering reports from the miners. 
Water is plenty, and no time is lost by our popu- 
lation, but every moment is employed in search- 
ing for the glittering ore. 

At Smith's Ranch the miners are very busy, 
now that they have plenty of water, and mam- of 
them are doing well. 

In Placerville, Jan. 29th, the weather was very 
warm and clear. Business was very brisk ail 
day. Gold dust was coming in quite plenty. An 
Indian was killed while in a drunken row^ about 
ten miles below the town. The jury in the case 
of Hughes, for killing Mahoney, returned a ver 
diet of "guilty of manslaughter." 

Dr. L. Bradley, the surviving partner of the 
firm of Bradley & Co., proprietors of a water 
canal, which it was their intention to lend into 
Placerville, for the use of the miners, has made 
an assignment of the property. Liabilities. 
$111,000; assets, 730 shares of the stock of the 
coporations of Bradley, Berdan & Co., the par or 
cost value of which, at the date of the assignment, 
was^.ftHu per share, amounting to $107,456; 
$37,350 of which are due from the corporation of 
Bradley, Berdan & Co. 



Charles Brown, a miner, formerly of New York 
city, was drowned at Oregon Bar, on the North 
Fork of the American River, on the 24th inst. 

Nevada, Jan. 29, 9 P. M. — A messenger has 
just arrived in town from Eureka, Sierra county, 
who brings the painful intelligence of an encoun- 
ter at that place, which occurred yesterday, be- 
tween a party of Irishmen and Americans in 
regard to some claims and other difficulties that 
have been of a long standing. In the affray five 
of the Irishmen were shot; none, however, are 
supposed to lie dangerously wounded. Great ex 
citement exists in that region. 

The Marysville Herald says that the names of 
of the three men who were drowned at Bidwcll's, 
on Monday last, by the upsetting of a skiff, were 
John McMillan, from Jefferson Co., Wis., and 
Thomas and William lienn, brothers, from Wil- 
ber, Massachusetts. 

DOWNIEVILLE, Jan. 28. — The recent stormy 
weather has suspended mining operations for a 
time at Downieville. Last week §4000 was taken 
from the Wayne Tunnel, at Minesota, and we are 
told the claims average §3000 weekly. 

Fire at Placebville. — We learn by telegraph 
to the Sacramento Union, that a lire occurred at 
Placerville early on -Monday morning, destroying 
the theatre, owned by J. Et. Treadmore & Co., 
loss §00011. and fifteen or sixteen other buildings, 
making a loss of $6000 or $8000 more. 

Marysville. — The Herald says: Our city is 
still increasing. At no time this season has there 
teen a period, when there could be seen less than 
twelve or fourteen buildings in active process oi 
erection. Other improvements are constantly 
going on and the pleasant weather is actively im- 
proved by our citizens in every quarter. 

This is the last day of January, and the weather 
is so dcliciously warm, it reminds one of the 
northern dog-days. At 2 p. ,\i.. yesterday, the 
mercury in our thermometer ranged at 70." "We 
have seen many a colder June dav in Kentuckv. 
and felt satisfied with it. The skies are cloudless. 
and the air is balmy and blissful, (lid Sol looks 
down upon us with a lu-Jehl. bland smile upon 
lii> benevolent face, as though he enjoyed the fun 
making us happy. 



School Warrants. — As all that relates to 
"land titles " are subjects of greatest interest to 
the Cultivators, we shall at all times lay before 
them all that off! cts them. We annex the fol- 
lowing letter from Col. (lift, Register of the Land 
Office, upon the subject, he having been inquired 
of respecting the claims of Bettlers: 

Register's < Iffice Benicia, Jan. 25. '54. 

Thos. Sherin: Sir — I am in receipt of ^our 
letter of Jan. 21st, in regard to the warrants. 
'The laws have all been published, in relation 
to claims of mi n holding lauds by virtue of school 
warrants ; and it is plain that no man can hold 
land and deprive men from pre-empting govern- 
ment lands. Special instructions have teen re- 
ceived at this Office, saying Iliat the warrant can- 
no! In- located until the lands have been surveyed, 
and such surveys returned to this office. Ifthei 
do eject a pre-empter by law. it will only he a 
temporary thing, for I will get copies of the pro- 
ceedings and send them to Washington imme- 
diately. In a few days the opinion of the Attor- 
ney < iencral will be published, in relation both 
location of these warrants, which will satis! 
men holding ander the school land law in relation 
to their claims. Pi-i--eui[i!ois will save and hold 
their claims if they comply with the law in re- 
gard to pre-emption. Yours. 

W. Gift, Register Land Office 



papers, periodicals and literature than gaming 
houses, and other means of consuming the time 
and means of those who have a leisure hour. 
Therefore we say earnestly, let us have light, and 
we are glad to welcome the Mariposa Chronicle 
as another gleam of it, and also the Jackson 
Centinel, the former edited by A. S. Gould, and 
the latter by C. Boynton, Esq.— both journals of 
interest and value, and they should receive a gene- 
rous support. We shall say more anon. 

Shipments of Specie.— The following is the 
shipment of treasure by the steamers, yesterday. 
The total amount, as will be seen, is §1 755 488. 



Pti'^f, Encon & Co.. 

Burgoyna & Co 

B Davidson 

Wells, Fargo&Co ... 

I'.---,-, II. i.,,, r & Co. ... 

F. Argenti & Co 

EI'-IItiiiui Bree. & Co.. 
D. Gibb & Co . 



PEE COLUMBIA. 



*3<11,000 



115,200 

53.S9B 



33.298 

8,600 

Spatz & Newbouee l ,0 f*' 

Grnnfier, Jon & Co fJ'ijX 

A - Gol * n ::::::::::::::::::: £83 



Total 



• SicLl.Mss 



Pnsc, Bneon & Co 

Adams St Co 

Ho .1, Suther &. Cburcb 

C, K. Gftrri*<m 

Wi >l- Fargo St Co 

J; Sebgman Q Co 

i rimer & Ptiranbaron 

Wvckoff & Co 

J. II. Spring 

Win. SteuuWt & Co-.... 

Clark Rogers 

-I. It. MOlor 

H. Travers. 



PER COETES. 



..$120,000 
...300,000 

... 75.000 
... 52,400 
. .. 55,548 
■-. 11.000 
.-- 18,600 

- ■ . I-.0O0 
• • ■ 2,000 
... 6,800 
■ ■ ■ 5,730 

- ■ 5,180 
... 5,240 



Total.. 



. $565,500 



MAERIED. 



At Vjdlejo -to et Church Jan. 26th. Mr. Tboniw King, ond 
an i I. ard, bori ofuuscity. " 



In riii- 
EpUcopal wrurcn, m. w. w. ('.-, 
county, N. 1 .. and Adda de E. Craig, formerly oi ultaoie 

ill.-. - 1 " 1 ' in-'- i-y the K. -. i-:i,i, i Daniels, Str 

■I, lluiniilio-vville, Ijutli Of 



-'iia-1 Iw Bev. John JI,ll, r . ,„■ ,1,,. M,.,),,,^, 

"'. ,',,',",- "■!>"!' "i Duchea 

In Ma 
Biabop Heater and Mise 
Drayton, I 

In Maryairillc, 28th gat, by Hev. Janus Bum ,. Mr. Edward 
r. Loving and Mrs. Mary Gambrill, all of Millertown. Placer 
county, 

hi Nevada, LSth Inat. by Rev. 
Smith and Mrs. ii" etea Barker. 

At Igua Prio. S6ti inst., bv Bev. H. W. Bieaam Mr Isaac 
Lyona, ol Mani ■ M Elizabeth Hiiviicf M ', n n Win 

- 

- .- i . - 

'"-'' '■ O.i 

At the Sandwii . ru, no .,' F 

' ' irina C, ,-,',», iate 



Mr. Binrmons, Mr. Adam 



DIED. 



■ i ; . atol Hotel G 

■ 

■ 

1 ' j) '■ ■ ■ ""■ ■ ■■■ E ;1 , of U 

rS \V, Di 'i . I . • 

T ic deci i ■ .I tvoe d ■ 
nctn -■ m [correct 

In Houohilu, .T'l.i. 2d, Mnry Alice, infi i i Henr? 

othfi, 

In thit cuy, Sttfa inst.. of mettle?, N . ..-cm,, 

daughter ol V. E. und ('. i n word, in her 4th year. 

AtHogi .1 Stockton, on the 25th hint., Hn Eliza 

C. wile "i J. Hogim, K-« ( . 

. n iratia Hunt 
1 ck, Atk. 

Ou I. . ■ - ■ > . 

■ 
In Foil .1. ■■, 22rt Ini t., I ' or V ,■ . 



. . 



A Happy Man. — The original of the following 
picture of a happy man. drawn recently by Theo- 
dore Parker in one of-nis sermons., is said to be 
a highly esteemed resident of Newton, Mass. 
There ought t<> be b great many more just such 
happy men in our country, but we arc afraid they 
are not : 

c ' The happiest man I have ever known is one 
far enough from being rich, in money, and one 
who will never be wry much Dearer to it. liisj 
■ fits him, and he likes it. Dejoices'in its pro- 
cess o i mi ch as in its result. He* has an active 
in in*], well tilled. He reads and he thinks. He 
tends his garden before sunrise, every morning — 
then rides sundry ''dies by the rail — ^<>v^ his ten 
hours' work in the tow n — whence he returns 
happy and cheerful. With his own smile he 
catches the eorlie i smile of the morning, plucks 
the first rose of his gard n, and goes to his work 
with the little dower w his hand and a great one 
blossoming oul of hia heart. He runs over with 
charity as s cloud with rain ; and it is with him 
as with the cloud — what coming from the cloud 
is rain to the meadows, is a rainhuw of glories to 
the cloud that pours it. The happiness of the 
affections fills up the good man. and lie runs over 
with friendship ami love — connubial, parental] 
filial, friendly, too, and philanthropic besides. 
His life is a perpetual ''trap to catch a sunbeam" 
— and it always "springs" and takes it in. I 
know no man who gets more out of life; and the 
secret of it is thai lie does his duty to himself, 
to his brother, and to his ( iod. 1 knew rich men 
ami learned men — men of great social positii 
and if there is genius in America] 1 know that — 
but a happier man 1 have never known." 



We hail with pleasure the appearance of two 
more journals in our Slate. Wo need them all. 
and we trust that every county will bring them 
into being, for, as the light of <\:iy, makes known 
to us things beautiful and unknown, so a valuable 
newspaper will awaken the world to action, and 
the production of great good. Be.ter have news- 



In thiti ctt) . 26(1 in i , Marj ivifoofi 
ol Httiniltoi . I ' 

111 till- - ,■,.]:■- 

i i ol thifi city for the i ■....-.. , 

lu s ' A <;. Hrowi) 

Ml -. .!■ i i: ■ ■ 



8H1PMNG INTELUUEM B, 



PORT OP SAN PRAK 



VALS. 
I i'- 85— Boetoo, with 

in Ido, 

■ ■ ■■, Cnldwell, 1 15 I ■ 

.- i Kl i ; i . i . * ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ i I ; 1 1 . \ ■ : , , . , . i ' 
-■■(■ ■(■<■, Wliirtu Iti, I' 

Fnlkl i Uiudi TOdny* ludao. " 

, 

Brig Daniel, Blaine, South Bed bUandi Q&anc$ Group), 55 

days, v. 
Tahitiai " :. nfl), 00 

Jan.2G — Ship Rover'j Bride, Phillips, U7daye from Baltimore, 

with mdae, 
Jan. 27—1 ii. Palmer, Lowe, LSI dayi from Nsw 

Vurk, with mi 

■'■■■. '-iit Ci;- 
■ . 
.1 in. £8— 8 i ' . from Puget 

Souttd, b ith i'>i'---. i tc, 
i Duimercr, Dexti i lumber. 

j, „,. 29— p M Co'a efmr Columbia, Dule, S2 hrs fl 
Ship T ■■ '' 

Bark Dcsdetnoua, MUlor, 3 days from Humboldt Buy; 220 M 

it lumber. 
Bri^ Konpari U, Brow i Humboldt Buy; lao M 

"it Lumber. 

, 3 daye from rnji.ro ; pn 
Schr Lnum Bevim, Morton, 3 days from Santa i.'ruz, with 
900 sacks potab 

icnunento, Gardner, ■! daya from Humboldt Baj ; 130 
M rt lumber. 
j,hi. ;in — Br bark Deborah, Warden, 230 daya from Liverpool, 
i'ii Valparaiso 64 doj &, 
Burlc Delegate, Gillan, -1 daya from Mendocino, with lumber. 
.--. ,-h- Toronto, DuvJ . 1 dujw from Humbi a bar. 

Sehx Velasco, < 'opelund, 3 days from £ Ith lime, 

.-•■I,, i; imblfi , Woi dbi i ; . 20 bou Iron I 
Jan.3l — Stmi 1 Major Tompkins, Hunt, L0 bows from Santa 
Cruz, « ith wheat 
Clipper bark i; i. i dayajfrom Hong B 

with md ■> . 

3ork I! s ■ i S ilr.481 ou River, with 

73 M ii II 
Schr E L 1mm- i, Ucmpsti d, 92 days from Honolulu, with n 

CLEARANfJ 

Jan. 26— Stmr Golinh. 11. 

■ 
Jan, 27— dhip Plying vxrow, Treadwtll, Callao. 

Slitp Lotuf, L"i N 
Br hhg Mi 

in, 28— Stmr in-', hi-. HilHnrd, Sun Die n , 
■ ■ bria VkninHa, Huynei 

ii. :10 — Ship BwiMjp taken, Lane, Hun Kong, 
Si.iji Winded Aj i Sliinlla. 

opper, Snn Juan, 
. ■ 
Br bark Jol "■ n 



%\)x ^jiHluiMJiij Smm«9< 



39 



Hon. J. Neely Johnson. — This gentlo- 
| man, who is wide and favorably known as an 
eminent lawyer and leading Whig politician, 
left yesterday with his lady, in one of the steam- 
ers, for a short visit to the Atlantic States. Mr. 
, J. has held a distinguished position in the ranks 
of the Whig parly, and he has acquired a promi- 
nence as well as wealth from his practice at the 
bar. May they have a pleasant trip, find friends 
well and enjoy their visit, an, soon return to he 
again welcomed to the Pacific shores. 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, Feb. 1. 1854. 
The past and i>re.*ent week baa fa unmarked l>y any 

i upon nil 
It ubt of the future, it wan) 
fidenoe — nttW-ts btfnriowlT all mercantile eia] affairs. 

The vast amount of merchandise on band, its constant Increai e 
by mw arrivals, and no prospect of diminution by sales, given 
. . Lag that pervades .:. , ,■ ,...,. : . of trade, 
Tiie late rains huve. however, given an impetus to mining, and 
larger receipts are noticed as coming in, The produce market 
(eeki thin pressure, and all the leading etni>K-s, Grain, Potatoes 
&e,, are finding very dull markete 
Barley, during the jmsr. week, was apparently advnncin 
.;: .: mostly to speculations, hut new arrivals checked it. 
Wheal Lb very dull ; no enles of importance. 
Corn — Very little demand. 

The large amount of Potatoes lost by the frost must affect the 
market before long, for it will he found that more has been 
injured than is at tirst perceptible. A lew weeka, and we s lial 
note n considerable change. 

We trust, after this week, to note a better state of tiling. Let 

all wear a cheerful spirit, and bear as patiently as possible evils 

ili.y cMimotcure; cultivate generous and mutual forbearance, 

ighter prospects will soon cheer them. 

We should add that the prices of many articles enumerated 

are merely nominal, 

JOBBING PHICES. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— 

Shovels, Ames long handled, bright $16 00 @ 

do do short handled 12 50 -g, 

do Fields', long handled 14 00 ®15 00 

do do short handled, no sale. 

do Rowland's, long handled 12 00 ©13 00 

do do short handled 8 00 312 00 

do Khar's, long handled 12 00 ©13 00 

Spades, bright c. e. best make 16 00 S18 00 

do iron 10 00 ©12 00 

Coal and Grain Scoops; cast steel 20 00 ©24 Of) 

do do iron 10 00 ©12 00 

Axes, Collins', ass'd handle 17 00 @ 

do Hunts', do 17 00 @ 

Picks, Collins', 4\ii to 6-ttj, solid eye M 00 © 

do other brands 10 00 © 

Helves, heavy hickory pick, turned -1 00 ® 5 00 

'1'-' do do axe :i on a i 50 

Plows, beet make ]-| rxi ir :u\ 00 

do steel 30 00 ©75 00 

Threshing Machines and Horse power, Hall & 
Pitta', do sale, nominal, $<500 to §800: other 
makes $400 to $600; Emmery's, with thresh- 
er, se] aratur, mid Inn mill, $350 to $400. 

Straw Cutters, no sale, nominal 20 00 ©G5 00 

Hakes, horse and revolving, no sale. 
do hand, wood do 

do do steel 12 00 ©20 00 

Pitchforks, P' doz, no sale. 

Hoes, steel, goose-neck handle, per doz 6 00 © 8 00 

Crowbars, heavy steel pointed per tt> — 15 © 16 

Flour Mills, Noyes' (500 ; Brown's, 30 In. $450. 

There probably baa never been n time when all the above 
enumerated articles hung more heavy upon the market, than 
the present 

FLOUR— 

— We note largo stocks on hand; and sales heavy ; holders 
ftnxiOUS to realize. 
For Gaflego ami Haxall,we quote the jobbing 

rates '. [§ 1 

Chile l 1 a)l) 00 

Repacked 10 00 5 10 26 

Homer v Mills, (domestic) IS 00 

Benicia Mills, do u 50 fl 

tfeal, in bblfl g GO I 

do M* libls 

Bran, T" 1 ' tb 

GRAIN— 
Coin. Eastern, -V 115 — 91 . , 

do California — :i (/ ;(i,'. 

Bai ; ■ . < 'hili ' ,. 

do Cal. feeding Qi , 

ickwhent^ for seed — 10 \ 

Oats, California 4 g 

do Seed _ .|i. „_ ( i ... 

do Oregon, mine m mk'L 

do Eastern — ;i 

Wheat, Chili — ,|-;., 

do California, for seed — *('■■..■ 

do do for tinii'i: ... _ 3.^1 

Australia, seed _ p_ . 

— We must note ;» he;i\. ■ . ■.. 
LUMBER-- 

—Very heavy ttooks on hand ■■ : 
with' a in.ider.4te demand, and downward I 

Tii ber, Oregon Pine, sq, & M 3fi 00 ,. 

Plank and Scantling, Oregon 40 00 

Plank Eastern W. P. clear 90 00 . 

iv Eastern oak so 00 .■■ 

Bl ■:-.!■ ■.:■■ 1 illy eo <"' 

li do M quality 60 i* 1 

•It Georgia V. P. flooring.. 75 00 i 

do "■ _ 45 00 

do red? 45 itl 

40 

tern, best 

>. 1 - 

Laths, Eastern ii 10 00 

do California 

! 

I W - ... 

PROVISIONS— ' 

l irions, exceeduiglv dull : pricea nominal 
Bert". Mew, f* hid ,M6 00 

w side^ <»■ to V2**9 13 

iimal, no sale. 

■ 30 

1 0) 

r 39 

33 

I I 50 

13 a 

• 16 

14 

' m 

■ 

dD DM, ? 

'ido 10 00 wlO 50 

i» 5 ^ 
. > 5 
* 5 
3*4 



t* — 

' ITi 9 4 

— 

—',« 1'* 

oarket) 

. v m —\tu 

RETAIL VEGETABLE 
In pre do thi-i 

i<) Iiimi- 
■ 
to us in . ■ ■ i , ! Suite* 

I : ■ . . 

. ■ , ■ ■ . 

■■ ere, calory, ] ■ 

command g i prices, and we may say all gar' 

ducts pay weH — for the quantity raised upon i wl l 
■ : land Is almost beyond belief 
It wWbepercetvttdthen '■■ In the value of 

marketing this « 1 



Cabbages, \> head S 37 

do 8 ivoy, p doz '■* 00 

Beets, t v tb . r > 

5 

( tarrots. 5 

■■■ ■■■■..-. iquashea 5 

,' doz 5 00 

Cauliflowei-s, V doz ....6 on 

Etadi ■ . t" ioz 1 50 

[aid Sweei Potatoes, ^tb Vi 



[ Inil OS, ]H Hue 

Garlic 

Horecradish 

Tomatoes, 1 erj Bcarce . 

1 Ireen Peas 

Lettuce, ] v doz 

Parsley. 



4 

8 

37 

. 1 00 

. 50 

.none. 

.1 50 

1 50 



Poranips 75 



W. C. WALKER, 
Florist, New Mission Road, near Toll House. 

C AMELIAS, ROSES, GERANIUMS— The finest collection, 
all in Hne order lor removal. 
Plants sent to the city to order. 

DnquetF, Out Flowers, &C, nt Gardens, or at ofiicc inf Wash- 
ington Btl'eet, oeact the San Francisco Theatre. 5 



Catalogue of Fruit and Fruit Trees. 

WE call the attention of Nurserymen and Orehardists to a 
new catalogue just issued liy up, prenared with great 
labor and cost, giving the lists of the best fruits cultivned in 
Europe or America, with their synonyms. This catalogue era- 
bracei also Usts Df besl Vegetables, Ornamental Trees, Flower- 
iny; Plants, Seeds, &c. — being a perfect illustration of the best 
varieties "f ewrythin^ iKloiiLdn^ tn Agriculture, Horticul- 
ture, and FLORtcuLTURR. with brie!' directions for the cultiva- 
tinv in et'ich de]iartment, and us ndnjited to California, 

This work will be found a very great help to all engaged in 
cultivation. 

Price SI per copy. WARREN & SON, 

Nurserymen", Seedsmen, and Florists, 
5 Musical Hull Buildings. 



FLOWERS ! BRIGHT FLOWERS ! 



A GIFT FOR HOME. 

"THROW PHYSIC TO THE DOGS. 1 ' 

WE convert the pill box into a Floral vase, and instead' of 
the "nauseate drug," "<■ ofter the perfume of Flowers. 
Our beautiful collection of California Flower Sssds we now 
offer. 

These are put up In handsome morocco cases, or homos 
(hie cases of Blase bottles, with printed lists and direct: mi 
with presaed Bowers of the different rarieni - of each. '' 
ttreol the most beautiful style thai can bo prepared, cud ore 
most appropriate eifta for homo at this season. 

We invite attention lu tliem at cur mmiiH, at Musical Hull 

Buildings, WARREN & SON, 

5 Seedsmen and Flozists. 



BRYANT & CO'S 
Agricultural Ware House. 

CORNER FRONT AND SACRAMENTO BTBKtTS, BUUI KBANCI3CO. 

UoiiHinni ly "ii 1 1, b select 8 ortmont ol 

AOICOLTUHAI. [mPLEMBNTS, -Ml.NINO TOOLS 

and Garden Seede 

AUo, a lull and ( pletfl stooh o) HARDWAB I 

LERY, 

1M11.1, M M '-' 'It 



H. W. BRADLEY'S 

National Daguerrean Gallery, 

COHNKR or CLAY AMD KK.VKNV iTS] 

', Cal. 

Every Article required in the Business. 
Porfiral 
shorl notice. Also, I 



Uaf*Ii PERKINS. rftANK K. WEDSTEIL W. NI.F.LV THOMrSOn. 

PERKINS, WEBSTER A m.. 

Commission Merchants for Sale of Produce, 

>- AJIU 

\!N. 
No. 63 Clay street, between Tronl and Davis, 

Ban Pumlaoa. 



M. K.WOOOI I- Ki:\VV. Sm. L. STIHTKVXST 

WHOLESALE BOOKSTORE 
I M) ST 1 TiO A EBB' HALL. 



COOKE, KKMXY 4 Co., 









WM. m:ki.\ iiidMi 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Lumber, 



For m 






IK \NK BAR] 

Carpet, Paper Hanging and Upholstery Depot, 
Wl! SD RETAIL, 

135 ami 137 Ctej tarrt, dwi F^an*n\ 1 



0\ 



II-.:.-. l-hlll H» 

B <n>, ♦> t.io . . . 






.9000 #- 



3^ 



Sim 



reorwerof Ptoa, 



icniriv 
(. 11 A TIN 



om t. i 
S A W V E R . 



BAH I THF.R. 



PALMER. Cook: & CO., 

Hani 
Draft! on the American Exchange Bank, New York, 

2 4t 



1.1 CAS, TDRNER ft CO., 
Bank* 

104 »>■■■ | ■ : i: ■.-,,■■ 

■ ^^lii and time ... ,.i theprindpal 

money, and transacl 
il am ine « 
Qold Dust. Bullion, snd< itlt bought at the 

■ . 

EIENRY S. Tl'ltNER, 
WILLIAM T. SHERMAN, 
BENJAMIN R NISBET, 

San Francisco, < !al, 



.i \mi-:s ii. i.i c (S, 
JOHN 31MOND3, 
&ENR1 L. PATTERSON, 

St Loins, Mn. 



DREXEL, SATHER & ClIUKCII, 
Bankers^ 

DltAW AT SIGHT IN SUMS TO SUIT, ON 

Ocean Bans New York. 

Iinik ol North America Boston. 

Mechanics' nnd Fanners' Bank Albany, 

Drexel & Co Philadelphia, 

Josiali Leo & Co; Riclimond. 

.i B, Morton, Esq Richmond. Va. 

Gen, Wm. Lnrimcr Pittsburg, I'a; 

A. J, Wheeler Cincinnati, Ohio, 

A. D. Hunt, Esq; LouiBville, Ky, 

J Ii. Mapmurdo St Co New Orleane. 

Also, on Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nashville, Tenn-j Co- 
lumbus, Ohio : Norfolk, Va. ; ana Charleston, South Carolina. 

81m 



Daniel D. Page, 
Henry D, Baoon, 

St. LotuB. 



David Chambers, 
Henry Haight, 
San Francisco. 



Francis W, Page, 
Sacramento City 



B 



PAGE, BACON & CO., 
ANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California street, San 
Francisco, draw at sight, in sums to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabooy & Co London. 

F. Hutli & Co London. 

American Exchange Bank New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York. 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia. 

Joaiah Lee & Co Baltimore, 

Louieianin State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon l...St. Louie. 

Hatchings & Co LouisviHa 

T. S. Goodman & Co. Cincinnati. 

S. Jones & Co Pittsburg, 

Gold Du.it and Exchange purchased at current rates. 1 4t 



ADAMS & CO., 
Bankers. 

MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 
Bills of Exchange drawn on anj of our Houses in New York 
Philadelphia, Boston, Balthntire, Washington, Cincinnati, New 
Orleans, St. Louie and London. 

AIpo payable at the following Banks — 

Merchnntb' and rai Albany. 

Utica City Bank LTtica, 

Bank ol ayracusa Syracuse. 

Bank of Auburn Auburn, 

Bank of ittisa .Buflalo, 

Rocheatei l Itj Bank Rochester. 

■■<■■■'■ & Co Chicago, 

■ : i hell, i- Ire and U ■■ Ina I lo Milwaulne. 

Michigan State Bank Detriot, 

Com Brani tiBanki ■ , eland 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio, 

. . I Dual ■ ■ : ■■ ■ D ■ I . .. - : 

... -.1' ci ived from merchants, mechanic) 
othom AKA.Ms ,v i o. 



WEL1 I . GO A 00. 

SOUTH ,i of his 

i ill jnu a 
Daily Express i i m 

San Francisco, Stockton, Columbia, Murpliey's Flat 
and Mokelumne Hill, 

for Mt. Opiiir, 

3 111 3J 



id Fmnripco to Co- 



PIANO FORTES FOE HIRE. 

WOODWORTH i; CO., importers of Piano Fort-' 
Clay Street, arc now rweiviiu: u further lUpply ol 

Fones, from the celebrated " Stodai-d" manufactory, ■ 
for hue. Also, now landing from the clippers, n lar 
ment of instruments suitable for HOLIDAY PRESJ 
alsting of 6, ii '.> and ~ octaves, plain and carved, with pc. 
ivory keys, likewise 

Prince's Melodeons, 4 to 5 octaves; 

India Rubber Piano Covers ; 

French Piano Covers ; 

Rosewood Music Stools, &c., ifec 1 At 



WANTED — At the general Agency and Intelligence office, 
No. 87 Long wharf, 3d door below Sansome street, up 
stairs. 
Houses, Farms, Lots for eale or to Rent. 
Merchants, Farmers, Mechanics, Hotel Keepers, and Private 
Families supplied with help at the shortest notice. 

Merchants clerks, laborers and Bervants can find immediate 
i mployment by applying as tibove. 

Honey loaned on securities, personal and real estate. 

T, H, PERKINS, 
P. S, Particular attention paid to furnishing Farmers with 
help immediately upon receiving their orders. And in m riting 
to us they will please specify the exact kind oi help required, 
and the wageB, Address T. Ii. PERKINS ,t Co. 

Intelligence Office, 
2 4t ' 87Long wharf. 



PRIZE ONIONS— ONION SETTS, &c. 

WE have just received a superior lot oi Onion Seed, of very 
extra quality, to which wecall the particular attention 
of cultivators. Also, 500 lbs Onion Setts, in tine order. 300 Ihs 
French Sugar Beet, for clock. 

WARREN St SON'S 
Seed Warehouse, 
Musical Hall, Sun Francisco, 
2 4t And J street, Sacramento. 



TIME. 

PARTICULAL attention paid, tie usual, to the cleaning and 
repairing of Watches, by 

BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 

1 City Observatory, Montgomery at. 4 t 



QUARTZ SPECIMENS POLISHED. 
Seals, Rings, Cane Heads, Snuff Box Covers, 

CUT AND SET BY 

BARRETT % SHERWOOD, 

M0NTG0MEB.Y STREET, ONE DOOR FROM COMMERCIAL. 

The only Lapidary Machinery in California, and the best 
workmen on the Pacific coast, are now employed in our estab- 
lishment, 1 4z 



New Drug Establishment. 

AT. McCLURE, having completed and moved into bis 
• fire-proof Brick Store on Hush Btreet, has just opened I 
oilers for sale a splendid and conipleieii^nrlmetn oi lie.-li Drugs 
of extra quality, received by recent arrivals from the Eastern 
States 

Prescriptions carefully nut Up ar all hours. 
Country orders promptly attended to, 

A. T. McCLl U 
]6t No. 42 corner Push stree; and Bryan! P 



SACRAMENTO CITY BANK. 
JOHN M. RHOADES. Banker. 



Will set] 

■ 






'■ YORK, m, 

■ 




it at Philadelphia 


'ni-iJ.'--- 1 ! 






drr *pecW or otberwiM; iml all 
ikbur pranptry it»-nd«d ta in 



BARRETT I POMKB 

coa.vsB or .x*in and XAmjcxT STiirrt, 
PE.4LF . MATERIAL. 

Sawing and Planing dona to Order. 3 la 



Miners' Exchange and Savings Bank, 

Ajusoar h* 

■ ilto streets. 

- WJUUUT, Accvr. 

Vl-I ' **«• wiU bear an intw- 

-nd a ball per cent per month, redeemable at 

■• aaMynl at this office, will be retumnl 
are, and the very bert pric« p«: > 

i>rn* rmremwed, or ralueri eranV, and 
••nuuo |*>t to the AasayBg or taMtog of all kiods of 



;■• drawn oo tbp Eax, at .-;.-!. r or on Tunr, 



bnaai u.r «rvri. i 



ary, ILtrt#^#. 
WaaUajpaa, 



TAINTS, nils . Ac. 

LIVER * BUCKLET. mmoriera aW wUwte dMtera hi 
tbeabore arbctaa, keep on* bead the moat i 
bo be band in thr city 
3 1m Corner Battery aad BaDecfc i 



Wh( 



LeanV 

S-ti Fr»ncWn. 

j oscabhabed a new and exUanre eatabhwimaut for the 
mu> of the abore>named coalA, w- ,uM call the arieobon of the 
Orade to uVir tat rtock, to wokn aAhrimn are romwtlj being 
made by treat arrirakL 

A- we ree<tiTe our eoods £rect from onr own nwwhrtoi j 
■I v b fas*, amen DawJaWaJ nthannj MMMifa ?reai ..vu..-. - 

hipatrt ol: 

• 

BrfaB«iaad lbrtracles; 
?*u'kT and wag un Whtna; 
Mrdran and CaL Spws ; 

>: - -:. and C^. Bim ; 



hand a an* 
Coocord ^ta^e Hatwjm 
Tnun BarDOM; 
Cart Baraaw; 

a do: 



VOLUNTEERS WANTED .' 

TO THE GREAT SALE OF 

JEWELRY AT JOHN W. TUCKERS. 

I shall nov commence selling off tnj entire stock, con tin 
of DIAMOND WORK, WATCHES, JEWELRY, SI1 Ifl ■ 
WARE, etc., etc. 

Amounting to more than $300,000! 

I have got to sell all tEe above goods i re the tint ol Ji 

i ii!i.r w rebuild my i toi e ace irdin p to I ae oev 
person who wanb a good article can procure om from me 
Cheaper than in any other Oily in the World ! 

... ■ ! t I pi id tO ' 

. I | 

ore v ■ ..... 

■I, Ii' I sell an arc 

aey. No 

L Ci 

. . 

john w. n i ; 

1 Illl 12.') '■' 



NOT THE ONLY ONE! 

ANOTHER MAN f3 TN THE FIELD 

Prepared to cut Quartz Rock into any form 
desired. 

I will fay to mr friends and t. 
■ to work into an 

WtTH A POLISH r.QT-AL TO THAT OF A MIRBOB. 

N. II. — Quartz Rock purcluweil at the bii 

J. W. TU( R : 



There are Three Things I Do Not Do ! 

l.«t. I d 

be call* for it, ^harre him TwEicnr-Nivr, Doll 1 1 
X, and harr it rtnyt two hour* after. 

id. I do rot a#k Fimr Dollars for a chain, and M I 
TniBTT-3nc Dollar.*, and warrant it 1 

1 1 back and pay I" iftt 
ither chain. 
> not tdl a Captain he can tear* I 
And when he calls for it at the end of * 
him up hU prop- 

DOLLAR*, and TEX DOLLAR? til " 

I do not do, which I mny came 
at some otfc 1 4t J, W. 

! T Tl t KEi 

BELTER! SILVER! SIL1 

100 Dozen Table 9pooni, 
95 Dozen Table Forlcs, 

12-5 Dozen Teaspoons! 
SILVER 

SILVER PITCHERS AJID CtTPS. 
10O handaome FANS, worth » .: ' 

ranu Glasses, worth $6 to $fS oacs. 
A few of the fineM JrwiL ''«rrn rrer seen, onr. 
(r ooi T awioy'*, Read*, end Park. 
QT* C ail nod examin e the?* rood*, at 

I. v. 

-Will be mrid v*rr tow. bat * 



UMlS'C 



M-- D - > BOW Pi - • - 

M. p rib K' .- ■ -!i - 



Oisgs Orange, RapterTiM ud CimatL 

.li, tii \i . Plant, of «rotNr fi^wth, jo* pf^ 
Jil.V'l'l) SOD trm »xt.' n «.ri i uiM» , »V fcr bmei 

PoranWkT « ARRFM * ?<J* 



GIBSON t KI 
iMTci ry is 

Grocerus. Provisions. Foreign and Domestic 
Spirits and Wine*. 



v>! vrr 



1 rur^rr ■>• Im 8-"-^ ; 



•° • ' 



of 37 dan kva, me B amii . 



SHADE AHD OKSAMETTAl 
1,00* Biaaiilal I»il. Tia 

'( iW > ta» oaae to paaa Tr~. P i« a a. a. 

WABJtC* « - * 



PATCH a CLAYTOT, 

I -r iMMI«ION 

; -y Fatafal anxaiira to aaW 
■alaraFn fcr M-rrjiafc. |Hnaa,iHj Bad « kmtot m affc g 

GEJtS TOE THS T AJLLOR AVS OEatS IS* 
THXGAXSat 
'HP. dnioM njirtorii, Taipa, I I ! il . «c, fcr tor park) 
anafanaea. 



V atartaaatoaaaaTTaau Pu i i n to— « aw l « I 

\ ,^l»a««a»CaaaiWto».L«»a »l * i i Tttoa, 




- 



40 



©Ob a €®H% ®s ®M @mw$< 



TKUS FREEDOM— HOW TO GAIN IT. 

BY CHAKLES IHACKAY. 

We want no liag, no riaunling rag, 
For liberty to fights 

We want no I. laze of murderous gnnfl, 

To struggle for tiie right 
Our spears and swords are printed words, 

The mind our battle plain ; 
We've won such victories before, 

And hope we shall again. 

We love no triumphs sprung of force, 

They strain lie- brightest cause ; 
'Tia not in blood that Liberty 

Inscribes her civil law6. 
She writes them on the people's hearts 

In language clear and plain, 
True hearts that moved the world before, 

And so they shall again. 

We yield to none in earnest love 

Of Freedom's cause sublime ; 
We join tile cry, " Fraternity ! " 

We keep the march of time, 
And yet we grasp no spike or spear, 

Onr victories to obtain ; 
We've won without their aid before, 

And so we shall again. 

We want no aid of barricade. 

To show a front to wrong ; 
We want a citadel in truth; 

More durable and strong. 
Calm words, great thoughts, unflinching faith, 

They've won our battles many a time, 
And so they shall again. 

Peace, progress, knowledge, brotherhood — 

The ignorant may sneer, 
The had deny ; but we rely 

To see their triumph near. 
No widow's groans shall load our cause, 

No blood of brethren slain ; 
We've won without such aid before, 

And so we shall again. 



The Love op Children. — The following 
beautiful sentence is from the pen of Coleridge, 
Nothing can he more eloquent, nothing more true: 

''Call not that man wretched who. whatever 
else he suffers, as to pain inflicted or pleasure 
denied, has a child for whom he hopes and on 
whom he dotes. Poverty may grind him to the 
dust, ohscurity may cast its dark mantle over him. 
his voice may he unheeded by those among whom 
he dwells, and his face may be unknown by his 
neighbors — even pain may rack his joints, and 
sleep flee from his pillow, but he has a gem with 
which he would not part for wealth defying com- 
putation, for fame tilling a world's ear, for the 
brightest power, for the sweetest sleep that ever 
fell on mortal's eye." 

The American " Stdmp."— What is the first 
product of American civilization ? It is not a 
church, for that takes time. It is not a school- 
house, for that requires children. It is not jack- 
knife, for that being a matter of first necessity. 
Jonathan always has one in his pocket wherever 
hegpes. It is not even an axe, for although he 
would sit down and whittle out a handle, if that 
was all, yet he will not be quite ready to put a 
steel head to it of his own manufacture. The 
First product of American civilization is a stump. 
What is the (irst intellectual product of Ameri- 
can civilization? A man to get upon it and make 
B speech ; it may be about shooting the Indians, 
or building the church, or schoolhouse, or choosing 
a representative, but a speech, on something or 
other. The stump speaker is the father of Amer- 
ican civilization. 



We like to see a man, no matter what business 
he may he engaged in, have a respect for it. It 
elevates labor, and ennobles trade. The other 
day. in the neighborhood of the Park, we encoun- 
tered a tall, dignified looking man, in a long, seedy 
frock-coat, buttoned to the chin, with a very 
glossy old silk hat, presiding at an apple-stand. 
Some how or other, his manner, his "style." 
struck us. " What is the price of those apples 7" 
we asked, pointing to a small pile of tempting red 
ones. 

"We shall have to charge you two cents for 
those," said he ; " they are a very superior article; 
but there is an apple," he added. " and of a good 
quality, that we can put to you at a cent ! " 

Shade of Commerce ! lie couldn't have said 
more, nor in a more portentous manner, if he had 
been offering goods in Stewart's marble-palace 
He was very far from being what Mrs. Partington 
terms " non pomjmus mentis .'"— Knickerbocker. 



| Gentlemen's Clothing and Furnishing Goods. 

G1 EORGE F. WALTER, No. 113 Montgomery street, np. 
r posite Barry & Patten's, has ou hand and is eonstantly 
receiving a splendid assortment of goods tor Gentlemen's wear. 
ii.iepi-i.iii-. in part, fancy Cassimeres, Vesthigs aud French 
Cloths, of various colors and tincst texture. He is constantly 

r iving by the steamers, direct From his Agents in New York — 

Me-.-s. Crawly i^ Lent, 737 Broadway— invoices of Paris 
PANTS, Benjenn's make, of Cassimere, velvet luce, the best ever 
imported, A discriminating public is invited to call and examine 
this stock. 

MILITARY CLOTHING. 

G. F. W. gives this depnrtrnent Ids especial attention. All 
styles lit' military suits made to order, from the best material, 
and guaranteed to give perfect satisfaction. 

Gentlemen's Fashionable Clothing cut and made equal to any 
house in the Atlantic Srates — tile workmanship by the best Tail 
ors. The principle laid down is that no garment is delivered 
which is not a perfect fit ; as every article is lifted on before 
being finished, thereby avoiding the unpleasant necessity of al- 
tering after leaving the store. Any garment that is made and 
does not tit perfectly, is not expected to be taken, as he is desir- 
ous of establishing a business that will give satisfaction to ail 
who may favor him with their patronage. 

N. B. — I still continue to take measures to be madeup in New 
York by Messrs. Croney &. Lent. All orders sent will be re- 
ceived by return steamer. 

GEORGE F. WALTER, 110 Montgomery street, 
lm Opposite Barry &. Pattens. 



A Change Anticipated.— A young lady in a 
class studying physiology, in the high school at 
Sandusky, made answer to a question put, that in 
six years a human body became entirely changed, 
so that no particle which was in at the commence- 
ment of the period would remain at the close of it. 

"Then, Miss L.," said the young gentleman 
tutor "in six years you will cease to be Miss L." 

"Why, yes, sir, I suppose so," she said, very 
modestly looking at the floor. 

Queer Reason for Kissing.— A gentleman, 
on parting with a lady, gave and received— as 
he supposed— a kiss of friendship. After the 
door closed, he overheard the following • 

" Why, Lucy, a'n't you ashamed to kiss a man, 
all alone with him ? " 

"No, ma, I am not," answered Lucy "for I 
only kissed him to smell his breath, to see if he 
had been drinking. 



A vonNG poet out West, in describing heaven 
says "its a world of bliss, fenced in with 
galls." Where's the man who won't repent 
now? 



DONAHUE'S UNION IRON WORKS, 

[the fibst established in the state.] 
Cor. of First am! Mission street/?, Happy Valley, San Francisco 

THE undersigned colls the attention of the citizens of Califor- 
nia andOregon to bis unequalled facilities fordoing work with 
rapidity mid cheapness. He has made, and will continue to 
make, such additions to bis time and labor-saving machinery, as 
the increasing wants of the State require,and hence solicits pub- 
lie patronage 

Saw and Grist Mill Irons, 

Quartz Crushing and Amalgamating Machinery, 
ii ml Ci tings of fit 1 1" c Iron or Braes of every description (having 
a must extensive assortment of irmly made patterns) made 
promptly t<> order, 

STEAM ENGINES from the manufactories of William Bur- 
ion, Brooklyn, New York, and other celebrated makers, con- 
stantly on band and Ibr sale. 

BOILERS of every description furnished at lower rates than 
can be afforded elsewhere, toe iron for the some being imported 
direct, ami the machinery for shearing, punclunc and n 

being driven by Bteom power. PatentSteam ma] Water Giuures, 
sti-aiu Wni.-th.-;, Cocks, India Rubber Steam Packing. Ready 
made Bulta and Nuts, Belting Lace, and other Engineer's Find 
inge Ibr sale. 
2 3m JAMES DONAHUE. 



Italian Marble, Granite and Free Stone Warehouse, 
.V.'. W Battery Street 

OBELISKS. Monumentf, Head Stones, hupo in a Stones, 
Table Tops, Centre Tables— the largest and best assort 
menl In the city. 

Italian Marble Mantels, of various patterns, richly carved Sta- 
tionery Mantels. 
All kinds of lettering done to order. 
Quincy Granite, Connecticut Free Stow. Some choice pat- 
tern- of moulded architectural Lintels; Red anil FreeStOne, && 

^ We ure constantly in receipt of fresh supplies of Mantels and 
Grates, together with building fronts, &c, £j clipper* from New 
York, and we are at all times prepared to oxi cute Job Work on 
in- most reasonable terms. For sale, to arrive, 100 mantels ol 
new and superior styles, to which we invite the Ottention 
trade. We are determined to sell cheap. 

COIT & BEALS, 
Sign of the Marble Obelisk, 
2 lm J)4 Battery street, corner of Clay. 



PROCLAMATION EXTRAORDINARY. 
Woman's Rights 

VINDICATED AND MAINTAINED. 

WHEREAS, from the creation of the world, it WEB designed 
by the " Great First Cause" that 

Womans's Rights and Privileges 
Should he co-e<juaI to Man's ; and whereas, she bos heen treated 

by many men in all ages, up to the preeeul time, o on : - 
beine; to themselves : Now, therefore, be it known that l, M. 
I,. WINN, of 

Winn's Fountain Head and Branch 
having expended large sums ol money at the FOUNTAIN 
HEAD for the jgotuicatin of the appetites ol Gentlemen, do 
recommend that woman behereafter allowed and provided 
with the nullities to enjoy all the privileges for which she wot 
bj Providence designed ; and fur this purpose I do inr.-e.by prot 
chum, that my 

BRANCH, 
Corner Montgomery and Washington i" 
shall be conducted with n view exclusively to the Enjoyment 
and Comfort of Ladies, and such Gentlemen tu know ami 
appreciate their worth. 

At the earnest solicitation of many Ladies and Gentlemen 
and agreeable to my promise some months since to enlajj e tin 
BRANCH, so as Bo accommodate the fast increasing patronage 

I shall, in. ii lew dajv, ,<n|,i Two Spm/ioia- H.ore-; on Munt^uiiierv 
street, tu the Original Branch, making the 

MOST EXTENSIVE ICE CHEAM 

And Refreshment Establishments in California. 

The day ol opening will h. 'di.lv atmouncecTtbrougb the med 

um of the Doily Praia, so that all may wttnen whai has been 

accomplished for the accammodation and comfort of "God's last 

besl gill to man." In the meantime, lot. ul Fun and Jollification 

one be enjoyed in reading the mottoes and feasting upon th« 
luxuries to lie enjoyed at 

WINN'S FOUNTAIN HEAD, 
and 80 Long Wharf, and Branch, corner Washington and 
Montgomery streets ; 

where Every Thing lor the Holidays maybe found, from a 

Sugar Whistle to a Bnde's Coke of half a ton 

M. L. WINN, Proprietor. 



SIGN OF THE GOLDEN M0RTJLR, 

JUSTIN GATES, wholesale and retail Druggist, 76 K street 
Sacramento, oilers lor sale at greatly reduced prices, a lane 
und well selected assortment of 
Paints, Oils, Turpentine, Brushes, Alcohol, Lamp Oil, 
Neatsloot Oil, Quinine, Morphine, Opium, Camphor, 
Tartaric Arid, Cream oi Tartar, Boda, Tapioca, Sops, 
Cloves, Castile Soap. Indigo, Bay Water, Congress Water 
Shaker's Serbs and Roots, Tilden's Extmrr, Sidlitz Powders, 
Supporters, Trusses, Syringes, Patent and Botanic Medicines. 
Dental and Surgical Instruments, Lubfn's Extracts, 
Electric Concentrated Preparations, Perfumery (all kinds). 
Osgood's Cholagogue, Townsend's, Sands' ana Myers' Sana 
paritln, Ayere' Cherry Pectoral, Dr. Janes' Expectorant, 
Alterative Pills, Mortal's Bitters and 1'ilk 
Green Mountain Ointment, Halloway's Ointment and Pills 
Wright's, Brondreth's and Cook's Pills, Davis' Pain Killer,' 
Mexican Mustang, Nerve and Buiie Limunent, 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick. 
Superior Old Port Wine Bittere. 

Agents for Dr. Robinson's Mountain Extract, 

CURES THE FEVER AND AGUE IN ONE DAY 
l-SF Don't forget, " dign of the Gulden Mortar," 70 K street, 
Sacramento. r^ lm * 



10,000 FRUIT TREES, 

Grape Vines, Fig Trees, Raspberry and Current 

WE invite all who intend planting Trees and Vines to call 
on us betore they make their purchases, as we can offer 

them many advantages that cannot be ibuhd elsewhere Our 

collections, we know, are the most extensive, and the quality 
the best that can be had. We therefore invite all to call on us: 
we canshjw them, in our Exhibition Rooms, the eamplca ol the 
aetual truit they produce. WARREN & SON, 

Nurserymen aud S tedemen, 
Musical Hull Buildings, San Fnmcieco, 
und 15 J street, Sacramento. 



GRASS SEED 



"-rtlAIbS SUED 

If) OOO LU ' s - Ni i W f 5RAflS BEEDS-Timothy 
-i-\^^\J\J\J or Herds' Grass, Red Clover, l 

Clover. Red Top, Kentucky Blue Grass. 

Persons wanting the very best seed are requested to rive 
attention to the ubove. WARREN 6c BON'S 

Beed Warehouse. 

Musical Hall Building, Hun Francisco. 

And J Btreet, Sacramento. 



WASHINGTON STEAM MILLS. 
WASHINGTON FLOUR MILLS. 

THE underelgned proprietor of the Washington Flouring 
Mills take pleasure m offering to families and the trade, 
Superior Family Flour, To our Mills, we are happy to say to 
our friend-, was awarded the Silver Medal; ami we shall be 
always striving to trauntain for it a high reputation, so that our 
cu-iooi'T- can send 1 1 us in confidence, believing they will re- 
rcceive the bighesi < bar icti r of Flow the market affords. 

In the same establishment we have extensive STEAM SAW 
MILLS, capable o perfoi rning every kind of work that may lie 
desired, and to this branch of our business we bivite the atten- 
tion of thepubllC. We have also STEAM PLANING MILLS, 
that will finish all kind- ul work in the 01081 workman-like man- 
ner, and equal to anything performed in the country, and in the 
most prompt manner to order. 

We invite all who are contracting work, to call on us and ex- 
amine our Mills, and we can Satisfy thein of our ability to supply 
every order in each branch of our extensive establishment. 

D. W. VANCOURT, Proprietor. 

1 Near the Oriental. 



P0LLEY & CO., 

OF THE BAY STATE MILLS, would announce that for 
the better accommodation of their numerous customers 
and trade in general, that they have opened a branch of their 
business at the Fire Proof Store, No. 49 K street, between 
Second and Tln'rd, where they will always keep on hand a lar^e 
stock Of CaElbrnis FLOUR; also, Haxall and Gallego. 

Public attention is particularly directed to the " Bay State 
Lower Mills' Brand," an article we have every confidence 
in warranting, being mude under our own inspection, from new 
Wheat, without any adulteration. 

Ground feed of nil kinds always on hand. 
Every exertion will be used to merit a continuance of the 
favor heretofore so liberally extended to us. l-3t 



PEORIA PREMIUM STEEL PLOWS. 

THE FORMER CELEBRITY OF THE PEORIA PRE- 
MIUM STEEL PLOWS, and the unequalled success ol 
their ii» reduction iu this State, would seem to preclude tin in - 
Caasity of any further effort QD our part to draw attention 

thereto: but in view of the transitory nature of business in 
general in California, and the probability that some may have 

louln-d upon our establishment of an extensive and permanent 

man •ihcture ot Plows here, in the face of such enormous im- 
portations and extravaganl prices of material, as an impossi- 
bility — we believe it expedient to adopt this method ofbringing 
it will i in the special oorjee of all concerned, tin it we an qi 

manufacturing, and will have ready for this season's demand. 

three thousand of the umrt superior Plows ever made or used 
within this St:tt". 

We feel warranted in making this assertion, from the fact 
that all who used our Flow last season testify that they were 
superior: andwehavi ntndiedso closely the Immediate wanbs 

of our patrons froi ■ erj section Of the State, that we can 

now furnish Plowt suitable to any particular kind ol soil known 

in the State. 

'iiir material has nil been selected in t'..- Easl by one of mir 
firm, and imported by us directly from tin; manufacturers, 
winch places it in our power to say contidenth thai nothing i.- 
locking in quality, while (veaxeenabl d to make th< plows ol o 
cost groofly below thai bi la- r season, and are determined to 
sell at prices within the reaeh-of every tanner who onvy wish 

to UBO tii..' Peoria Premium Steel Plow. 

ir should be remembered that these plows will do doul 
work with half the team required in •■ log the ordinary cast 

Plow ; and that the work, when done, will lie well dune. 

For particulars oi nrice.-, und descriptions oi plows, we refer 
you to the subjoined card. The pricey therein detail 

stablished at our factory, and the only alterations from 
them that we authorize our agents to make, is the addition ol 
■ of i ran pi Eon to their placi i of bnainesi — ihus plac- 
ing the plow* n! every accessible point of the State tor the 
□xacl price charged at the Factory, with the necessary expen jcb 
only added. 

Farmer.- ordering our plows through mi CCOntile houses here, 

would do well to write to us at the same time, If they would 
ure ol getting the right plow, for some ore interested in 
repre entinc that we are not making plows at all, win 1 ' 
will not -eii our plovra when they can get off a oast plow. We 
therefore recommend that order- should he i out to us directly, 
accompanied bj an order upon your merchant for i he amount, 

which you can always know by u reference to the card accom- 
panying i iii- circuli i ■ 

On the 24th ol June the Interest of T. Apams in onr business 
ceased, by the sale ol bia entire interest thereinto L, E. Moa- 
gan. Aside from tin-, then- ha- not, nor will there be, an; 
alteration, as we have the eame efficient and thoroughly prac^ 
tiaed hands in evei y department of our he 

E". L. MORGAN & id. Successors to 
T, ADAMS .v i 'i.. 
Corner of liroadwity in, 

J"£r" The follow iiii.' hi" I he i-tnhli-heil (irieea for the Peoria 

Premium Steel Plowr, at our Factory, und tin- only additi m 
our Agents are author! ed to make thereto, is the coat ui traus- 

. i i ■ i 1 1 1 it i ■ ts ol b u ■ 1 1 ' ■ ■ ■ 

sizf. DEScuirrioN. runnow. pbick. 



A. A. BELO\'ER. K. H. SINTON. 

A. A. SELOVER, Auctioneer. 



SEL0VER & SINTON, 

REAL ESTATE AUCTIONEERS AND AGENTS. 



Office and Salesroom, 130 Montgomery street, 
between Clay and Commercial. 

Messrs. Selover & Sdmton respectfully inform the public 
that they have associated tin mselves together for the pnrposi 
of conducting the Reai Estate Business in oil it., branches 
for the ]i]-osfi.'ii:iiii] of which they deem themselves particularly 
well qualified, having been intimate with the business in this city 
Bince July, 1£49. 

Particular attention riven to all questions allectinu titlce, &c. 

Great care will be tahen in complying: with the law, in sales 
of Assignees, Administrators, and other legal bo1< a 

A Register for property, at public or private sale, always open 
at their office. 

Terms of Sale. — Titles satisfactory, or no enle. Acts of 
pale at purchaser's expense. Ten per cent, of the purchase 
momy will he required at time of sale from all parties not 
known to the Auctioneers. 

The services of a gentleman of long experience have been 
secured lor the full and complete search and exanunation of 
titles. 5 4t 



SELlM & EDWARD FRAKKLON, 

REAL ESTATE AGENTS AND AUCTIONEERS, 



Office and Salesroom, 1U2 Merchant st„ between 
Montgomery street and the Plaza. 

Real estate of all descriptions field at public and private sale. 
Particular attention given to sales for Administrators, Acaigneee, 
Receivers, Mortgagees, and others, according to law. 

Monies invested and rents col ice ted for parties at a distance. 

Loans affected OU Bonds and Mortgagee, Titles examined and 

surveys made by competent parties in the office, I the Nota- 
rial business exected by WILLIAM A CORNWELL, Notary 
Public, 
A register open to pi blic Inspection of property for sale. 

The ,-'|.;iii:;-h aud French linuruages spoken. 

Improved and unimproved Ranches and lands for sale iu 
various parts of the State— Spanish titles. 5 4t 



JAMES E. WAINU-RIGMT. ALBERT G. RANDALL 

JAMES E. WAIrTWHIGHT, Auctioneer. 

WAIISWRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom. 100 Merchant Street, 
between Montgomery and Kearny, 

Messrs. Wjjktvbiobt, Kand^ll St Co. respectfully an- 

ii. unce in i hen friends and the public generally that they have 

made thi.- business connection, and re-established themselves, 

in pose of transacting the Real Estate busmeae In all its 

branches, for ttie successful manage ment of n hich they deem 

resweQ qualified, having bad upwards of four years 

i"i ience In this city. 

They will rive especial attention to making public sales ol all 

! e..l of property lor Administrators, As.-i^nec;-, Receivers, 

■-, und ether.-, according to law. 

■i.' "' loineho" property 
>. will he anbrdi d to the holders of such 
property for rue transaction of their busmass. Mr. Randal, 
being conversant witb the Spanish language (having resided 
yours in South Amci tea,) will give his personal attention 
to the translation ol title papers, when requh'ed 
A practical Surveyor ana Draughtsman will be In era 
.i lie ofl ce. 

A l;n-e nmouitt ol property lit private sale. 

n of A- O. RANDALL, 
Public, under, the law ot 18S3 — and Conunissioner for 
■ oi New (Hampshire. 5 -it 



THEODORE PAYNE. Sqi'tKE r. DKIVEV, 

THE0D0BE PAYmS & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK Al < tTil >NEERS. 



OFFICE AND SSXBS-nOOU COSNEB CALIFORNIA AND MONT 
OOMEE? BTBEETS, 



No. 



BVfi. 



.plain. 



7 " 

ii clipper or prairie. 

L6 " " -■ 

IH " " -■ 

SO " " -. 



I 35 

S 40 



...10 in. 

...13in 

.. -14m 

...16 in 

...14 in 8 

...Hi in § 71 

...Ir'in $ a 

..20 in &10Q 



.22 in. 
;.24in., 

.40 in.. 



■ 



24 " 

2fi " " 

30 " 

40 " 

Hnl. . il Plow? $-10 

Cultivators |SQ 

[For the Biditipn "i b leel and asle to nny oi the above cli] 
pec Plows, an addll ional charge ol ^^i 11 -! 

L. E, MORGAM & CO., Successors to 
I T. ADAMS cv CO. 



PREMIUM PLOUGHS. 
TX7"E invite the attention of liirnn':^ to the sssortmi 
tV " Premium Steel Ploughs," now at our'atoreai Ex] bttlou 
Hall. These are die eeieiunt.il "Morgan St Co.' Pe ris 
Plouebs," pronounced bj the committee tiie verj heel Phjughin 
the United States. WARREN i SON'd 

I Agricultural Stora 



WAEEEN & SON'S 
HORTICULTURAL M t S E U M 

AND 

SALL OF SCIENCE. 

TIIE eubficrihers take pleasure in anu'iunciui: t>> their friends 
and patrons that they open their Hall as a Museum ol Hor- 
ticulture and Niitnrui Scifjices, Having novi completed our 
arrangements in Europe nod in this country, we are enabled to 
offer to the patrons ol this establishment the t ; r.-i oi th.- kind 

inColUbrniii) everything desirable connected with the boJ ;e 

of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Floriculture. 

Connected with thise tobllehmenl will be Nursei ies, Gardens, 
Fruit Orchards, Graperies, and Greenhouses ol the proprietors; 

Ulld their].' i e the | lltr C0H he BSSlUTCd thnt it IB UlUch helTer 

tor them to . I icii orders to firat hands than to tin 
collect here and thoro, ot auction and olsowhere, wbi i thort 
can be no certan ciiuuicnesa ol whatthej buy. 

The Nurseries will lie extensive, containing several hundn d 
thousand trees mown under the eye of the proprietor*. The 
Fruil Garden will contain the choicest Finite known in Europe 

and America. 

The Museum will contain specimens of Fruit in Wax, rare 
and curious speeuiien.- ol everything else in nature, both in wax 
ami iu a di ieit -jate ; Oil I'nintio-.-, Orawunrt and Paintings o I 
Fruitp, Flowers, See., tngethor with specimene In NaturnlHis- 
i n j , Books on Agriculture, Horticulture and n itany; Garden Im- 
plement of all deacriptions and o\ the most approved patterns, 

SEEDS.— A large and superior m i em of Garden and 

Flower Seeds, ci inprisiojj "II ;; ''' uew and mri ^ariotioSi F eld 
and Qvnss Seeds of worfauted quality, wbolesnle and retail, 
ThoSeedsBOld at this e tnhll hmeut will be warranted pure 
and genuine, true to thali usine and preserved In a proper 
manner. Dnulem w ill re '■'■. .- ,, liberal uii ci unl , 

Boxes of Sceda for expoi tation at |5and upwards, bo pact) d 

thill they n jn\ be SUlchj ll-il; | .,1 le, I | , , no> | i»rl ol the will'!. 

Packages of Flower S iod-, <. outoinlug twenty vm ■< 
Aununla, Btonniali and i'< rcuiinds, neatly packed ua boxe 
■ii. 
py Separate Qataln ncsof Fruit and Fnra-t Trees; Vihtw, 
Shrubs, Evergroont'i I lah i:.i , i; ■■ ■ and Greenhouse Plants; 
Garden und Agriculturti] Seeds, may be bad on uppUcailon, 
WARREN S SON 
NtnusBYKEN, BsnnaaiXN and Flokists, 

1-tf MuBieul llidl Ituildjiiy, Bush St, .San 1- ruueiaco. 



THEODORE PAYNE UVTIONEER. 

■ ! -i-. PAYNE Sl CO. respectfully inform the public 

purpoto 

Real Estate b^i? ; ncsp, in all its branches, 

of V 
■. by having rivdn it their spocinl attentioi for over two 
it, and made themselves familiar with all questions 
titles, &c. &c. 
They will eive tht ir ospeciol attention to tiie i tiblic 
..■. Adininietratoi . lssigm . Ret eivera, M rtj 
idly complying with ii.e (ornu ot inw. 
A Register for Prouertj*, at either public or privet* 

en 'it their office 5 



FAMILY FL0TJE. 
II O fi NEK' S P R E M I D M V LOT} R . 

UNION CITY MILLS. 
TTrE INVITE the particular attention of Families and the 
y V Trade, to the Quality of the Fli at 
Our great aim basoccn, in the establishment ol our .■ 
procure [he mosl perfecl mBchlnor] , to ruoploj the nbl 

Thai v.e have bei n able to occc« mplif 

Ol our M I 1] i- the CI luii'iiii t; ■ :,.-. . 

The FLOUR womanulacture liiu* bee] .■ ■ dti ,i. ;i ti.,i 

■ State, and alter fit 

iIk-.i ! ■ an ardi I ton tha 'Phbwii i Pi ..." and \\ ■■ .-i all 

Horner' Prcmluui I ■ 
1 ... lanl effort to maintain rot -i . 

The Best Flour in the Land. 
Orders left with HORNEH & CO at 1 ■, Broad- 

waj wharf, will reci ive prom] t utt 
54l IKHiNER. 



SUFERI0E FURNITURE. 

rpiiE largest and besl nock In Sacramci to 1 1 :: 1 i tii be 

1 found at the Old Stand of B, P. &. D.MOORE, No. T! " 

-ir-'-e'. where they still psndsl In se^Hngus th below their 

■-. -;i .iihnii 1.1. i ; , 
plendid and substantial assortment of all kinds o. 
Furniture evert ffisrad m Bacnmento, we feel confident, with 
prices to* suit, th&t nonacangooway empty that may Javor ua 
with a call. 
Our stock tSHunsts of Bureaus, Secretaries, Wardrobes, Stands, 
1. Sol is, Painti d Mai ; ■ 

Walnut, Satin and Rosewood Soto — some ol the finest and 

CheapC I ever nlierei.l in thir uiioket. 

Also, MuttrassAs, ol Curled Hair, Patent Poh, Moea, Wool, 
Straw, and Straw with Cotton Tops, .Also, Feathei Pilli 
and Fcatben Ibi Bi dS| ■■■• tfa e lai p stock 1 Q 

1. . \e.. ii'. AIbo, n very large rtoch ol 1 

Win d, and Cone Seam of all deecriptione : also, ol EJoir, Cloth, 
Plush, Velvel and 1 laipei Botn me, witb Rockers of all 
■ ! which will be sola al 1 



S it 



I n due ,1 . 

Also at 1:111 Jackson Btreet, Sua Pnunsaoo. 



A CARD. 

FREE EXHIBITION HALL.— We de ire I ai unco, and 
we do bo most rei pet Hullj . thai 1 en !| "' 1 ■ ■ in 

Exhibition, our Hall, containing nil the magnifici ol pci 
■ Agricultural Exhibition, togotl er b Ith thochoii 
■ 1 I'.iulu 1 id. rie-. und man 

in .1 curii aide Iron) Ihe " tulandl 

oi all who wish tocxnmfaiQthem t FR£EOF en ! 
We would also announce to Artists that out Ball 
tin-in FR1 IE, to es uibli tht Ir >v oi K Ibr s 
we further annt ant e to all pen oni who have Palntlnj -. Statuary 
Works ol Art, Curiosities, or extra spechuon o| on] 
domestic inanuiacture, thai here Is n 1 lace thorn 

■ ml v, '■■-' e rhO Mil I 1 ■ ' r ■! , .1 ■ t m llee 

can bo riven to it. All who hi 

curiosities ol the country. 6r wonderful specimen 

culture ol Colilbrnla or the Pacific coast, will find thli Hall the 

mo 1 uppropi into place Ibr the exhibition ol the 1 

u b desire also t" state thai all the \ nicu tural 1 uj 
periodicals oi the United States and tiie 1 
il E aropa apon 1 he snhjn 

F loriculture and ot) er 1 meutiflc -v\ , nnn b 

. cause ol Bciei ce, the; ■ ■ uj 1 o, and 

OW I ■ I aid tu developing ti» tlie Utmost Of OUT power the good 

from them. 

WAUKf.N A BOM 



! -I:- 




TOL. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 9, 1854. 



NO. 6. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

J.\P JOUIUUL OF USEFUL SCIE.\CES, 

19 I9SCED AT THE OFFICE, ON BOSH STREET, 

EVERY THURSDAY MORNING, 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BY JAMES K. PHILLIPS & 0., Publishers. 

JOHN F. MORSE, Editoe. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of Advertisements 
will be inserted fit the following rates : For one square of eight 
lines, per month, $6. For business notices of five lines or less 
per mouth, $4. A slight reduction will be made to regula, 
advertisers. 



The Wedding. 

What can be more beautiful than a scene like 
this ? Thus did my spirit whisper as I stood 
upon the steamer's deck, gazing upon the shores 
and Islands that catch the eye as you enter the 
waters of the winding Kennebec. 

The moon shone lustrously ; the stars like my- 
riads of diamonds filled the blue vault above, and 
the boat, as she rushed through the waters, cast 
from her breast a robe of white foam, like a 
mantle laced with gems. 

I had been gazing for hours, when, leaving the 
place where I stood, I mingled with the crowd 
that were seated upon the deck. Among the pas- 
sengers, my eye met one face that rose up in 
memory as a once familiar friend. I had seen 
that face before. I had not looked long ere our 
eyes met ; a word, and the rushing thought filled 
each heart with ready greetings. We had not 
long been known to each other, ere our destinies 
called us to widely different spheres. 

The earth had made her annual circuit since 
last we met ; but the memory of that last meeting 
rose quickly, for it had been one of happiest joy. 
Here we were surrounded by kindred spirits, 
those we loved, and by scenes and associations 
that always must make us better and happier. 
That meeting had made us friends, and now 
meeting again, recalled sweet recollections of those 
friends with whom we last met. 

From whence coiuest thou, and whither art thou 
bound ? were the first questions 1 propounded to 
Hi)' friend, after our mutual recognition. " Oh, 1 
am mi a hasty run to surprise them at home. I 
left 'old Kentucky,' as it wen- but J esienlay, and 
to-morrow 1 hope to be there, on those mountains 
the farthest the eye can see in the distance. 
Sister Mary is to l>e married on Monday eve, and 
I have come home for the wedding: and tell me, 
my friend, can you not come?" How easy and 
how sweetly will sincerity find the way to the 
heart, so earnest, so sincere were the words of my 
friend, that I felt I could be doubly happy, tori 
knew (heir were others that wouldbemosthappj 
too— and quickly resolving it should be done, it 
was done in my heart ! 

The night passed peacefully and brightly away, 
and I he rising sun of the Sabbath morn brought 

US safe to Hie end of our journey l.v steam. My 

friend passed on to his home anion- the moun- 
tains, and I joined my friends near by, I" I 

peace the blessed Sabbath day. 
The morrow was the "wedding day," and moon 

was to be done to accomplish what my heart had 
Ived. Monday arrived— but the clou 
red the sky, the rain was [ailing, and r 
oast on all thai sad chill which rain and log will 
ever do. ospd ! | BH they happen on 

ding day. The oh's and the ah's must 1 
some time, and these disappointments i nu - 
WO were made too happy while here I 
Bui why borrow trouble .' — the wedding 
till evening, and forty miles must be 
that time will come — the storm may pass on and 
leave us a beauteous sky. or we may pass on and 
leave the storm behind us. We do know 

Oh thai be wise, and murmur net at the 

dispen i kind Providence: all thin 

red rightly, and we should he far happier if 
mid but earnestly believe it A line pair of 

surely, 

ver hill and up mountain, and 

to our destination, just as the 

sun p the horison, 

i's bl i the storm had passed away, 

and that the eve would b i with aclear 

il skv. 

ample 

from heal ■ w\l- 

t leap 

- 






were impossible not to take this as an omen of 
good, a promise of happiness to the bridal pair. 
The marriage hour arrived, there was a heavenly 
stillness thrown around that dwelling, broken 
only by the gentle moving of the trees without, as 
the breath of heaven touched them, and seem- 
ingly bent them down to open windows that they 
might be nearer the blissful scene that was pass- 
ing within. 

Never ! never ! shall I forget the emotion that 
filled my soul as I gazed upon that happy pair, 
their hands clasped, ready to receive the seal and 
take the vow that was to bind them for life. Clear 
and distinct, yet tender were the words uttered 
by the minister of God as he united them. There 
was that earnest truthfulness stamped upon the 
brow of bride and bridegroom, that told they had 
pondered well the vow they were about to take 
upon themselves — most earnest and touching was 
the prayer that went up to heaven that God would 
would bless those that had been thus united 
" Twain in one." 

11 Would that this covenant might henceforth 
be entrusted only to those who understand its 
momentous import." 

" Who feel that ever on this earth 

Where two are thus made one, 

"Tis but a type of heavenly birth 

Divinity begun : 
A new a brighter lite is given, 
A bliss tor earth, a hope for heaven." 

The pleasing associations of that never to be 
forgotten marriage scene, I have laid away in 
memory's storehouse, to be called forth at my 
bidding. It was all brightness and I lived itover 
again in my dream of the night. 

The earth was never more beautiful, the air 
never more balmy, and never were hearts more 
happy than these friends that met for a mountain 
ride at the early dawn, the morning after the 
marriage. The earth had been refreshed with 
copious showers, the sky that had been hidden 
from us the past (lay by storm clouds, was now 
all brightness, one vast expanse of blue u a 
us. and one sea of living green, as a carpel at our 
feet. The fragrance of the summer flowers filled 
the air with its perfume, and the joys of the 
heart bid ihe lips give forth that joy iliat oohoed 
long and sweetly over the mountains that we 
were ascend mi 

The brightness and joy that was so lavishly 
scattered around us in nature, was reflected upon 
the natures of the happy married couple thai 
by our side ; and again upon us all. as if 
was now propitiously marking by Ihe opening 
day of Ibis (heir tirst going out into the world, a 
promise of a blissful lift). ( oid grant that it may 
be so: none more worthy than these sweet friends 

Ye who dwell ill cities, whose lives are ! 
the pursuit of gold only, how litlle ean you know 
of life? The sun in its shining beams 1 
beauty for you. save the hope of gain by an 
day's winnings. That golden sunset com* 
to your vision, your golden light is reflected only 
from your hoarded treasures, 
though piled heaven high, arr 
your sight can only he arrested by D 
wealth. Hill, valley, streamlet, river, or sea has 
no claim for your attention, tin n give 

forth instead vf beau: 

This is the age of gold the | 1 marl 

— evei and condition, ere 

is more or less tainted with this mania for 
When, oh when will we begin to realise that "all 
is not gold thai glitters." and that in 
the sh i 

nd our lives in search of 
happy, we ai f happiness 

far greater and more enduring 

enjoy the means that God has placed within our 
reach to be 

His a ord, II - work 

upon In 
own h 

of life that marks 
our pat 

or our friends and for ours 
them to the utmost, and we can all find enough 
to mak hose who e: 

the ' 
July 11. 1849. 

• What is a Letter 
swervd by a poet thus haj 

Whs: is « Imrr I Let .tfeveno n •— 

A soarae that apeaks for those who abseatf ahnafl. 

A silent Itanv* in tern! t. d.e ev- 

Whkh enricos h i ra o u woald i. ni. a-aj : 

A ttnk to bind whlai iln ei— law part. 

A sm of feeoat Kmchrd tram heart to bean. 

-.** to eonrojr ak* aa electrk caakv 
The aaarade lash »» hehtaaac of the hrohv— 
Aj>J -ir-1 at joce. thn-urh xa renMeat uk. 
* of oaaaioo ky a irsp of aak. 



A Page from a Woman's Heart ; 

OR, FEMALE HEROISM. 

" How did you come in possession of this ? " 
said a young man, directing the pawnbroker's at- 
tention to a small, ruby pin in the show-case. 

" That ? 0, that was brought here last night, by 
a prettyish young woman, who seemed to be in a 
great fluster about the money ; and so I bought 
it of her." 

" How did she look ? Had she blue eyes ? Was 
she tall and slender ? " 

" Lord bless your soul ! " said the pawnbroker, 
" I has hundreds of 'em in here every day ; I 
never looks twice at 'em. She was a broken-down 
lady, I reckon. Somebody said she lived up that 
court yonder. Like to redeem the brooch, sir ? " 

" Yes, certainly," said Ernest ; and paying the 
extortioner five times what he had given for it, he 
deposited it in his vest pocket. 

'•' Good God ! that Agnes Kearn should come 
to this ! " was his first exclamation on reaching 
the street. " That brooch, that I have seen sparkle 
on her snowy neck thousands of times, when I 
could have kissed the very ground her little foot 
trod upon ! Agnes in a pawnbroker's shop ! " And 
he reeled and leaned for support agaist a jutting 
wall of the old building. Just then, a little girl 
tripped past, and, striking her foot against the 
curb-stone, fell heavily against him. Ernest 
raised her in a moment, anil kissing her little, in- 
nocent face, was about releasing her, when the 
thought struck him that she might assist him in 
his search for Agnes. 

"Where do you live, pretty one?" said he, 
looking into her bright blue eyes. 

" I can't tell," said the child, blushing ; " my 
mamma bids me not talk to strangers. Won't 
you please put me down, sir?" 

'■ Yes. certainly," said Ernest as lie saw her 
little lip begin to quiver; "only ,ell me your 

name first. 

" I can't tell." said she again, with a womanly 

mi that would hate amused him at any other 

time. So, putting her gently down upon the 

ned to follow her at a di 
There was something in the expression of her 
; him. — thai reminded linn of 

ply ! And then he 

counted the weary years that had intervened 

her marriage. V-- : It might be her child. 

On she went, little Minnie, turning corner alter 
corner, with the spaed of an antelope, then dis- 
appeared up the small, dingy court, into the door- 
way of a Small, black hoUS*, never 01 

little head. 

En> a small door. anil. 

I nig in her w it after her. he 

heard her say, — almost breathl 

n. — "(did'nt tell mamma; I didn't nil. 
Ih.' gentleman asked mi and where l 

tell him " 

■ Hear child," said the mother, as she go-- 
a ki~s. 

re was but one in the wide 
world that could so thrill him. 

: tell him." 

I 

■ head, and turned 
" What tli i.rnent. draw 

up. as if he were already called upon to protect 
her. 

En: the small brooch, 

i much, ere you patt ed 

with t 



does he know of this : 



' in the corner 



dence, you see. That I have suffered more keenly 
than you, who read my heart so well can dream 
1 acknowledge. Nothing meets my eye here that 
is not coarse and repulsive. I have deprived my- 
self' of food, that my child might not hunger. I 
have .no earthly father, save in name; but, through 
all this, Ernest, I have preserved my self-respect, 
and I would rather die than take one dollar, even 
as a loan, from you. Nay, hear me out," said 
she, laying her hand upon' his arm, as he strode 
impatiently across the room. " This poor, weary 
heart is tried and tasked to the utmost. Like 
Noah's dove, it finds no resting-place. Nay, spare 
your reproaches, and be generous. Think you it 
costs that heart nothing to turn coldly away and 
say nay?" and her voice trembled, and her eyes 
filled with tears. " Ernest, my heart may not 
echo back your words of kindness ; the love that 
is born of sorrow is strong, and wild, and deep. 
Leave me, Ernest. Do not deceive yourself; it is 
not a brother's heart you offer me. I must toil 
on, unaided by you. The night has been long, 
tedious and starless ; the morning must dawn ere 
long. I will wait and trust. If I forsake not 
myself, God will not forsake me." 

"Once more — shall I leave you, Agnes? " said 
the young man, as he took her hand. 

" God wills it," was her low reply. 

The door closed upon Ernest's retreating figure; 
then her woman's heart gave way. Covering her 
face with her hands, she wept long and bitterly ; 
then came a holy calm — a peace which only those 
may know who are self-conquerors. 

And where was that " earthly father" He ate 
and drank and slept, careless who befriended his 
child; careless of Hie more than mortal strength 
she needed to keep that warm and tried heart from 
yielding to the pressure of poverty, temptation 
and despair. " bike as a father pitieth his chil- 
dren" were unmeaning words to poor Agnes. 

"This is a very correct translation." said oho. 

lantio Professor Hoggs; ■very well done, 

madam; couldn't have done better myself; ami 

that's the highest praise I ean bestow iq ;n it. 1 
suppose you expect to be well paid for it, like all 
t of our applicants (or this sort >.»" thing. 
'■ I need all you can give nir. I. 

jcctcdlv; "ithascosl me a week of, unremittu 

• V-e-r-y p-o-s-s-i-h-l-c." saidi the profs 
looking at her through i 

you are the daughter of old Mr. Kearn ; he is a 
man who is well off; how eaoie you tO.b 

extremity?' 1 avaricious father! 

igain driven home to that sufli 
heart by your neglectful hand !) 

tiom 
my private hi-i- 
If the translation phases you, 1 shall be happy to 
of it: if not. I must look 
Mr. Hoggs returned it, with a stately 
her way into the QpaO air, Ti 
with Eai : 

her; and sh. 

e lit. 

• Drunk !" said one of tho bystanders, with a 

her. 

child, a 



was not 

l" iiaid > 

; - :,t:,:i. in's g"id-bcadcd Can '!■■ 

-what ot nothing. 

j r are looking 

it- r Agne-. who has f.-uitte>i fnain 






:i vi 



a Cromer s nirni I" jrvo bm mo care put i • 

arn rose from her chair, pate, but 

what I am :. - dark provi- 



Ilr. that wouA bar 



4: 



U%x &nlU®m$<n @mm$'* 



CAIIFOBNIA FAEMEK 



L. L F. WARREN, Assistant Fditor. 



AGEWTS FOR CALIFORNIA FARMER. 
Messrs Ada?:? & Co., at all their offices throughout the United 

States or Europe. 
Messrs. Wells, Fabgo &. Co., at their offices throughout Erie 
Country. 

Snn Francisa —Messrs. Murray &. Co.. hooteellers. M -nr- 
soinei v street ; Sullivan's newspaoer stand, rio!;r the Post 
Office ; Kimball's, Noisy Carriers Hall, Loosr wharii 

Oakland— Hr. Isaac Willard 

Eenicia, Martina, v.— Messrs. Stiles & Dodds. 

Union City and Mission SanJosc — Messrs. Howard & Chaiu- 
berlain. 

San Lvh Olispa — Dr. Tlioraos L. Harvey, P. M. 

Sacramento— Mr. Oscar D. Avahno: Messrs. Cn-le Brothers. 

Union, Humboldt day— A. U. Murdoch, P. M. 

Mount Farm, O. 7'.— G in. M. M. McCarver. 

Maruovitl. — Geo. S. Ba 

Stockton — Roseuhaum & Joackimsen. 

Kim York Ckij, -V. Y.—l. M. Thorburn &. Co. 

N. B. — We want Agents in all the principal localities, and 
persons disposed to act can havetbe opportunity, if satisfactory 
to all parties. 



To the Friends of Agriculture. 

We ask of all to whom we Eend this number, who are not 
already subscribers, to examine the Fabmer, and to give it their 
innuence. We trust to hear from them and to know that they 
will not only become subscribers to our Journal, but favor us 
with their communications. We desire to call their attention to 
our terms of subscription for clubs. 

Special Premiums for Subscriptions. 

In addition to the standing inducement for the getting ot sub- 
scribers for the " Farmer," we will make a present ot HAR- 
PER'S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE to the person who 
procures the most Subscribers in the first six months of our 
publication. This we regard asoneoffhe most beantitul books 
ever issued. Who will have the prize? 

A Premium — Farmers' Clubs. 

With the hope of inducing such ot our friends, and those 
who have a little leisure, to ride anion;; their neighbors and 
introduce an Agricultural Paper, we take pleasaretn ofl i 
the CALIFORNIA FARMER: and. to make it an inducem. ut, 
we say to such friends — if you will get us CTyE gJ'bseriben?, i 1 
remit the amount, we will send you six papers, or for TEN 
subscribers, twelve papers. We trust there are many friends 
who will cheerfully take a little pains to aid us, and thus extend 
the circulation of tue Farmer, and make a useful vehicle for 
t he Agriculture of California. 

Subscribers will please be particular to name the Post Office 
to which papers are to be sent ; or, if forwarded by express, 
which line they preier. 

To Our Patrons. 

To Advertisers. — We would call the attention of those who 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
the pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will reach sources of trade entirely nc.v and 
unattainable by any other means, and thus secure a large and 
immediate profit to those who desire to make known their 
business. By a glance at our advertising columns, it will he per- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have space for hut one or two of each 
branch, these will be the most prominent houses, and thus give 
more inlluencc to them. 

To Agents. 

kjr"* We desire Agents to report as early as possible, that we 
may be prepared in our issues for a sufficient number to supply 
the demand. Be sure and report promptly. 



this by bringing water about half a mile, from a 
neighboring ravine, in small troughs. I bring the 
:. r to the highest point on the cultivated 
ground, and let it on between the rows. I plant 
:,H' i lbs. potatoes to the acre. I use the best po- 
tatoes T can get. and cut them into pieces about 
an inch square, so as to get one eye ou each piece, 
plant in drills, about 12 inches apart, and run two 
furrows before dropping, as it is desirable to plant 
deep. I planted about three acres the Krst year. 
I sell them for 16 cents per pound. Deep plowing 
is much the best. Manure of any kind and ashes 
improve the ground and crop. I shall close by 
saying that I have been farming only two years. 
I should like to see an agricultural Journal of an 
high order established in this State. 

Columbus Cooper. 

From Mr. Brown's letter we quote the fol- 
lowing, and hope the example in regard to an 
Agricultural Society, will be followed by every 
county in the State : 

Speaking of preparing his grounds, be alludes 
to the fine native trees and shrubs which are 
fonnd in that vicinity, enumerating the Mancinito 
Fir, Redv. ood. White Pine, Black Walnut, Filbert. 
English Walnut, and lastly the Nutmeg, which 
was tec ntly found on the hills near the upper 
end of the valley. All these trees grow wild in 
our valley and the hills adjacent. In reference 
to the science of agriculture, he says — "I am now 
striving to organize an agricultural society in 
this county, and am confident of ultimate suc- 
cess. I have also a small but growing list of sub- 
scribers to the California Farm eh. We are 
waking up here, in regard to the interest of 
agriculture, and soon will set to work in earnest. 
Nature has done all we could possibly desire for 
Xapa Valley, and we hope to lend our efforts to- 
wards advancing the science of fanning." 



Better Times Coming. — To an old traveller 
it was quite gratifying to see the goodly number 
of passengers that were on there upward trip to 
Sacamento ou Saturday last. It looked like the 
good old times, when crowded boats and heavy 



Mokelumne Valley. — We were favored with 
a call from Mr. E. II. Lock a few days since, and 
was gratified with an account of the improving 
interest in farming which is manifesting itself in 
that part of the State. Mr. L. cultivates about 
200 acres of laud, which he says is very fertile, freights were the order of the day. There was 



and upon which he had raised large crops of po- 
tatoes. He had housed between five and six 
hundred, bushels of potatoes to the acre. He in- 
formed us that he planted corn in the latter part 
of July last, and that it produced an excellent 
crop. Grains were being raised in great abund- 
ance, and a fine flouring mill was in process of 
erection near his ranch. The proportion of till- 
able land was comparatively small, but from 
the general attention paid to farming, it would 
yield large supplies. An excellent market was 
found for all kinds of vegetables, affording a much 
larger profit on products than could be realized 
in the more extensive valleys. We would be very 
nmcli pleased to hear from Mr. Lock any future 
communications of general interest to farming. 



also a very handsome freight — about eighty tons. 
By the way, " that stove in the Ladies' Cabin" 
makes a fine appearance, besides, adding so much 
to the comfort of passengers. The steamer Con- 
fidence can now boast of having one of the most 
recherche Ladies' Cabins on the route. This 
steamer, with her splendid accommodations, her 
gentlemanly officers, and the attention given to 
make all happy offers extra inducement to travel. 



Correspondence of the Farmer. 
We make extracts from an interesting letter 
received from Mr. Cooper, high up in the mount- 
ains, and also one from Mr. Brown, in Napa 
Valley. These data are what we desire, for they 
give the practical operations of the greatest inter- 
est of California. We shall be happy at all times 
to hear from those interested, from ever)' part of 
the State. 

Oak Ranch, Sierra Cotwrr, ? 

-Near Downieville, Jan. 9, 1*>I. > 

Messrs. Editors; — Your Circular I received 
about the last of December. 

I have resided in this State three and a half 
years. I emigrated from the State of Maine. I 
occupy 040 acres of land, about 200 acres of 
which is woodland. The forest trees are Oak". 
Hard Pine, Sugar Pine, Fir, Hemlock, Pitch Pine, 
Cedar and Ash. My land is all pasturagf . ex- 
cept about ten acres, which I have under cultiva- 
tion, which will make about 030 acres, my wood- 
land being also pasturage. I planted 1,500 lbs. 
of potatoes and dug 17 tons. Fresh vegetables 
bring a high price here in the mountains. My 
cultivated land has netted more than §400 per 
acre the past season, but the quantity of land 
fit for cultivation is small, in comparison with 
the agregate. My place is in about 41 N. lat. ; I 
do not know the altitude, but it is at least 1500 
feet above the river at Downieville, and is five 
miles west of that place. The ground that I 
cultivate is a table land that makes out from a 
mountain which shelters it north and east, their 
tops being about 800 feet above it. There are 
also mountains north-west and west, but it is 
quite open towards the south and south-west. 
It was covered with a fine growth of thrifty oaks, 
from one foot to 20 inches in diameter at the butt, 
and from 75 to 100 feet high. This oak is dif- 
ferent from any I have noticed in the valley. It 
splits well and makes good pick helves and the 
best of firewood. My best soil is a black loam, 
eighteen inches deep, probably formed by a de- 
posit of oak leaves. The season for planting is 
from the 15th of April to the 20th of May : 
harvest October and November; irrigate from 
June to September this is indispenssble. I do 



Rural Cemeteries. 

This subject is awakening a due degree of in- 
terest in many of the States of our Union, and 
recently assumes a form that we are glad to note. 
That there has been in many Rural Cemeteries, 
that were commenced within the last ten years 
more of a desire to display wealth, to excite ad- 
miration and win fame, than a regard for true 
taste, or appropriate design, no one can doubt 
The huge obelisk, the capacious monumental 
tombs bearing upon their fronts histories and 
titles, none of which could live in memory, 
though recorded there. The fancy railings, glitter- 
ing with gold, with their fancy archways only 
speaking display : these surely are not in keeping 
with the "place of them that sleep." 

If the object of a Rural Cemetery be to make 
an exhibition of works of art. we might approve 
such display ; but a P.urul Cemetery is a place for 
the burial of the dead, and while we would desire 
to take from it all that superstitions, fear and 
dread connected with the grave, we would throw 
around it everything of a softening and hallo 
influence, and would desire that every work of 
art placed on or around a grave, every tomb, obelisk, 
cenotaph, or any other token whatever, that it 
should be chaste, beautiful and strictly in keep- 
ing with the place and the object. There should 
be a perfect harmony in taste and design ; nature 
should be copied, and everything in a Rural 
Cemetery should, in the strictest sense, be har- 
monious. 

We arc led to these remarks from noticing the 
efforts making to establish a Rural Cemetery near 
San Francisco. We trust when this plan is com- 
menced it will not be done hastily. Everything 
depends upon a right beginning. The place 
should be appropriate, both in location and char- 
acter in the designing of the grounds; the proper 
grouping of the trees, for light and shade ; the 
character of the soil. These and many other con- 
siderations render it highly importantthat a work 
of this kind should not be commenced too hastily. 
An error in the commencement in the original 
designing may forever destroy the finest locality 
and the best natural scenery. 

There is an appropriateness in design for the 
* home of the dead," that when duly regarded will 
strike every beholder with a feeling of reverence, 
and chastened sadness, and which will do more to 
disarm death of his terror, and prepare men to 
five better, than all the costly mausoleums and 
stately monuments that wealth can raise. 

We trust ere long to see the commencement of 
a Rural Cemetery at some proper place near San 
Francisco, and then we do hope that in this great 
age of progress, we shall have an evidence that 
California has not been slow in performing a por- 
tion of her duty. 



The Tule Lands. 

We publish to day the annexed communication 
from an active friend of Agriculture and Horticul- 
ture, a member of the Assembly, and we are truly 
gratified to know that a subject of such vast 
moment is awakening the attention of our legis- 
lators. 

We invite all to give us the experiments that 
have been made, and the detail of them. We are 
among those who believe that our " Tule Lands" 
are among our most valuable lands, and would 
most respectfully suggest to the honorable Senate 
and Assembly the offering a generous bounty to 
those who should reclaim a certain quantity and 
bring it into cultivation. We would suggest also 
that the State cause survej's of these lands, and 
that they be set apart in large tracts, with proper 
appropriations and bounties to such as are dis- 
posed to take charge of them, under special acts 
for their recovery. Wc are confident that the 
day is not far distant when some of the finest 
plantations of the world will have been made 
from the soil redeemed from our now waste Tule 
Lands. 

We shall continue the subject, and ask the co- 
operation of all interested. We are ready to aid 
to the utmost of our humble abilities in this great 

work. 

Assembly Chamber, Renicia, \ 
February 1o\ 1*54. J 

Messrs. Editors. — The subject of the Tule or 
overflowed lands in this State, and the imperative 
-iiy of devising some wise and general sys- 
tem for the reclamation of the same, has for a long 
time attracted the attention of all those citizens 
of our State, who look forward with hopeful eye 
to the time when California will be as celebrated 
for its agricultural beauty and wealth as it now is 
for the immensity of its mineral resources. 

I have long been desirous that the present 
Legislature should take the initiatory in tiiis im- 
portant work, but am barred at the outset by an 
uncertainty as to the most advisable course to 
adopt. 

It is a matter which, in connection with all the 
egricultural interests of this State, has commanded 
your almost entire consideration, and upon which 
you must have collected a mass of information 
which will doubtless be of great value to the 
entire State, if property brought before the Legis- 
lature. I therefore write to you, desiring your 
assistance, both from your own personal informa- 
tion, and through the columns of the Farmer 
towardsenliohteiiiugallupon this subject. Know- 
ing your earnest desire to advance the permanent 
prosperity of this State, by placing it upon the 
sure foundation of agricultural wealth. I make 
this request without hesitation. 

I am happy to inform you that the Assembly 
have evinced their interest in the advancement of 
this great branch of industry, by directing the 
scrgeant-at-arms to furnish each member with your 
invaluable agricultural paper. I hope to see the 
Senate " go and do likewise," then we may anti- 
cipate the commencement of enlightened legisla- 
tion for the advancement of our farming interests. 
I am, with great respect, yours, 
Humphrey Griffith. 



Big Potatoes. — We elip the following from 
an Eastern exchange — they are boasting of po- 
tatoes weighing 2 lbs. ; what would they say to 
look at some of our small Inters, only weighing 
4. 5, G and 8 lbs. each : 

The editor of the Syracuse Union has seen a 
potato which measures 12 inchss in iength, and 
weighs 2 lbs. When dug up it weighed more, 
but has decreased by drying. Thirty such po- 
tatoes would make a bushel, and a thousand 
would make a tolerable load for a pair of horses. 



Public Documents. — We are under obliga- 
tions to Hon. Senator Gwinn, and Hon. M. S. 
Latham, for valuable Congressional Papers, of 
great interest. 

Also, to Hon. n. Griffith, of our State Legisla- 
ture, for interesting matters from our own State, 
and particularly for his bringing the subject of 
our " Tule Lands " before us. For his deep in- 
terest in the cause of Agriculture, and for the 
opportunity now offered of laying the most im- 
portant data weekly before our Legislative bodies, 
we are pleased and grateful, and shall endeavor 
to bring the most urgent duties relative to Agri- 
culture immediate^ forward, feeling assured our 
Senators and Representatives are ever desirous of 
watching with solicitude this great source of 
wealth. 



Th b Board of Land Commissioners have decided 
the Peralta Case in favor of claimants. 



Report of Ladies' Committee. — The report 
of the Ladies' Committee will be read with inter- 
est. The various specimens of their skill and 
taste, as exhibited at the late Fair, have won the 
admiration of thousands, and we have now the 
pleasure of reading their report, and we learn that 
the prizes are in the process of engraving and 
will be awarded shortly, with all due honor to 
the fair winners. The time will be duly an- 
nounced. 



We have received from a lady, over the signa- 
ture of " F." an interesting communication relative 
to the " Homes." " Flora." etc., of California, and 
shall give it a place in our next number. We 
shall ever be glad to hear from our fair friends, 
and will give them the best attention. 

Salti.ng Plum Trees. — For many years I 
have salted my plul , id had targe crops of 

fruit, but last winter I omitted to salt the trees. 
excepting three, and the consequence was that I 
had no plums excepting on the trees that 1 salted, 
which confirms me that the only sure way to get 
a crop of plums is to put salt around the trees in 
the winter. About four quarts is sufficient for a 
tree: put it around in a circle about a foot from 
the tree. Any time in January or February will 
do, without regard to snow being on the ground. 

Report of the Coinmittee 

OX EMBROIDERY, PAINTINGS, AND WORKS OF ART, 
EXHIBITED IN WARREN & SOK ? 8 ANNUAL, FAIR, 
MUSICAL HALL BUILDING. 

Gentlemen : The undersigned, in behalf of the 

amittee of Ladies appointed to examine the 

Embroideries. Paintings, Works of Art, etc, which 

were exhibited in the Hall, having attended to 

that duty, beg leave to make the following report: 

The Committee, desirous to recognize all the 
various articles exhibited in the Hall, would here- 
by briefly name them in. the order in which they 
were received, and in the examinations endeavor 
to give to all of merit, such notice as the occasion 
will permit in the time the Committee can devote 
to each. 

The Committee congratulate the lovers of 
science, art, and taste, on the evidence before them 
in the magnificent specimens of the handiwork 
of those of our own sex, feeling assured that we 
have in California all the material, in mind, will 
disposition, to advance and elevate the condition 
of society, by such evidences, and exhibitions of 
them. There were received— 

From airs. J. Shannon, San Francisco — one 
Boquet of worsted wrought flowers, excellently 
well executed, and in fine taste. 

From Miss Bourne, a young girl, San Francisco 
— one Embroidered Lamp Stand, very neat. 

From Mrs. Win. King. Marysviiie — the Hacks 
and Arms for two arm chairs; the Seat for one 
chair; one Smoking Cap, embroidered velvet : 
one Infant's Embroidered Shawl. 

From Mrs. S. II. -Meeker, San Francisco — one 
piece Embroidery, in worsted — design. Moses with 
the decalogue. 

From Mrs. S. S. Simonds. San Francisco — one 
embroidered Cricket ; two do. Ottomans ; one and 
do. cricket, cherries and crapes wrought expressly 
for the exhibition ot Is 53. 

From Mrs. Waldo, San Francisco — one Em- 
broidered Couch : one Embroidered Easy Chair; 
one Embroidered Bug. 

From Mrs. Dr. Obcr, San Francisco, one Lamp- 
mat. 

From Mrs. Emerson, San Francisco, one pair 
Embroidered Suspend 

From Mrs. L. M. Pluimner — a Monochromatic 
Drawing. 

From Mrs. Croghan — one piece. Embroidery 
iijion white Naples silk ; one piece, Flowers em- 
broidered on white satin. 



1j).j ^jUilys-ji-'ifl 



§mwuw< 



43 



From Miss Mary B. Patch, S .—two 

emeus, iii frames, "I Cher, 

From Mrs. lb Norcross. San Francisco — one 

Rich Regalia, with white ground ; six pieces 

colored Kegalis of the higher orders of 

Masons. 

From Miss Elizabeth C. Hunt, Sim Francisco — 
one Wrought Lamp M.it. 

From Mrs. Christian Scriber, San Francisco- 
one Boqnet Artificial Flowers — excellent; one 
Jerusalem Cherry 'five — very perfect ; one 
"Wreath in silver ti& 

From Miss Lucy Ticnvcs, San Francisco — one 
Pencil Sketch, winter scene — a delicate and ad- 
mirable design! and indicates skill and taste. 
From Mrs. .I.K Kollinson. San Francisco— one 
Picture in Worsted Embroidery, a scene 
from the opera of the " Bohemian Girl." This 

nork was commenced in New York in 1852, and 

completed in this city in II 

From Mrs. Harvey S. Brown, San Francisco 
one Embroidered Chair Back. 

From Mrs. F. 1'. Medina, Sacramento — one 
piece of superb Shell Work, representing a vase 
of flowers. 

From Mr. Boston, of Monterey — cards of Sea 
Mosses, from the shore of California, arranged 
with great taste ; Shells, and one Whale's Tooth 

From Mr. James E. Wolf, San Francisco — one 
basket Flowers, made of a piece of colored cam 
brie, upon white ground. 

From Mrs. Helen W. Williams, Santa Cruz- 
Sea Mosses, collected and arranged at Monterey, 
formed into baskets of flowers, 

From Mrs. A. A. Selover, San Francisco — one 
bracket embroidered in Worsted ; a rich group of 
Flowers, in fine keeping. 

Miss Rude, Sacramento — embroidered Watch 
Case. 

From Miss E. Barney, Sacramento — box of 
Wax Flowers, admirably executed. 

From Mrs. Mary A. Phillips, Boston, Mass. 
a silk patch Bed Quilt, containing 9,500 pieces. 

From Mrs. Geo. Melius, San Francisco — a Hair 
Wreath, composed of hair from the members of 
their family, from infancy to age. 

From Mrs. G. W. Rugglcs, San Francisco — one 
wrought Cambric Collar. 

From Miss E. V. Furst, San Francisco — two 
pieces Embroidery on perforated cards. 

From Miss Agnes Wilson, San Francisco 
small Embroidery in frames. 

From Mrs. A. N. Comstock, San Francisco- 
one large splendid piece of Embroidery, measuring 
2 feet 5 inches, 3 feet 2 inches wide — an English 
Hunting Scene; one Boquet Flowers on white 
satin. 

From Miss Ann Wormer, San Francisco — one 
basket Artificial Fruit, Cherries and Blackberries. 
The form and grouping of the fruits were excel 
lent, but the coloring altogether too black, taking 
away the natural look of the fruit. 

From Miss Anna Thcllar. San Francisco — one 
box Wax Flowers; lilly, rose, dahlias. Sc, very 
beautiful, 

From Mrs. J. P. Meakings. San Francisco — two 
pieces Embroidery ; a pair Chair Seals, very rich. 

From Mis. Harvey S. Brown, San Francisco- 
two Paintings in Oil, a woodland scene and 
moonlight scene — good de igr 

From Miss M. E. Ileal! J , Sacramento — a Piano 
Cover, richly embroidered on drab broadcloth. 

From Mrs. Danberg, San Frat oni Head 

work Cricket ; one Beadwork Cushion -, one < Sloes 

or Statuary Stand — beautiful. 

From Miss Anna .Maria Kortkampf, Mokelumno 
Hill — one piece Hair Work, in the form of a 
basket of Mowers — a work of great taste. 

From Mrs. M. P. Benton— two Oil Mb 
the Child and Land) and a Landscape 
and of very high order. 

From Mrs. Mct'ann San Francisco — two Paint 
ngs, one of ft uits and the other of Sowers — correct 
and highly finished. 

From Mrs. T. A. Hughs, San Francisco — one 
Water Color Drawing, execul land in 

1847. 

From Mrs. J. 1'. Havens, San I 
Bonnett, made from the leaves of the southern 
pine, from the Old State. 

From Mis Bates, San Francisco — averyneatli 
emi'iofdcrcd Hoys Jacket; four Embroidered 
Tooth] i 

From Mrs Bennetl — two pica 
broadcloth — well 

The Committee having enumerated all the 
specimens exhibited, would proceed to the 

aw a i: ns: 

The Comn « careful examination of 

all the material points to he decided, have :iv 

To Mrs. Cp 
Premier Prixo, a silver cup, gold mounted, valued 

- men exhibited bj Mrs. Croghan 

Upon white 
satin i semi- 

circle of flow nature, the work 

disphvj ition. 

The splendid piece of Embroidery npin white 
satin executed by Mrs. of San Fran- 

tection or Boquet of the 
richest 
work, in the 
particularly the - 

rard to 
Mrs. Comstock tin Second Pi 
- £ 

i 
un 

euted by Miss V 
great I 

and i huh 

I 

first rhMcKMOMd entitled. The Comniittw 



deem it worthy a special prize, and award to it a 
first class silver medal, 

A beautiful piece of embroidery by Mrs. S. II. 
Meeker, of San Francisco, represents the loadci 

of the Israelites with the "]'. in his 

hands and the broken tablets of stone at bis feet. 
The position of his people around tin [real lav 
giver, and the indignation expressed in the fea- 
tures of Moses, towards his idolatrous foil-: - 

triking, and I tie ou] - ■ and coloring 
of the whole picture is so life-like that the Com- 
mittee award to it a special prize of a first class 
silver medal. 

The Committee notice also with pride the ad- 
mirable piece of embroidery by Mrs. J. It. Kollin- 
son, of San Francisco— a sketch from the '■ Bohem- 
ian Girl — (he exquisite taste and colors, and the 
excellence of finish, deserve the high considera- 
tion of Committee, and a medal. 

The "English Hunting Scene," a large and 
magnificent piece of embroidery, by Mrs Corn- 
stock, was the admiration of the Committee for the 
beauty of design and the elegance of the finish 
and was an equal match to the " Bohemian Girl," 
in merit, and in the minds of the Committee 
worthy of especial notice, and a medal. 

An embroidered Cricket, Stool and Bracket, of 
bead work, in blue and white, by Mrs. Danburg, 
of San Francisco, evinced labor and taste, and 
particularly deserved notice. 

Mrs. King, of Marysville, exhibited three pieces 
of embroidery — two arm chair backs and one seat, 
and a hunting cap. all most beautifully wrought, 
and deserving especial notice, and the Committee 
award a special prize of a first class Silver Medal. 

A perfect and beautiful collection of Wax 
Fruits, true to nature ; the work of Miss Abb'ie A. 
Warren, deserve very great credit, and a medal, 

A case of Shell Work, by Mrs. Medina, won the 
admiration of all the Committee. 

Beautiful Sea Mosses, in cases and on card, 
reflect credit for their wonderful perfection, 
and Mrs. Boston and Mrs Williams, who are the 
manufacturers of these gems, deserve commenda- 
tions especial for the introduction of these pleasing 
productions. To each lady a prize medal is 
awarded. 

The sisters of " Rose Cottage" exhibited a 
beautiful and unique design of a cottage and 
grounds within a glass case. The cottage was 
excellent in design and admirable in taste, ami 
suitable for our own Eureka State. The grounds, 
walks and lakes, as laid down in the design, are 
beautiful, and the Committee look forward to the 
day when our own State will be dotted over in all 
her shining rallies with " homes" made beautiful 
without and happy within, by the appliances of 
arts and science in aid of nature. A special 
award to the sisters of Rose Cottage of a first class 
silver medal. 

A handsome water colored drawing, of fruit 
groupetl in vase, from Mrs. T. A. Hughes, was 
- te< -1 by the Committee worthy a prize medal. 

Madam Waldo exhibited, Embroidered Couch. 

Easy Chair and Rug— most superbly excel, I ed.col- 

oring rich, design perfect. The Committee award 

a special prize. 

Mrs. Havens exhibited a Bonnet made from the 
Southern pine leaf— a very handsome specimen ol 
oik. To this the Committee' award • 
medal. 

A Hoy's Jacket, by Mrs. Bat much 

admired for il taste. 

A most perfectly beautiful specimen of art and 
taste was exhibited bj M 
Boqui . i the hair of all i 

family, from the silken 
infant to the silvery lock 

i of affection. Th 

award a sp.vial prize, a medal. 

The Committee, in examining the 

1 skill. And it very dill: 
merits Of many j 

majority of 
within the rule entitling them to prl 
Ing been prepared for the Exhibit 

Committee have been 1 
Warren c. Son. w 1 
the disposal 

The ■■ White Lilly," l- -y, a water- 

I drawing. '- 
the admiration of the Committee, an 

littee award a special prize of lir- 

A \>ry beautiful Hum- 

mer. "A Gothic Church ;" a - 

dal. 
Mrs. '- 

Committee deem it worthy a n 

Mrs. Maria 

ed Crayon I 
Committee, and a q 






■;d the 






hen thev tr 



asteas 

iah u submit-. 

Haicht. 

-U Mac-OS DBAY. 



Hon, M. S. Latham. 
We take pleasure in layi before our readers 
bho eloquent words* of the gentleman named 

before the Ho - Washington, D. C. 

The opportunity was a most fitting ono, and nobly 

li is he acquitted himself. Tin- citizens of Sacra 
mento county may well be proud of their Repre- 
sentative: 

Mr. Latham said — Mr. Speaker: Gratitude for 
the kindness of & friend, as well as reverence for 
the greatness of a man, prompt me to unite my 
stranger voice with yours in this mournful re- 
quiem for the departed. And if an apology be 
needed, that thus early 1 claim your attention. 
let it be enough to say that, from the lips now 
cold and fixed, and the voice now hushed in death, 
came first the encouraging words of counsel and 
incentive, the gentle tones of sympathy and feel- 
ing that have placed me to-day, among you. I 
could leave to the gentlemen who have preceded 
me, and to the quiet meditation of my own heart, 
the retrospect of his irreproachable life, and the 
rehearsal of the noble principles that he so long 
and firmly advocated, were it not that over every 
mountain and valley, every plain and ravine of 
California, are scattered thick the adopted homes 
of Alabamians, who while the memories of their 
childhood are fresh, or the graves of their fathers 
green, can never fail, with you, to remember the 
life of the statesman with exultation, or forget 
to mourn the death of the good man with sym- 
pathetic expression. How natural, then, that I 
should turn your attention to a few pages in the 
history of a man, who has filled every place, but 
one. to which the ambition of an American citi- 
zen may aspire, and has filled all with distin- 
guished credit to himself and honor to the coun- 
try. 

William Rufus King was a noble specimen of 
an American statesman and gentleman. The in- 
timate friend of John C. Calhoun, and the cotem- 
porary of Webster, Clay, Cass, and Benton, he 
maintained a proud position in the Senate of the 
United States, by his strong, practical good sense 
his experience and wisdom as a legislator, the 
acknowledged rectitude of his intentions, and that 
uniform urbanity of manner which marked, nol 
so much flic man of conventional breeding, as the 
true gentleman at heart. He was no sophist to 
himself, and hence it was that he was truthful 
and sincere to all the world. His course in the 
Senate was considerate and dignified, He never 
to the impulse of the moment ; but made his 
tongue wait upon his judgment. He never knew 

h ! ii was to speak, act, or legislate by indirec- 
tion, lie was frank and loyal to his colleagues, 
ii in- was dei . .. :■ State, ami sincerely 

attached to the I'nion. Is it a wonilcr hen that 
d to every word that fell from 

his lips; that bis voice -. -[ whenever it 

-if his conntrj 

It is said that during a primary meeting held 
us into which the first I 
National Convention was, divided, one of the men 

who afterwards pi. ns part in 

history, spoke but a few words, and these without 

einph:. 

-luecl. were instantly adopted. 

lie possessed the genius of character; l 

rid, and produced oonviotionln 
It is this peculiar " genius - I 

which 

1 pro- 
principles which le 

111 all that 

him individually, Mr. Ki- 






ll, wh 



or nearly all the compromise measures as .i 

of devotion lo the National Union, will 
rendering a single cardinal point of th 
faith which had guided him through lie ,d 

secured to him the affection and' ati 
the citizens of his own State. The m« 
tant even! in his political historj . n a 
represented the United States in the ( ourl oi 
France during a most interesting and excil n 
period, li was well known that the Governments 
of England and France, severally and jointly op 
posed the annexation of Texas' io the American 
Union, and that similar instructions had been 
given by these Governments to their respeel 
Ministers in Washington and Texas. These in- 
structions were, no doubt, intended to be used 
with diplomatic effect ; neither party seeming at 
the lime willing to proceed to extremities. Mr. 
King, true to his American character, and to the 
generous instincts of his nature, did not plunge 
into the labyrinth of European diplomacy, lie 
had nothing to disguise, nothing to withhold, 
nothing to ask for that was not just ; and with 
the straight-forwardness and dignity which ought 
to characterize an American Minister abroad, at 
once demanded of the King himself a frank avow- 
al of his intentions. Louis Philippe might have 
been prepared to evade the artful approaches of a 
Talleyrand or a Richelieu ; but he had no means 
of refusing to answer a plain question, honestly 
proposed by a Minister, whoso official rank did 
not add the weight of a feather to the volume of 
his private character. Mr. King received the de- 
sired reply as to the final course the French Gov- 
ernment meant to adopt should Texas be an- 
nexed, and became at once satisfied that our re- 
lations with France could not be disturbed by the 
event. The King's reply was reported to Mr. 
Calhoun, then Secretary of State, and the annex- 
ation was accomplished, without, even a protest 
from any European Power. Subsequently, when 
the correspondence was published, .Mr. Guiiot, 
then the Premier, attempted to raise a question of 
veracity between himself and Mr. King, in regard 
to the reply given by Louis Philippe to our rep- 
resentative in Paris. Bill such was the character 
for honesty and truth he had established lor him- 
self during his short residence in the French cap- 
ital, and such (he suspicions with which Mr. 
Guizot's acts were viewed by the French public, 
that there was not a single French paper which 
dared lo doubt the word of our Minister; and 
the aspersion was only translated from an English 
paper, ami published in the French Government 
journal. The object was merely to justify the 
policy of Fiance as against England J but our 
Minister's straightforward course put an end to 
that subterfuge, lie demanded, as a gentleman, 
that the King should respect the uranci given 
him in regard to Texas; and the King did respei 
it. and Mr. GuizOl furnished a copy of it in Writing 

to Mr. King. Thus did not only our Government 

but the person of our Miniate. 

triumph over the siniiouscourse of European poli- 
tics and statesmen. 

Pending this controversy.it is said, .Mr. Guizot 
attempted to assuago Mr. King, by assuring him 
that "he had often been told that he (Gl 
ied." To which Mr. King modestly replied, 
that "Ae had never I Frenchapj 

ciation of sarcasm had no difficulty in discovering 

ly. T 

tion to bring forward, and advance the ton 
. up in life. 1 have 

i- I' ron and client. It wa 

li determined tin 

behold t( K . 















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44 



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THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



JOHN F. MORSE, EDITOR. 



sax Fiaxasco- 
Thursday, February 9, 1854. 



Beard's Ranch, Jan. 23. "54-. 
No inclemency of weather could unfit a man 
for appreciating the beauties that surround this 
and the farm we have just left. Nature has done 
so much to adorn, to embellish and beautify, that 
there seems very little necessity for invoking the 
powers of art. And yet art has not been idle 
about the old Mission of San Jose. TJnder the 
supervision of Mr. Beard, who is alike distin- 
guished with his friend and partner Mr. Horner, 
the old Mission has been rescued from a process 
of decay, and converted into an elysium of hus- 
bandry. The old adobe walls, instead of reflect- 
ing a dingy and doubtful hospitality, have been 
transformed by art into the representatives of an 
improved masonry, and the echoing mediums of 
a happy and refined society. Indeed, there is 
something so irresistably comfortable in the mo- 
dernized old adobe mansions of California, that 
we almost incline to the opinion that they are 
peculiarly if not almost essentially adapted to our 
seasons and climate. In the sultry and oppressive 
days of summer, they are ever cool, and in the 
humid, cold intervals of winter, they are as cosy 
and comfortable as the spirit of case and indul- 
gence could desire. 

Such were our reflections upon entering and 
enjoying for a brief season the home of Mr 
Beard. He lives in a part of the adobe buildir.f. 
erected by the founders of the Mission, and has 
done and is doing so much in the way of modern- 
izing the premises, that one could scarcely recog- 
nize the sombre walls of 1797. But it was not 
alone the physical transformations of the place 
that gave interest to our visit and imprinted a 
most agreeable reflection upon our minds. 

It was to feel that one was sharing the hospital- 
ity of another hero in farming, one who could talk 
as quietly over a crop of 250,000 bushels of pota- 
toes as if he had been but pruning a few grape 
vines before breakfast, or peradventure but just 
concluding a few carelessly delivered orders to an 
awkward plough-hoy for the day. "We could not 
avoid, perhaps, an almost imprudent observation 
of men who in so short a time had reared such 
magnificent superstructures of fame and indepen- 
dence as Messrs. Horner and Beard have already 
achieved; men of such peculiar combinations of 
character as to go to every extreme of enterprise 
without committing a mistake in judgment ; men 
who could so rapidly enlarge the sphere and detail 
of their operations without appearing to increase 
the aggregate of labor that devolved upon them- 
selves. But wc think we saw in both of these 
gentlemen an explanation of their success which 
they could not, if they wished, conceal. They 
are men of steady habits, stern and inflexible 
purposes, clear and quick business perceptions, 
infinite and exact method, honorable and equita- 
hle in feelings. This we believe to be a true con- 
densation of those traits of character which have 
placed them amongst the grandest members of the 
noble science of farming. 

Mr. Beard, too, is not only at home in the cul- 
tivation of thousands of acres of land every season 
but he is peculiarly at home as a husband, father 
and neighbor. He seems to be quite as successful 
in his cultivation of the moral graces of a refined 
and lovely household, as in the raising of grains 
and vegetables, or the cultivation of fruits and 
flowers that adorn his farm and gardens. But no 
man could work with greater facilities in con- 
structing a warm and comfortable fireside, than 
E. L. Beard, Esq., of the old San Jose Mission. 
As we did not sit down, however, to write a treat- 
ise upon farmers' wives and daughters, wc must 
be satisfied with the general declaration that Mrs. 
B. and her accomplished daughter could conveni- 
ently make a much less comfortable refuge a most 
felicitous home. 

Mr. B. informed us that he contemplated culti- 
vating about 2.500 acres the coming season, and, 
like most of those who are engaged in extensive 
farming, he will devote the principal part of his 
attention and labor to the raising of grains. He 
is also paying particular attention to the cultiva- 
tion of fruit trees, and, if we mistake not, will be 
one of the foremost men in producing rich and 
luscious fruits, in a few years from this time. Cer- 
tainly no two men can be found who deserve more 
consideration and renown than Messrs. Horner 
and Beard. i. f. m. 

The Lecture on Agriculture, delivered by Dr. 
H. M. Gray, published in to-day's Farmer, will 
richly repay an attentive perusal. 



Idfci s vs. Loafers. 

The frequent notices made of idlers, loafers, 
Arc. is a subject that should be regarded with 
more than a more word, a note, or a subject for 
an item. It is trae there are a vast number oi 
persons that haw no employment, that in the 
strict sense of that word are not " idlers." They 
are unemployed, wot from choice, but from cir- 
cumstances beyorfd their control. 

There are also a large number of idlers to which 
the name of "loafers" is a very appropriate name. 
They are idle, because they prefer to be so ; they 
are drones in the hive, and they loaf from place 
to place, living upon those who are too good na- 
tured to drive them away, or not independent or 
fearless enough to advise, counsel or rebuke the 
sluggards as they need. 

The first class deserve the kind aid and sym- 
pathy of every generous heart — " every heart 
knows its own bitterness," and it would be a most 
difficult matter, and oft a painful one to dive 
down into the causes which may have operated to 
change the condition of a man from the once 
active and profitable engagements of business, to 
the now listless and painful duty of perambulat- 
ing our streets from morn till night, seeking some 
honorable way to sustain himself. Let us keep 
in mind that in California all our principal cities 
have been devastated by fire, and many swept by 
floods. Many a business man has seen the hope 
of years perish in a night. Upon all our rivers 
the cultivators have been heavy losers, oft and 
again. The miner has seen his brightest pros- 
pects swept from his sight by the raging torrent 
pouring down from the mountains, and the adver- 
sity that followed upon all classes has often 
broken the courage, destroyed the energy, and al- 
most filled the bravest heart with despair ; and 
those who have seen brighter days, have been 
numbered among those whom a cold world call 
" Idlers." This is not just, for the calamities that 
meet us in California are not those ordinarily 
sent unto men ; and it is not just to wound the 
sensitive one by the epithet of the idle, because 
he cannot bear a load of crushing weight. 

Some men may endure heroically all that ad- 
verse fate may heap upon them ; others sink under 
them dispirited, and to such a generous sympathy 
or helping hand should be extended, for this may 
again revive the latent spark, and kindle into life 
that energy which coldness and neglect would 
destroy forever. 

The second class to which we allude, we have 
but little sympathy for, and they deserve but 
little. Like the " drone in the hive," they would 
live by others' labor, and in California there are 
always opportunities for such, and we regret to 
say they seem to fatten. Like the vampyrc, how- 
ever, they draw the stream of life away steadily, 
and death is sure to follow, either to the indi- 
vidual or community to which they fasten. 

There are many kinds of loafers. The genteel 
loafer, who enters your house, throws down his 
hat and cane, seats himself by your fireside, dines 
with you, sups with you, lodges with you, and all 
too, unbidden. Not content with this, he takes 
your horse from the stable, or your carriage, rides 
at his pleasure, and perchance may think he is 
honoring you by his company. 

Then there is the ' : hanger-on loafer," one who 
has fallen a peg from his genteel scale. His brass 
having become a little tarnished, he descends a 
little from his bright career, and hangs around 
your dwelling or place of business to catch an 
opportunity to make himself at " home for din- 
ner," or for a lunch. He reads your papers, 
smokes your cigars, listens to your business mat- 
ters, looks over your shoulder while writing, and 
makes familiar tattle with your intimate friends; 
and that too after has he received hints enough 
his place is better than his company. 

The last we shall name is the " dangerous 
loafer." He once occupied the loafer's highest 
seat ; but he has fallen, step by step, until he is 
now nearly shut out of every decent business 
place, nis rank laziness has grown upon him, 
until he is willing to sleep upon the floor, and 
this he docs that he may gather the crumbs that 
lay about, cither to eat, to drink or wear ; and at 
last he passes the rubicon, and is too unsafe to be 
permitted entrance where property is exposed 

This kind of loafers arc now becoming too 
numerous in our community, and from even this 
low condition, they unite and form a power that 
works in the dark ; they are everwhere around in 
the bye places to watch the strangers and the 
unwary, that they may fleece them ; and this 
kind of loafers are those who now arc day b}' day 
added to the cells of our prisons. They once oc- 
cupied higher ground, and it is for the purpose of 
making the proper distinction between the " un- 



fortunate, unemployed man," and the " vagabond 
loafer," that we have thus been led on in these 
remarks. The one needs and demands the sym- 
pathies of every generous heart; the other, the 
scorn and contempt of tire industrious and enter- 
prising, everywhere. 

We trust we shall ever see the proper terms 
applied in each instance, until the first are again 
prospered and happy, and the latter reformed or 
punished. Then, and not till then, will our com- 
munity be rid of idlers and loafers of every kind. 
Peregrine. 



Agricultural College for California. 

It will be recollected that in our first number 
we published the ' ; Memorial to Congress," asking 
for an appropriation to endow the same upon a 
liberal scale. Such a one as would be worthy o 
great nation. "We are most happy to announce 
to the readers of the Farmer, and to all who feel 
an interest in a subject of such importance, that 
our Senators arc acting with that promptness that 
characterises them as firm friends to the interests 
of our State. 

We give the following as the action of the Sen- 
ate of the United States, at its sitting Dec. 13th : 
The early and prompt action, and the unani- 
mous reception by the Senate of the memorial 
gives an assurance that we may hope for some 
action by Congress during this session. 

U. S. Senate, Dec. 13, 1853. 

Senator Weller — I beg leave to present the 
memorial of Warren & Son, and other intelligent 
and enterprising citizens of California, praying 
for the endowment, by general Government, of an 
Agricultural College in the State of California, 
upon a permanent basis, with ample means to 
sustain the necessary professors of the several 
branches of the science. 

I move the memoriul be referred to the Com- 
mittee on Agriculture. Referred unanimously. 

'■THE Angel among the Flowers." — We 
commend the beautiful poem on the last page of 
today's paper. It was originally prepared for the 
Annual Festival and Horticultural display in the 
" old cradle of Liberty," in Boston, and was re- 
cited in 1845. 



How to Raise Sqxiashes. — Mr. A. Holman 
gives the following directions in the N. E. Farm- 
er, for raising the marrow squash : — 

When I have planted my squash seods after 
the following rule, I have never failed of having 
been well paid for my labor, viz: — Dig the holes 
sixteen or eighteen inches deep, three feet broad 
and seven feet apart ; throw the top soil on one 
side, and the bottom soil on the other side of the 
holes. After digging as many holes as I wish to 
plant hills, I return the top soil to the bottom of 
the holes, and then take one bushel or more of 
well pulverized manure, one peck leached ashes. 
for each hill, and with a spade or shovel mix well 
together from top to bottom. Then plant the 
seeds, leaving the top of the hills level with the 
surface of the ground, and keep so during the 
season. When they are up, and the bugs have 
done troubling them, thin out, leaving two or 
three stocks in each hill, which will cover the 
ground before the summer is ended. 

Wheat in England. 

There is no labor in respect to which an Eng- 
lish fanner is more careful than in the preparation 
of Wheal for sowing. It is a prevailing opiuion 
that without the usual method there adopted, smut 
is generated; and from observations I have made, 
I am diaposed to think there is some foundation 
for that idea. Salt, lime, or ashes, with stiong 
lev. are articles generally used. These are mixed 
with the grain the evening before, that the wheat 
may be well saturated with them by the next day, 
when taken into the field. 

In selecting grain for sowing, great attention is 
paid to the cleanliness and quality of it, and it is 
not often that a farmer will sow the same stock 
above two or three years. White wheat is con- 
siderably grown, which is a beautiful thin-skinned 
delicate berry, and much prized by millers, but it 
is a most difficult thing to keep it from becoming 
mixed with other grain. It is generally grown on 
poor soils, or upon lands that have lain fallow 
during the summer season, and always brings a 
lower price in market. The flour is of a darker 
color, and the berry larger than that of other 
wheat. There is a species of black oat grown 
there, and to preserve free from a mixture of 
white, great pains are taken. We have known a 
farmer have his seed picked over by hand, that he 
might have it pure Plow, Loom and Anvil. 

Good and Bad Work. — A farmer, says Cole, 
dismissed a hand because, in his absence, he set 
only nine trees in a daj . The farmer set out the 
remaining 91 of the hundred himself the next day. 
The result was, that the nine bore more fruit the 
first year of bearing than all the others. 

Yellow Butter in Winter. — Wc observe 
different expedients for this purpose, and among 
the rest, putting in the yolks of eggs just before 
the coagulation of the butter in churning, this 
may be good ; but the best way we have found 
is, to put a peck of carrots — not into the churn, 
but — into the cow's stomach every morning and 
evening. 



Lecture on Agriculture. 

BY DR. II. M. GRAY. 

Delivered in the Musical Hail, Nov. 5, 1 853. 

Our lots have been cast in a land, upon which 
is indelibly impressed the seal of greatness. Na- 
ture here and now assumes her grandest attri- 
butes, and conducts her manifold processes upon a 
scale of magnificence to which the history of the 
world aflbrds no parallel. Out of her large heart 
and from her bounteous hand, she aflbrds, with 
more than tropical luxuriance, sustenance and 
plenty for all the children of her care. 

Glance over the wide extent of territory em- 
braced within the boundaries of our State, — sur- 
vey the broad and fertile valleys, inexhaustible in 
the richness of their soil, and fed by streams 
whose waters shall, at no distant day, like the 
Egyptian Nile, plant myriad germs of growth and 
beauty, and impart increased capacities for devel- 
opment from the mountains to the sea ; study the 
gigantic forms of vegetable growth — those old 
patrician trees, chronicling those centuries of eld, 
upon which rests the seal of eternal silence ; ob- 
serve, too, the adamantine nails and ledges of 
rocks, those great stone-books of nature, from 
whose disintegration this se-il, so truly marvellous 
in its capacities, was formed ; take in also, with a 
large vision the broad features of our landscapes, 
our mountains mantled with eternal snow, their' 
summits battling ever with the angry clouds, the 
home of the storm winds and the eyrie of the 
condor and the eagle, whose screams accord most 
nobly with the deep monotone of the tempest 
stricken pines ; look at the broad valleys sleeping 
at their bases in the warm sunlight, gladdened 
with the rejoicing gush of springs, and smiling 
in perennial verdure ; our bays, stretching away 
from the sea, into the rich core of the State's 
heart ; the greensward, brilliant with flowers, 
whose glorious hues outrival the looms of Tyre, 
whereon angels might tread with joy, forgetful 
erewhile of the "rivers of living waters" and 
" the golden streets," and the pure chrystalline 
air, resting upon the bosom of the land like a veil 
of gossamer, and where even the 

" Great Heavens 
Seem to etoop down upon the fcene in love, 
A nearer vault, and of a tenderer blue 
Thun that which bends above the Eastern lulls." 

Look upon all this, I say — aye, and look nearer 
home, look in yonder exhibition room and see 
what iu a single year natnre has offered to labor 
as a reward, see what a glorious promise she ex- 
tends to enterprise and skill, and can the mind 
fail to be impressed with the strong conviction 
that in all the essential elements of greatness, in 
all the capabilities for infinite expansion, this 
State of our adoption is the very garden spot of 
the earth. 

When I observe the grand scale on which all 
the processes of nature are here conducted, the 
enormous size of her vegetable productions, and 
their rapid development, I am almost tempted to 
believe that so generous and prolific a mother had 
intended to nurture a race of giants rather than 
the pigmies of our race and age. But the great 
law of compensation is ever at work ; if nature is 
over bountiful, human need stands ready to divide 
these blessings with the less favored, and even 
though the age of the [physical Titan has passed, 
our State gives good omen that the Titan mind is 
neither dwarfed nor crippled in its noblest attri- 
butes. 

No, friends: the mind is the only true Titan. 
It constructs, it arranges, it perfects, it reduces 
chaos to order, deformity to beauty, and out of the 
irresponsible and blindly working elements, it 
draws the materials for self-growth, for physical 
improvement, and for the general advancement 
in power, strength, wisdom, and the moral and 
intellectual culture of the race. 

It is the strong Saxon hand, and the inventive 
and matchless brain of free acting and free think- 
ing Saxon men, that shall yet, upon these shores, 
pile Pelion upon Ossa, until they reach the stars. 

It will not be expected that I shall speak to you 
to-night upon either practical or scientific agri- 
culture ; neither my pursuits or education fit me 
for this task. 

It is unfortunate for the interests of Agriculture 
in this State, that no men whose familiarity with 
this and kindred interests eminently fit them 
for the work, have as yet come forward to impart 
instruction and to awaken both scientific and 
practical interest upon this important subject. 
Agriculture needs its apostles and exponents, to 
sow the seeds of knowledge and improvement 
as well in the fertile brains as in the fertile fields 
of our State, before the full harvest of ripened ex- 
perience can be enjoyed — and not among the least 
of the benefits which may be expected to accrue 
from this gjeat movement is the awakening of a 
deep and general interest in the development of 
the agricultural resources of California, and the 
best mode by which that development may be 
secured. 

In the remarks I shall have the honor of offer- 
ing for yourconsideration to-night it is my inten- 
tion to throw out a few general hints upon the 
tendency of agricultural pursuits, their influences 
upon society, socially and morally, together with 
an attempted estimate of the capacities wh ich 
our State possesses for a very high degree of per- 
fection in Agriculture and its kindred occupations. 

The position of California with respect to its 
Agricultute is remarkable. The State is an epi- 
tome of the world. Every variety of soil is here, 
and here also is every variety of climate. Its 
proximity to the ocean, the inequality of its sur- 
face, and the electric and meteorological conditions 
of its atmosphere, modify its soil and climate in 
a most wonderful degree. Besides, it stretches 
through many parallels of latitude, having a 



U\)i ^iiBias^iJ JiM-ms< 



45 



a widely diversified temperatura, and presenting 
appropriate locutions for the growth and culture 
of every form of vegetable life. 

To-day you may surround yourself with the 
warm breath and abounding verdure of the tropics 
— tomorrow breathe the invigorating and renovat- 
ing atmosphere of the temperate zone, and still 
upon the morrow shiver in the northern blast,and 
stiffen with the arctic cold. 

A country thus variously endowed, and fitted 
for the highest culture is an anomaly in the his- 
tory of the world. It presents to science, tit art. 
and to intelligent labor a field ulraost limitless in 
extent, and exhaustless in resources. 

Kvn of plant and grain, fruits and 

flowers in all their diversified characteristics, trees 
and shrubs, and all the delicate exotics of foreign 
climes ; in short, every form oi vegetable life, may 
here find an appropriate location, and rapidly 
attam the highest degree of perfection. 

Indigenous to its soil, in native luxuriance, and 
almost Without cultivation, its manifold produc- 
tions year after year have sprang from the teeming 
earth, unappreciated and unemployed, only yield- 
ing by their decay increased richness and repro- 
ductive energy to the fruitful matrix from whence 
they were derived. 

But a year has passed since the hand of skilful 
cultivation was stretched out to reclaim, from 
waste and exuberance, these productions of the 
aarth. and lo ! they have yielded harvests an hun- 
dred fold. What, then, may be expected, when 
science and art, when industry, euergy and skill 
shall have combined to develope all the hidden 
wealth of a soil, the poorest of products is the 
very Gold which called it into notice — aye, almost 
into existence. 

When, as in a vast garden, the abundant fruits 
of the earth, are cultivated by scientific hus- 
bandry, and when the exotics and the productions 
of other climes and other soils shall have been 
indigenized, amid our fertile valleys, then will 
California present a spectacle of which the world 
may well be proud. 

We read of a garden once, that was planted 
eastward in Eden, beautiful with abounding ver- 
dure, through which murmured the pellucid waters 
of life-giving streams, now, alas ! fabulous and lost. 
It needs no prophet's ken, to see in the future that 
fable realized upon our shores, and though the 
the golden age has passed, there shall yet remain 
upon the earth an age of gold, of happier omen 
and more glorious fulfilment than that of old. 

Not only is our State remarkable for its adapta- 
tion to the highest forms of vegetable culture, but 
it is in a still more wonderful degree conspicuous 
by the character of its population, and the ability 
they possess of availing themselves at once of al! 
the advantages which the soil presents. We have 
not alone the bountiful earth and the genial 
climate, but we have the men here on the ground, 
fitted by birth, by education, and by experience, 
to operate without delay and to the best advan- 
tage. 

Did it ever occur to you — the romance of this 
country's settlement'? It is almost a miracle, but 
a miracle that is ever enacting when a great idea 
takes possession of a world, and the great univer- 
sal heart springs to the consummation of a glo- 
rious destiny. 

Through the ages, deep buried in the very 
centre of the world, midway between its con- 
tinents, midway between its poles, this slope of 
the Pacific lay dormant and unknown. It looked 
over the waters dreamily to the orient, and the 
wind that fanned its hills and valleys was the 
breath of Asia, slumbering at noontide among her 
palms; a high wall shut it out from the eastern 
slope of the continent, and from the noi 
civilization and the excitement of national great- 
ness, yet it had in it the germ of boundless 
wealth. At length Gold, that Archimedean lexer. 
by which the world is moved, was discovered, and 
then commenced the most wonderful crusade that 
ever swept across a continent. Representatives 
from every nation in the worid, from every class 
of society, disciples of every art and science full 
of youth and courage, full of energy and strength. 
took possession of the soil, and brought to bear 
in the upbuilding of our State, all the varied ao- 
complishments and talents which gives us. at the 
present moment a population possessing more ele- 
ments of power, wisdom, and energy than any 
other land that was ever colonized by human 
beings. 

California sprang into existence, full grown, in 
a day, and the emblematic figure of Minerva upon 
our Stale seal, is most aptly chosen. Full armed 
for war the goddess leaped from the brain of Jovo 
— in like manner, with the fullest maturity of 
Strength, we emerged from chaos into a condition 
of physical, commercial, and pobtical develop- 



ment that enabled us to take our place at once in 

the great brotherhood of States — the youngest science and toil may derive from 

and the strongest —the last to be adopted, and yet girgin soil ; illustrate that the 



They came from thehillsof New England, from 

the hot breath of crowded cities, from the 
geous savanahs of the South, from old homes in 
merry England, from the vineyards of France, 
from old Germany, from the alpine fastnes 

the find of Tell, moved by an impulse they could 
not control, they sat down together on these 
shores, under the peaceful shallows ol these shores 
under the peaceful shadows of our hills, to aid in 
working out the great problem of human liberty, 
and to take one step further in the subjugation of 
the earth, to the dominions of Anglo Saxon civil- 
ization. 

Hut to return fiom our digression. 
Consider tikis population, so full of strength and 
varied attainments, bending their energies to the 
cultivation of the soil. Let our hundred thousand 
cultivators, from every corner of the earth, locate 
themselves in those spots where the soil and cli- 
mate are appropriate to the cultivation of certain 
classes of vegetable products, with which each 
may be intimately acquainted, and how long will 
it be before the State of California would become 
not only the richest in her mineral resources, but 
also in the extent and perfection of her vegetable 
products ? 

Let these farmers bring to bear upon the devel- 
opment of our Agricultural wealth the knowledge 
that each one possesses upon a gi pen subject. Let 
the New England farmer learn of the sugar 
planter ; let the rice grower step into the adjoining 
valley, and, taking the Chinese cultivator by the 
hand, confer with him upon the culture of the tea ; 
let the vintager of Fiance and Spain trade books 
with the orchardist of New Yorkand New Jersey ; 
let the English farmer give to his Yankee brother 
some lessons (how greatly needed) in rural em 
bellishment — show him that the cottage embow- 
ered in trees, trellised with vmes, and redolent 
with the sweet breath of flowers, is a better and 
a happier home than the naked, rude, unsightly 
structure, destitute of shade, and totally devoid of 
grace and beauty. 

And, beyond all, let science and enlightened art 
contribute by inventions and machinery to the 
lightening of human labor. Fortunately for the 
future, the idea has become obsolete that art and 
science can have no bearing upon practical agri- 
culture. The two are inseparably connected, and 
reciprocally dependant upon each other. 

That cultivator who refuses to be guided by the 
lights of science, who refuses to avail himself of 
the aids which geology and chemistry bring to his 
assistance, scarcely deserves more than the miser- 
able pittance which by hard toil he drags from 
the reluctant earth. 

The benefits which geology confers on Agricul- 
ture are neither few or trifling. Our limits will 
not permitus to point out in detail how the nature 
of the soil depends on that of the rocks from the 
disintegration of which it was derived, nor to 
show how particular plants atfect particular soils. 
in which in a state of nature they exclusively flour- 
ish, and in which they flourish most in a state of 
cultivation, so that by consulting a good geological 
map of a given district, WO may predict In i 
enter it, the species of crops that will be found 
most extensively cultivated, and which experience 
has proved to be the best adapted to it. 

Not less valuable to the agriculturist, and espe- 
cially in a country where the successful pursuit 
must depend so largely upon irrigation, is an ac- 
quaintance with geology, by which he is taught 
where to sink his shafts for the vivifyingeleiiient. 
how to conduct his drainage, and where to adapt 
his crops to the peculiar character of soil best 
suited to the grow h of definite forms of 
table life. 

With Chemistry, likewise, the farmer must be- 
come by necessity acquainted. The use of min- 
eral manures, their chemical composition, their 
mode of application to ohangi and m 
conditions of soil, their influence upo 
ration and fructification of seeds and plants — all 
demand his most serious consideration. And the 
advance of the age m all that pertains to Agricul- 
ture and horticulture, renders this khi 
perative to hi by him who wonlo 

Ily cultivate the earth. 
A consideration of the aliove facts pointsclearly 
to the necessity that now exists for the establish- 
ment, under government patronage and support. 
of universities for the study of the natural 

illy in their rclat; 
culture. Endow liberally in this State a great 
normal school, for the education and train 
accomplished men. practically and scientifically 
for the cultn ' -incut of the soil ; 

call together the ablest tea! ben in every depart- 
ment of natural s cie nce, show to capital and indus- 
try where their investments can be made to the 
best advantage, upon this garden spot of earth ; 
show to the world what inexhaustible wealth 

prolific and 
at lust I'.-r 



from the exhaustless rivers of her wealth enrich- 1 void, and its enormous accumulation, does not 
ing all the oth-- constitute cither the surest wealth, the highest 

There was no slow and gradual accession o( happiness, or the firmest basis of national pros- 



its productions furnish the materials for the labors 
of the manufacturer, and in its turn it swells the 
white sails of commerce ; it is the basis of all 
other arts — the great, substratum upon which rests 
every other interest, individual and national ; it is 
the most ancient of all occupations ; it was the 
first labor commanded by Heaven, and conse- 
quently the most honorable, dignified and import- 
ant ; its seniority and divine origin entitle it not 
only to our respect, but to the highest considera- 
tion among the arts of which it is the common 
parent, 

The importance of Agriculture and the necessity 
for its encouragrment as a means of national pros- 
perity, must be obvious to all. Thccultureof the 
soil lies at the bottom of all culture, mental. 
moral, and physical. In every country ithas been 
coeval and inseparably connected with civilization- 
The dawn of the one is the birth of the other. 
It is an axiom of history too plain to admit ques- 
tion, that until the savage abandons his roaming, 
hunting and fishing, and, laying aside his vagrant 
habits, confines himself to some fixed abode, and 
improves the soil, he can never become a civilized 
being. I repeat again, it is agriculture that civil- 
izes a nation — it is agriculture that feeds a nation 
— it is agriculture that clothes a nation, and it 
cannot be denied, that that, which civilizes, feeds, 
and clothes us, must be regarded as the chief 
pillar of our national prosperity. 

Piemember, too. that from the tillers of the soil 
all greatness has sprung — from farmers' sons, "who 
themselves held the plow." Old Rome had her 
Cincinnatus and her Virgil ; Mount Vernon had 
its immortal farmer, Washington ; Ashland, Lin- 
denwald, Northbend — names sacred in American 
story, were the honored abodes of husbandmen ; 
and around that silent tomb by the sea, where lies 
buried the majesty of America, are collected the 
enduring evidences of the attachment and love of 
the greatest of America's statesmen for the noblest 
of human employments ! 

Not alone as a source of national prosperity and 
greatness, is our subject worthy of consideration. 
The tendencies of Agricultural pursuits upon the 
individual man, in the development of his better 
nature, upon society, in the refinement of taste, in 
the conservation of health, and in the preservation 
of morals, are all eminently worthy of notice. 

Among the peaceful fields, in the midst of boun- 
teous harvests, by the margins of clear streams, in 
the depths of mysterious and solemn woods. 
where the grand old trees are evermore repeating 

" Their old poetic legends to the wim]-," 

the heart grows better, and the expanding spirit 
holds purer and sweeter converse with the great 
intelligences of the universe. 

The vast city, with its everlasting roar of fever- 
ish and teeming life, rests like a great incubus 
upon the soul. The air is stilling; upon the ex- 
cited brain, as upon the unnaturally attuned car of 
fever, the sounds fall discordantly, on every side 
we feel the pressure of heaving — aye, of bursting 
hearts. Bert go into the quiet country, and let 
the sweet voices of the great mother — Nature — 
fall upon the ear, soothingly as the tones of a 
benediction ; look up iuto the blue firmament 
with its foreshadowing of eternal peace; inhale 
the breath of flowers, and the sweet odors that 
op from the fragrant earth, and let the calm 
come on, in these bright intervals of "life's fitful 

fever." 

Calm and quiet, serenity and repose, hope and 
love, softness and tears — these are the fair children 
born in the sunshine and sporting in the shade, 
with whom it is good and pleasant to walk in the 
1 open nir. 
In the crowded city, we feel the throbbing 
heart of man. but in the quiet country we see and 
feel and hear the beating of the great loving heart 
of (fata 

The peaceful pur- -ulturc, while they 

.-then the noblest virtues of 
character, afford examples of social order and do- 
mestic tranquillity, witnessed in no other - 
or walk in life. Crime, among farmers, is a 
unknown ; 

• from the well ordered 
r i!l the earth. 
Th,. 1 no jails, commit ^:~ tn h 

ht dcpredat.ons, betray no State, •»' ' nnd ^^ , n ,i 



be unveiled, what a glorious prospect would gre 
our enraptured visit. 

I see the noble parks where the deer an 
antelope bound and play. I see the rivers im 
aside from their accustomed channels, irriga 
the broad valleys and conveying fertility, bea 
and wealth wherever their currents stray. 1 see 
the vineyards, purple with the blood of grapes, 
and happy vintagers, revelling in the sparkling 
flood, like Bacchanals at a wine feast. 1 see 
the great tropical productions, sugar, rice. tea. 
coffee, waving in native luxuriance. I see depart- 
ing ships go hence, freighted with the products ol 
the soil, a richer prize to us and to the world than 
the yellow dust, so laboriously torn from its na- 
tive matrix. I hear the sound of hammers in the 
great shops and foundries, and the swift whir ot 
of wheels in immense manufactories. 

I see on every hill-side and on every plain, the 
neat cottage, the school house, the church, the 
work shop, the lyceum — contiguous to the great 
cities, the marble walls of colleges and universi- 
ties, gleam in the pure air. the proudest monu- 
ments of national prosperity, and social peace — 
and I also see the elegant abodes of luxury and 
refinement, looking out from shadowing groves, 
adorned with all that is beautiful and exquisite 
in architecture, the home of generous plenty, and 
the seats of elegant enjoyment. 

All this to the eye that looks intently forward 
comes out clear and defined from the misty hori- 
zon of the future, its the voyager, eager and in- 
tent, beholds looming out from the distant hank 
of clouds, the outlines of the mountains and the 
shore, so hope and reason, with prophetic vision. 
may behold even afar off, the "good time coming." 
Honor to the enthusiasm, the energy, and the 
self-sacrifice that prompted the noble design of 
this California Agricultural Exhibition, and that 
carried it into successful execution ! 

Its influences will be lasting, and long after the 
remembrances of yonder beautiful display shall 
have faded from our minds, we shall acknowledge 
the benefits derived therefrom in an enlarged ac- 
quaintance with the capabilities of our noble 
State — in joining together in the ties of fraternal 
union, the followers of a common pursuit — in 
kindling emulation and friendly rivalry, and in 
producing unity of action in the practical devel- 
opment of all those resources, agricultural, min- 
eral and commercial, upon which the future glory 
and dignity of our State must depend, and which, 
if energetically expanded and fostered by a pro- 
tecting government, will ultimately lead us to the 
highest pinnacle of glory and renown. 

Adaptation of Crops to Market. 

The fanner who is wide awake to his business 
should watch, as well as follow the markets, lb 
should know what crops H ill sell well. So far a: 
he can form a probable or approximate opinion mi 
this point, he should conform his cultivation to 
ii. In some places he can produce milk to ad- 
vantage ; in others butter or cheese. Again, he 

may be so situated that neither of tie 
will pay him 60 good a profit as mine others. 
Here his main crop will be hay, there fruit ; here 
potatoes, there squares and oilier vegetables. 

A farmer in Beverly, last year, raised on two 

and a half acres of land 18, abbages pel 

the net receipt of which averaged him - 
Another farmer, in Danvers. cultivated an acre ol 
land with sage, and realized the handsome profit 
of $400. fie- cultivation of the onion in this 
latter town gives employment to many hand! 
and is t! large profits. 

Other example's might be cited to illustrate tie 
importance of adapt I, snch 

as the production of the smaller fruits in th. 

borhood of cities. It is not the cro) 

which the fanner himself sets the highest value 

that should be raised by him. but the crops he 

can produce at the least expense and sell to the 

profit. 

Some farmers are fearful of loss, if they divcrp 
the batten track. They go on 
cultivating the same pro 
same fields, u did their I 

to entertain the opinion that 



no n 

The stand 

in the I I and euid- ct and 

the spirit; while the plow, and th« spade, and the 
anvil afford the weapons wherewith these hardy 
children of toil go forth over the earth to hold 
and possess it 

Patriotism is indigenous to soil. 



but a sort ol 

lint away with such 

i tions ! Let our farmer 

Let them not stand sti 

ahead. Let them be 

ply the waie - 

The love of 'vicinity ; and n.t the 



the homestead and the paternal acres finds a 

theassocia- 
. -tering meworieaof man- 
hood. • 

mutual aids furnished or. 

,f need or pressure, but "."J ""P 1 .^!* F^ 



tastes also. Let 
will pay a pre 
i is an I 

mid not it be 






..1 rational one; 



I 
wbv 



other in 
to bind more closely the ties of social inter- 



There are so many article 

may^aWi 



raised to advantage. 



that 



numbers, no gradual evolution of power by the 

slow processes of time and accretion — no clinp 

to strung neighbors for support — i 

hand outstretched for aid. for co 

— but peopled in an hour by an overwhelming 

tide of emigration, that rushed westward like a 

cataract, swarming in armies across 

marching undaunted through a foreign and 

cal State, braving the perils of tl Storms 

— onward, still onward, struggled this crusading 

army toward the M 

\ nth. broad-breasted and strong 
time forsook the hearths 

toil s strong arm. religion its peaceful her- 

1 innine; 
han.l. and labor its iron muscle, as soldiers in the 
great army of civilization. 



perity ; teach the world that the soil is the natural 
source of wealth, that Agriculture is a calling that 
underlies all others, and to which all others are 
dependant, and that he who. by the skilful combi- 
nation of the scientific with the practical, makes 
,v two blades of grass where one grew be- 
fore, causes foliage and verdure to cover the barren 
rock, and corn and wine to grow in the waste 
platan, is more of a philanthropist and worthy of 
more eminent honor, than he who builds pamfTS 
■tiers with useless gold. 
Need I speak in this connexion of the antiquity 
or dignity of agriculture, and of the necessity for 
its encouragement as a means of national pros- 
and independence. It is the original soarea 
of all wealth and prosperity. It supplies cor food 
and raiment ; it gives aahaa, health, and strength; 



, serve to uina more cioseiy we uee w «m--i»i uiurr- „_>__, _j, «. ,k„ -.,, 
course and strengthen the bonds of love for the %*££>£?£%£: 
land of birth or adoption. 

When th of resistance was raised 

! in the war of our independence, it was the farm- 
Concord and Lexington by whom the first 
'blow was struck. The yeomanry of Bunker 
' Hill, made their bloody repulse, not leas with the 
•nate weapons of war. than with the scythe 
and pruning book, turned into the spear and 
i. and at last, the unequal contest was tri- 
umphantly consummated, by the wisdom, courage, 



atl.pl 



s/iroe vegei-o 

-^ light, or for mechanical purposes. 

-awn from mother earth, will d 
lea* be soon introduced. Sunflower seed might 
perhapa, be found to answer. But we must leavr 
the subject for the present hoping soon to I 
it.— PUmgk. Loom ami A 



Mmio GaaMSsto.— European farmers have 
famed an advantage in saucing antral kind* of 

, , ,l , u -- - J ;.,. «y.— ■» aa Iklf faad 

wt5rrn nSP *' ri0to0f "* ^°^^o7lZ£^^£&^" 
^TfCcultural Exhibit*, in the ^^l^^^JTJ^ VrntStt 



46 



9 $8 @(BUlli981B^(B ^(S81BJS8< 



The Strawberry. 
Fe present our readers to-day with an article 
upon the nature of tliis delicious fruit. As man; 
ultiyators of the Strawberry may not be aware 
of such a theory, we publish the article to call 
their attention to it. and awaken the right feeling 
to so important a truth. The great cause of the 
failure of many persons in growing this fruit 
arises from a want of knowledge of the character 
and habits of this vine. A little attention to this 
subject will ensure success. We take the article 
from the Plow, the Loom, and the Anvil, and 
shall continue the subject hereafter. 

SEXUAL CHARACTER OF THE STRAWBERRY. 

The people in Burlington county, New-Jersey, 
must be behind the age in the cultivation of the 
strawbeny. You say, " Jason Heritage sold 500 
ouarts. which formed one picking, and were sold 
at §250 — fifty cents per quart." The same thing 
was done in "these backwoods twenty-five years 
ago. One individual now brings 4,000 quarts a gjngs— 
day, and is satisfied if he gets seven or eight cents , j n g j n to 



Mining Interests. 

From all parts of the mining districts we hear 
encouraging news— in some places very large 
yields. From our exchanges we gather the fol 
lowing : 

Nevada. Feb. 3. — The whole face of the coun 
try is changed by the late storm. In every di- 



rection the miners are at work, and industry and 
hopefulness have taken the place of tedious wait- 
ing and discouragement. Without any more rain 
for a month the diggings will be well enough 
supplied with water, while the great majority of 
the miners will be able to work ti'l July on the 
past favors of the clerk of the weather. 

From Camptonville. situated between Oregon 
Greek and the North Yuba, a gentleman reports 
that the place has grown up from nothing at the 
latter part of June, to its present popualtion of 
one thousand. They have two good sawmills, 
one steam, the other water, and the people live in 
good houses built of sawn lumber. The diggings 
are a gravel range much like the Wauloupa dig- 
'th a slate formation, the granite pitch- 
the hill. They are worked by being 



per quart; often far less. Twenty-five years ago j s ]ujced from the top down. The diggings pay 
we were learned botanists, and held all straw- ycry well, and are very permanent. Tbe miners 
bony plants that bore blossoms perfect in both work altogether with hose, on what is known as 
male and female organs, and raised a quarter of a the "hydraulic" principle. The " Gold Ditch Co." 
crop. We now hold a different doctrine, and taking its water from Oregon Cfeek, sells week] ) 
plant one Hermaphrodite to twenty Pistillate of water from $700 to $1200. Camptonville is a 
plants. We have new seedling, suspassing all ne w, bustling little town, directly on the new 
plants that I have ever seen, and one 1 never ex- 1 T0AI \ to Dowiiierille about seven miles above Fos- 
pected to see — a plant perfect in both male and ter'sbar. — Nevada Journal. 
female organs, that has for five years produced a _ n . „ ., ,, , 

full crop of large, perfect, well-flavored fruit. I Important Gold DisCOVERIES.-South Oala- 
have never sec/one" of the celebrated English ones ""**■■ 31.-Some Suable disrover.es have 
that would average one third of a crop of perfect gently been made here, that tod fair to outrival 
t Newark. New Jersey, and I' 1 — more celebrated for the.r au.fcrous wealth , 
ODe in particular made about three days ago, by 
Mr. Joseph Bigarial, recently from West Fowler. 
St. Lawrence county. New York. lie succeeded 



fruit. I was recently at Newark, -New Jersey 
was at gardens where thf strawberry was culti- 
vated extensively for market. They were not in- 
iormed of the sexual character of plants. 1 saw 
several beds of Burn's new Pistillate Tine, with 
not one perfect berry to fifty blossoms, and the 
gardener deemed it an imposition. lie had no 
othtr variety within forty feet In his principal 
beds he fortunately, among llovey and other 1'is- 
ti Hates, had a new seedling Hermaphrodite, raised 
by my sister in Newark, of which more that one 
half of the blossoms bore perfect fruit, and the 
blossoms were so abundant that the quantity of 
fruit was as large as the roots could render per- 
fect. Strange as it may appear, even in England 
the true sexual character of the plant was un- 
known. Mr. Keen, the originator of the cele- 
brated Heimaphrodite that bears his name, dis- 
covered that one of his seedlings perfected no 
fruit. Seeing no stamens in the blossoms, he set 
one with stamens near it, and the vine bore a full 
:rop. He reported the case to the Horticultural 
Society, but no further notice was taken of it. In 
raising from seed, one-half are generally wholly 
defective in female organs, and not one blossom in 
one thousand will bear a perfect fruit. All re- 
quire artificial impregnation. It is done by in- 
sects. Put one hundred plants in a forcing 
department of plants, perfect in both male and 
female organs, and if there be no insects, not one 
blossom in fifty will bear fruit. In such cases, 
the impregnation may be made by a brush. 
Where the air is stirring, it may impregnate a 
few. Thirty years since, adjacent to our city, an 
ignorant German made a fortune by raisihgstraw- 
berries for market. They were the largest and 
finest in market. and brought from twenty-live to 
fifty cents per quart. The same quantity ol 
ground produced five times as much fruit as was 
raised by his neighbors. I had one-eighth of an 
acre in vines, and went to the German to buy 
fruit. His neighbors picked up the plants he 
threw on the road, when thinning out his plants. 
and they proved barren. A chance observation 
of the German's son led me to suspect the cause. 
I discovered the sexual influence; made it known. 
.Strawberries went as low as live and six cents 
per quart, and the German ceased to cultivate 
them, and raised vegetables; abusing his son and 
heaping " donner und blt'tzen" on my head. 
Hailing from what was once the land of rye Hour. 
I am anxious to see the price of strawberries re- 
duced in this State. U. Long worth. 



Sacramento Pioneer Association. — The 
following gentlemen were last evening elected 
officers of the Sacramento Pioneer Association to 
serve until the seventh day of September next- 
Joseph AV. "Winans. President; William M. Car- 
penter, Joseph H.'Kevett. J. B. Starr, J. B. 
.Mitchell, D. J. Lisle and Richard Rust, Vice 
Presidents ; Samuel Colville, Recording Secretary; 
N. A. H. Ball, Corresponding Secretary , B. F. 
Hastings, Treasurer ; H. E. Robinson. R. P. John- 
ion, Volney Spalding. George Rowland, C. C. 
Sackett, W. C. Waters and James Haworth. 
Directors. The meeting was a large and enthusi- 
astic one. 



Fluctuations in Flour.— The Baltimore 
American contains an interesting table on the 
fluctuations in the wholesale price of Hour in the 
three first months of the year from 1700 to the 
present time. In March, 1706, the price was $15 
per barrel; in Jan.. 1800, $11 per barrel; in 
'.i. 1805,$13; during the war 1812-15 the 
highest price paid was $11; in 1817, $1425 was 
paidj in March, 1821 it was as low as $3.75; 
from that time to 1828 it did not go above $7 ; in 
it was as high as $8.50; the next year as 
low as $4.50; in 1837, $11, (the time of the 
flour riots in New York) ; in L838-0,$8j in 1841 
it was down to .*?4.50 ; in 1843 to $3,87 ; in 1844 
$4.25; in 1845, $4; and from that time to the 
present did not go above $G in the months named. 
In the errly part of 1853, flour was as low as 
$5.25 per barrel ; now it is much higher. 



in realizing the handsome sum of eighteen ounces 
from ten pans "1' dirt. The stuff containing the 
!go!d, is a light colored, slightly adh 

id with a smooth and apparently well worn 
gravel somewhat of the consistency o! pulverized 
freestone, and coarse river gravel. The hill has 
been named "Bigarial's Hill." 

The Aurora Silver Mink. — The Sonora Her- 
ald says: "Mr. Theophilus Doilge, of this city, 
has just returned from the Coast Range, and has 
given some interesting particulars in reference to 
to the newly discovered Aurora mine. He locates 
it about fifty miles south of Pacheco's Pass, and 
twenty south of Panoche Pass, in the .Coast 
Rauge. The vein is from five to six fact thick, 
and is supposed to be one of the most extensive 
in the known world. So far as analyzed, the gold 
taken from the top of the mine yields $60 to the 
100 pounds. It is slightly tinctured with copper. 
Scnors Ripa and Volado have formed a company, 
consisting of Americans and Caliibrnians, under 
the name of the (; Aurora Silver Mining Compa- 
ny." for the purpose of working the vein on a 
huge scale. Mr. Hodge has explored all that re- 
gion of country, and speaks of it in glowing terms 
Between the mine and San Luis Ranch are ext^n 
sive and fertile valleys of public land, well wa- 
tered, good for grazing or agricultural purposes. 
which invite the emigrant.." 

Great excitement has been recently awakened 
by capitalists in the shipment of quartz rock to 
Europe, and the experiments made have been 
quite successful. "We should not be at all sur- 
prised to see large shipments made regularly from 
this country to England, and profitable ones too, 
We give the following results as quoted by 
authority : 

Berdan's Gold Machine in England. — In 
the London Mining Journal, and the Times, we 
noticed very favorable reports of the operations oi 
this machine, which appear to confirm more than 
was said of it in our last volume. Prof. Ansted, 
an eminent mineralogist, has been making experi- 
ments with it on California quartz, and has 
reported on the subject. In the report it is 
stated that gold was obtained at the rate of 4 
oz. 4 dwts., and 21 grs. par ton. and valued 
at £11 18s. 3d., from some California!! quartz in 
which there was barely a trace of the metal visi- 
ble when first examined, while some gossan from 
the copper lodes at Poltimorc, North Devon, also 
yielded at the rate of 1 oz., 12 1-2 dwts. It is 
also stated by the Professor that ores containing 
no more than half an ounce to the ton, could be 
profitably worked by this machine in England. 

Mr. Calvert, a well known mineralogist, has 
also been operating upon some English gold 
quartz, and he states that he obtained 2 oz. 4 
dwts. 10 grs., per ton; its qualities an amalgama- 
tor are very highly extolled. 

A Distrust of One's own Abilities. — There 
are more failures in life to be attributed to a per- 
son's distrust of his own abitities, that can be laid 
to the door of one's vanity inducing him to at- 
tempt what he is incapable of performing. Hun- 
dreds of young men never rise, from fear of fall- 
ing ; while others who have every opportunity, 
look with so much doubt upon their own talents, 
that they refuse golden opportunities. Modesty 
is certainly commendable, and undue allowance 
of assurance repulsive, but few men arc so consti- 
tuted, that they cannot by application accomplish 
tasks, which at the glance would seen insur- 
mountable. It is our belief that many men walk 
in a small circle, who might, had they the bold- 
ness, enlarge their sphere of usefulness. In these 
days of progress, a man must look out for himself, 
and depend upon his own resources, or he will 
find when too late the folly of a distrust in his 
own abilities. 



Eastern News. 

Br the Nicaragua Co.'s steamship Brother Jonathan, which 
arrived at this port on Thursday, 2d inat, we have dates from 
New York to the 15th of January, Among the passengers were 
Madame Anna Bishop and Mr. Bochea, "the Father of the 
Harp." 

The most important news is that respecting the purchase of 
Sonorn, which eeems to he confirmed. The New York Herald 
says they are enubled to state, upon the best authority, that a 
treaty to that effect has been negotiated by Mr. Gadsden, ap- 
proved by the President, and will soon be submitted to the Sen- 
ate. The boundary will include the rente known as "Lieut. 
Cooke's VWi.in Route," extending to the thirty-first parallel, 
and going due west, taking in the whole of the peninsula of 
Lower California, including Sonora — upon the payment by the 
United Stales to Mexico of fifty millions of dollars. 

On the morning of the 26th December, a fire broke out at No. 
22-1 Front Blxeet, New York, destroying Mr. McKay's magnifi- 
cent new e hip, the Great Republic, together with the clipper 
White Squall, and packet ehip Joseph Walker, besides several 
sloops, achooners, etc. The Great Republic was insured for 
$200,000. The total loss is estimated at over one million dollars. 

The fine packet ship Staffordshire, of Train & Co.'a Liverpool 
Line, while on her passage from Liverpool to Boston, struck on 
Blond Ruck, off Cape Sable, on the Nova Scotia coast, on the 
morning of Dec. 30th, and immediately sunk, drowning about 
one hundred end sixty persons, including CapL Richardson. 
The three motes, seventeen seamen, and twelve pnssengers 
reached Cape Sable, The ship was built by Mr. Donald Mc- 
Kay, and WAS fully insured in New York. 

The papers are filled with accounts of most disgraceful riots 
at L*rie, N. Y., in consequence of the Erie and New York R. R. 
Company changing the terminus of their road from Erie to Dun- 
kirk. Several lives had been lost ; but at our latest dutes, Jan. 
■J, nil was quiet. 

The steamship Sun Francisco left New York, Dec. 21st, for 
Sun Francisco, having on board the 3d Regiment U. S. Artillery 
under Uie cunimund of Gen. Wool. She has since been spoken 
at m.'ii, diriUili-d. 

Mr. Seward's Pacific Railroad bill contemplates a route north 
of the fortieth poraUeL beginning at the western boundary of 
rippi and terminating at the eastern boundary of 
California. It is to be built by any Company chartered by any 
one of the States, and to be used by the U. S. qb a military and 
post road. It is to be completed hi live yean — at least one 
ii!"th even- year. 

A terrible riot occurred in Cincinnati on Chrietmas day, 
caused by a demonstruton of an orimuized body of Germans 
against Bishop Bedim, the Pop'.- Nuncio. After a severe con- 
ilict, in whirl; Ore-arms were freely used, tbe police captured 
about slaty rioters, of whom fourteen were wounded and one 
died. 

Colonnade Row, the largest block in Brooklyn, N. Y., has 
been burnt — loss $150,000. There have been an unusual nunr 
ber of large fires, including the Albion College, at Albion, Mich., 
and eight thousand bales of cotton, at Shreveport, La. 

Thesteamer Marlborough exploded at Charleston, on thc22d 
Not., killing the captain, first and Second mates, engineer and 
twelve out of fifteen bunds onboard, 

Mrs. Helen '.'. Luke, wife of Hon D. Lake, Judge of the 

District Court of California* bUed on the 23.1 uf December, in 

New York. Mr.-. Lake arrived from California in perfect health 

■. days previously, und the steamer had already taken 

cut advices to her husband of her safe arrival 

Our advices from Europe are to the 14th December. Accord- 
ing to one account, the Turkish fleet had been almost annihi- 
lated by a Russian Squadron ; while another account gives the 
lose of the Turks at seven frigates and two corvettes, and that 
of the Russians at two ships of the line, three frigates and two 
steamboats. That thi re bee been some hard fighting is pretty 
evident; but, until more reliance can be placed on European 
telegraphs, we are unable to form any opinion us to tho result. 
It is said, however, thai the Anglo-French fleet had been ordered 

to enter the Black Sea, and this, it COITect, would seem to indi- 
cate that the Turks had been beetm According to telegraphic 
chea, received by the Loni cle, the Turks had 

lii-rii completely successful in their land operations in Asia, bav 
dsuTrnunded Prince Woronzoff 
in the vicinity of Tiilie. 



Maeine Disasteb, — Intelligence was received in this city 
yesterday, of the loss of the clipper ship San Francisco, 108 
days from New York, as she was beating into this harbor. 
When opposite Fort Point, on tho north shore, she missed stays 
and struck a rock, carrying away her bowsprit, arid Bome other 
rigging, and causing her to leak so much that they were com- 
pelled to run ber ashore. She lies about a quarter of a mile 
outside the point where the British ship Jenny Lind was 
wrecked about two months since. .She now has 14 feet water 
in her hold, and will prove a total loss, with her cargo valued at 
§150,000. Her passengers have all been brought to the city. 



From South America and Australia. 

By the arrival of the steamer Oregon at this port on Sunday 
last, from Panama, we an- put in pnocprii.ni of dates from Val- 
jj>ir;'i.-u io Dee. ;;i, und from Aur-trui'm to the 1 5ti November, 

Valparaiso papers represent the country to be in a highly 
prosperous com lit inn — labor being En brisk demand, and build- 
■ ■ I'tions. 

In Lima there seems to be a growing discontent against the 
government General Torrico, with the government troops, 
encountered Domingo Elias, the leader of the rebels, on the 7th 
ult, and defeated him, entirely routing the militia men and 
slaves ho had rallied around him. He and his sou had left the 
country. 

Two severe shocks of an earthquake had been felt in Limn, 

British ship Cambrodia, Burn", 1,140 tons burden, sunk at 
sea, GOO miles from Cidhio. The captain und crew reached Cal- 
lao in boats four days afterwards. 

Australian papers mention much discontent among the min 
ng population, owing to the unequal state of taxation in the 

mines. The ArgUfi warns the inhabitants of Melbourne to be- 
ware of pestilence arising from the filthy state of the city, and 
instances tin; fate of New Orleans and Rio Janeiro. The same 
paper advocates the liable Liquor Law for that ''djinje-degndeo' 

land." 

Provisions are said to be plenty in the interior, except flour* 

which BeOS at £12(660) per bag. Gold sells at £3 15a. 3d. par 

ounce in the mines, and ut Melbourne Ol X'.i L6e. fid., wiili tin up- 
ward tendency. Toe exports to Ban Francisco from Melbourne, 

for the quarter ending October 10th, were valued at £1,410 
($7,050). 



MARKET REPORTS. 

San Francisco, Feb. 8, 1854. 

We are cheered by hope of better things ahead — the rains 
have given encouragement to the Cultivators, and thus induced 
a little stir in trade — and were it not for the continued influx of 
merchandise by new arrivals, we should assert a certainty of 
permanent improvement. 

All kinds of Grain are dulL Potatoes hang heavy, owim* to 
the immense quantities stored and coming in by contract. We 
however have faith to believe the fanners will receive a re- 
munerating price yet. 

We repeat our remarks of last week relative to prices. They 
are merely at nominal rates. Sales are made to meet an emer- 
gency and without regard to market rates or value of the goods. 

Perseverance, energy, and will to conquer and overcome 
all difficulties that depress trade will soon put things better. 

JOBBING PBICES. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— 

Shovels, Ames long handled, bright $16 00 ■& 

do do ehort handled .12 50 'ii 

do Fields', long handled 14 00 ^15 00 

do do ehort handled, no sale, 

do Rowland's, long handled 12 00 'aXS 00 

do do short handled 8 00 S12 00 

do King's, long handled 12 00 @I3 00 

Spades, bright c. s. best make 1G 00 ®18 00 

do iron 10 00 '512 00 

Coal and Grain Scoops; cast steel 20 00 ©S4 00 

do do iron 10 00 313 00 

Axes, Collins', ass'd handle 17 U0 3> 

do Hunts', do 17 00 'it 

Picks, Collins', 4\f> to 6-16, solid eve 14 00 

do other brands '. 10 00 ■&• 

Helves, heavy hickory pick, turned 400 -®500 

do do do use. 3 00 » l 50 

Plows, best make H <x> ©30 00 

do steel 3U UO ®75 00 

Threshing Machines and Horse power. Hall & 

Pitts', no side, nominal, £600 to $600: other 

makes $400 to $600 ; Emmery's, with thresh- 
er, separator, and Ian mill, $35u to $400. 

Straw Cutteroj no side, nominal 20 00 % 65 00 

Rakes, horse and revolving, no sale. 

do hand, wnod do 

do do steel ]2 00 320 00 

Pitchforks, ty doz, no sale. 

Hoes, steel, goose-neck handle, per doz 6 00 @ 8 00 

Crowbars, heavy steel pointed per lb — 15 a> 18 

Flour Mills, Noyes' $500 ; Brown's, 30 in. $450. 

There probably has never been a time when all the above 
enumerated articles hung more heavy upon the market, than 
the present. 

FLOUR— 

— We nute large stocks on hand; and sales heavy ; holders 
anxious to realize. 
For Gallego and Hasall.we quote the jobbing 

rates p3 00 ®13 00 

Chile io oo y/ii 00 

Repacked io 00 310 26 

Horner's Mills, (domestic) IS 00 &}& 25 

BenlciaMIDfl, do n so 7/11 75 

Heal, in I'hls 6 oo 3 7 00 

do t«i hhls 3 50 3 3 75 

Dran, f Its a_ o 

GRAIN— 
Corn, Eastern, V IB — 2 1 :, s — 3fe 

do California — 3 ft 31Z 

Barley, Chili „ — 

do CaLfeeding — 2'„«— 2V4 

Buckwheat, for Boed — 10 910 50 

— 4 



5 
«4 



, 


16 'HI 


1: 




u 


L00 00 


'/ 


00 00 


„ 


'on iM) 


'.' 


70 on 


i 


B0 nit 


8 


55 00 




,v, 00 


-■■ 


50 en 


2 


11) OO 


a 


as ik) 


■ 


to 00 


a 


9 00 


■ ■■ 


5 50 


ti 


500 



Agriculture in Virginia. — The following 
facts relative to the state of agriculture in Vir- 
ginia will tell equally well when applied to any 
other State : 

The Southern Planter, Richmond, Va., states 
that owing to the various instramentalities put in 
operation, the Committee appointed by the State 
.Society can report that since the annual meeting 
in December last, the number of members has 
been increased trova L39toal leaai ^OOOIandthe 
funds in the hands vl' the Treasurer from $268 to 
about $8,000, 

In preparing for their state Show the Society 
expended $>ll),0U0, and with the prospect that 
such a large sum would prove an economical ex- 
penditure. It affords us great pleasure to notice 
these energetic movements in the Old Dominion. 



do Seed _ .ji,,-, 

do ' Iregon, none in mk't. 

do Eastern — 3 tz — 

Wheat, Chili — 

do Cal d — -f 1 .-:/ 

do do (ot milling — :.. 

Australia, seed 1 — | 

— We urn-! Dob .. u!,:ml. 

T.l UBER— 

— Verj >■■■■■ ■■ \ et icto on band, and Domestic eoming iu freely 
with ami ■■'.-. id ii n o h ard Dendi dcj. 

q, V' M :;'. 

in on 40 00 

■ ■■ w 00 

Plank, Eastcmoak B0 00 

Boards, Eastern clear, 11 quality BO 00 

do do 2d quality 60 00 

do Georgia Y. P. flooring 

do Oreg in pine, rough... 



.1I1MO 

9 

Clanboarda, No. 1 go 00 

tern 

do California 

Doors, Eastern '.i 75 

hashes, window 'J 75 

PROVISIONS— 

— Alt kinds of Provisions) exccettinglj dull ; prici ■ nominal 
Boc$ Mess, P bbl .....15 50 

do fel '■■ 8 00 i 

Bacon, e ■ . i v ll> i-j> -a 13 

do Mesa, nominal, n ■ 

Cheese, (scarce) 28 

b Cal l DO 

Mutter, choice 27 

do poi«i ordinary 17 

do California 1 IN) 

Hams, ordinary 13 

do extra 14 

I.nnl, in kegji 

do tins Jimu its 

do 15— 81 > do i.> 

Pork, clear, ty bbl 23 00 

do do Ifi bbl 12 00 

do me , ,' bbl 17 oo 

do do ^ do io 00 

RICE— 

Caroling in bbiu 

China, No. i, in mats 

do No. 2, do 

Mu nil a , 

VEGETABLES— 
Beans, Chill Bayoa, 7c, low in to 
Beans, CaUlbnua 

do do Red 

Beet*. ^ ton 90 DO .. 

Carrots, 

Onions, primi 

Turnips 

Potatoes 

Peas, (none in market) 

Squashes, •tr v IB — . >t l'» 

RETAIL VEGETAB1 I 
It will be pi rceh od 

■ 



30 

1 so 

.' 

S3 

ai 1 50 

16 

14 
17* 

104 

■ I 

■ I I 
■ I 

®10 50 



■ 



3 oi 



5* 



■ a 



Cubbo i« ." i ■ d ...37dS0 
do Bavoy,?doz 3 "O 

Bo* . v ft ;'» 

rurnlna - r > 

r> 

Mnrrowfiit nqun.dies 5 

Celery, l> doz 6 00 

in, ^ doz ....698 

Radlahes, t" 3oi 1 50 

Id Sweei Palstoea, V »' 12 



4 

■ 

Horaenul 
Tomab i 

Lettuce, *f dot 

Piintloy l 50 

Par-uipn 73 



%)):i S ul-VlUS ')!■»*] $<DimGS 



47 



MARRIED. 



■ 



Mr. J. I). 

■ 

I ■ . . 

-.■■■■■ . ' ■ ) ■: 

'■■ "' Sw- 
wane 

. . IM. 1 ■ i in 

. oi William 

.. . i ■ ..■■... 1 '■■■ rton Bead ■■■ 

.:■."! the for i nl«ce. 

H ii ftev. Bte- 

i . 
.. ';. rn 

b, bj R ■■ .1. C.Pe idi rgrai . Mr. Con* 
tthanna Rudolph, 



DIED. 



.Brother Jo in,Feh Id, in the port oi 
Frond , Lu 3. CI unberlain, Aged M, wile of Lew 

lain, ol the !i 'wel8i na&ve ol Barnard, 

Vermont Ve mom papera pleaee copy. 
,, . . . jUe, Ji n 30th, Mr. .1 -hi. A. Smitl), aeed 33 years. 
,, ... .. . : i the Tuolumne River, near Red Mountain Bur, 

Jm, 33d, by the en .sizing o iboal Charles F.Mansfleld, leteol 
Lowell, Maes,, aged 44 years, 

[a Columbia, at his residence, va Tuuhtiimc county, Jan. lurn, 
,i....,., . •, ton, of bilious typhoid pneumonia, aged 32 years. 

In Santa Rosa, Sonoma county, Jrn, 30th, Mr. Henry valley, 
. ada, of disease of the heart ; aged about 30 years. 
New Orleans papers please copy. 

Drowned near Mississippi Bar, <m the North Yuba, Jan. 30th, 

Qenry Jerningham, Queen, formerly ol Washington City, aged 

2j years. . _ , , _ 

lu New York, Jan. 1st, Frances Josephine, Pcrhura, aged 5 

veiir*, 6 months, and 16 days. 

On board the Golden Gate, lying in the harbor of San Diego, 
Mr Isaac M. Gibson, aged about 40 years ; a passenger ot the 
Golden Gate, from the Atlantic States. Mr. Gibson was bom 
in Philadelphia, and had resided in New Orleans for 11 years 
previous to coming to California in 1849. He will be regretted 
by his numerous friends and acquaintances. Philadelphia and 
Now Orleans papers please copy. 

In San DiegO, Jan. &4th, Mr. Wnx Green, of Chester county, 
Pennsylvania, aged about 54 years. Pennsylvania papers please 

In "this city, Feb. Sth, Ellen Francis Lcaly, aged 5 months and 
11 days, daughter of Daniel and Mary Lealy. 



B \l\ AN T & CO'S 
Agricultural Ware House. 

CORXFK FBONT seiSCO. 

I ■ 

AoicDLTon il [mi Mining To 

AND ! 

>..■■■..■ : ■ I i 

■ i : , 

all 94t 

H. W. BRADLEY'S 

National Daguerrean Gallery, 

CORNER OP CLAY AND KEARNY BTBKET9, 

Ban Francisco, Cal. 
Importers and Dealors in the bosl qualitt o 

Every Article required in the Business. 
Portraits, [urge or email, equal to any En the world) ■■■ on al 

n >tica U ■. thi bi Improved 8TEH El (S< H 'PIC 

PICTURES, n new and beautiful Improvement in the art I im 



PREMIUM PLOUGHS. 

W/'E invite the attentionof farmers bo the assortment oi 

VV " Premium Steel Ploughs," now al "store al E ehibition 

Hall These are the celebrated "Morgan 4 Co/e Peorin 
Ploughs," pronounced by the committee the pen heel Plough in 
the United State* WARREN & SON'ff 

1 Agrieuitora] Store. 



WM. XEELY THOMPSON, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Lumber, 

MARKET STREET, BETWEEN FRONT AND DAVIS. 

Boards, Scantling, Floor Joist, Sash and Panel Doors, Win 
dows and Building materials of all kinds constantly on hand. 4i9 



FRANK BAKER, 
Carpat, Paper Hanging and Upholstery Depot, 
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, 
135 and 137 Clay street, San Francisco. 1 1m 



BURNETT & POMEROY, 

CORNER OF MAIN AND MARKET STREETS, 

DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL. 
Sawing and Planing done to Order. 3 lm 



PAINTS. OILS, GLASS, &c., &c. 

OLIVER & BUCKLEY, importers and wholesale dealers in 
the aliove articles, keep on hand the most extensive stock 



to l)e found in the city. 
31m 



Corner Battery and Halleck streets. 



SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE. 



PORT OF SAN FRANCISCO. 



ARRIVALS. 
Feb. 3— Nicaragua steamer Brother Jonathan, Word, 12 days 

from San Juan. 
Br ship Polynesia, Rowlands, 265 days from Cardiff, via Callao 

53 days, with coal. 
Bark Acadia, Cousins, 3 days lm Humboldt Bay, with lumber. 
Brig Wyandot, Woodby, 3 days from Humboldt Bay, with 

lumber. 
Brig S R Jackson, Owen, 3 days from Humboldt Bay, with 

piles. 
Schr John Dunlap, Miller, 6 days from Pajaro, with produi e, 
Bchr Com Shubnck, Clark, 24 hours from Tomales; produce. 
Schr Astoria, WiUiaxnfl, GO hours from Point New Years, with 

potatoes, 
Sloop Mary, William?, 6 hours from Bolinaa Bay; lumber. 
Feb. 3— Steamship Gulden Gate, [shorn, 57houru from Sun 

Diego. 
Steamship California, Leroy, 15 days from Panama. 
Steamer Thoraaa Hunt, Sampson, 57 hours from San Diego. 
p- L .| (i 4 — srcHinrfiiiji <''»liah, Haley, 3 days from San Diego and 

intermediate ports, 

p e0i -> Steamship Oregon, Hudson, M days from Panama. 

Steamship Fremont, Dow, -J days from Oregon. 
Clipper ship Vaquero, Wilcoit, i l days from San Diego, 
Sohr Odd Fellow, Austin, 30 hours from Pajaro,with potatoes, 
Schr Sun Serpent, Eastman, 2 days from Tomaies,witH lime. 
Bohr Francisco, Miller, S days from Pajaro, with potatoes. 

Sohr 9 D Bailey, ' larcia, 2 aaya ftn S a l !ru2,with potatoes, 

p eo . 6— Steamship Peytona, Nosh, 60 hours from Astoria, vio 

Port Orford 86 hours, with radse 
Cupper Hhlp Eureka, Whipple, 124 duys days from New York, 

with mdae, 
Peb, 7— Schr Pilgrim, Sottston, 8 hours from Rolino B with 

lumber, 
Sohr Mary Elizabeth, Ellis, 6 hours from Bolinas : [amber. 

Schr Eudorus, Seaman, 1 1 dava from ' 'reg lumber, 

Bloop Gold Hunter, Morgan, B noun from Boiinao: i ber. 

Sloop Mary, Nooland, : ~ : I i from Bolinos . I ber 

Sloop Falmouth, Riley, < ; hours from Bolinas, lu ■ i 

p ij, g — Clipper Bhip Mutrlili-'f*.-, IVuit, h'-' ,ln\ 

with mdse. 
B»rk J M Uquorte, Arteoga, CaUa k 

Bi-la J W Kendall Golroy, 11 days from Puget Sound, with 
' lumber and L0 tons sal , 

CLEARANCES 
Feb. 3— Br bark Lomuello, Haddock, Col 

Br brie Lotiw, Morrison, for Voncoui 

Schr W A Torlton, Morgan, Sacramei I 
p flDi 3_ Steamship Golden Gate, ' ham, Boni< la 

Steamship Mcrum, Smith, Crosceni I ! 

Ship Augustus Heard, n ipkini . I Sal ■ ■ 

Ship Talma, Glbbs, Pugel Sonnd, 

Boj i. Walter Claxton, Anderson M 
Pq D , -1 — Steamship California, Lero; B 

Steamer Major Tompkins, Hunt, ! i 

Ship i inward, Wade, * talctttte 

■■. I|; , Telassa, Mitchell, Benieia, 

s.-in- GaseUe, Hurd, Hui Idt 

peb. 6— Steamship Oregon, Uu Ison, Benlcia 

H„,-k Gp i Manila 

.,..-.....■ i. ii 

Steamer \\ mer 
■ .. ■ Ship Kiu : ■ : ■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ 

dp Ocean Peoi ■■ : 
. :■ ■ ..-.■ Pel ■ ■■ ■ ■ 



12,000 Fresh Grape Vines, 

J i i of Los 

■ 

market, 
nrkot rates, by 

PEAKE, 
6-lm. No, T W 



GIBSON & KING, 

IMPORTERS AND WHOLESALE DEALERS IN 

Groceries, Provisions, Foreign and Domestic 
Spirits and Wines, 

Nos, 24, 26 and 28 Battery street, near corner of Pine, 



31m 



San Francisco. 



SAMUEL A, CHAPIN. OTIS. V. SAWVEB 

CHAP IN & SAWYER, 

IMPORTERS AND JOBBERS OF 

HARDWARE AND LEATHER, 

Saddlery, Shoe Findings, Wets, Seines, &c, &c, 
■i lm ]-j7 Sansome st, ueiir Wash] igton, am Francisco. 



PRIZE ONIONS— ONION SETTS, &c. 

WE have in -i reci tved h superior lot of Onion Se< 
extra quolii j to <■■ hich we call the particular d 
of cultivators. Also, 500 1 1 *--^ Onion Setts, iu aneordi ! I I 
French Sugar Beet for stock. 

.■.■:■:■.■ 

ohi use, 
Musical u ■!!, S m f > a iclsco, 
2 4t J street, ! 



PALMER COOK & CO., 

Hit ai, 

Drafts on the American Exchange Bank, New York, 
i . . S Al 



TIME. 

PARTK'i'i. u, attention i L, ■■■■■ a aal, to the clean 
. ■ ice, oy 

BARRETT & SHERWOOD, 

1 City * Hi-fi mi 4 t 

Osage Orange, Raspberries and Currants. 
<*)f\ A/jA Planl 

*jv*vUU 500 

F or side by 
wm. r. patch. ciiarles cl 

PATCH & CLAYTON, 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS AM- GENERAL AGENTS, 

V< 92 / '■■■■■ 
I 

1 4t 



\.l 



p»c 



NOT THE ONLY ONBI 
ANOTHER MAN IS TN Till: FIELD 

Prepared to out Quarts Rock into any form 
desired. 



WORTH * CO. 



FLOWERS I BRIGHT FL0WEES ! 






I will my i>> mv friends iimi the pvhbc 

■ 

WITH * POLISH KQUAL TO Tin i 

N. B- ; ^rchiwed »t iho I; 



RR. 



There axe Three Thingi I Do Rot Do! 

:l."Hi«n to Irarehis Wttch, au.I whii | 
ho colls for it, charge him Twxvty -Nivc Dols.au for deaalns; 
I \rv it StOf) two hour* tj 

MtS for a rhuin, *n.l mH! it for 
Thimtv - 

th hnwK Bablcr, and harr to tsJce it back and r«* FtfTT 
v u in money, and give another chain. 
3l I do not :■■■! a Cnpoun he can leave hi* 



u up hi» praporty, wtohont ha pays me l 
p-i i i»< an.l t*n pollam more for ratnu: It 

Thfr« are many other thing* I do not do, whfcb T mny caw 
at aotne othar txn». 1 it X W TUCKER. 



1 T TICKER 

StI.VKIi! SILVER! SILVER! 
100 Doxen Table Spooaa. 
95 Doaaai Table Forte. 

125 Doien Teaspoons'. 
SSL VET i -:h or arUtool ^l^era. 

SILVER FITCRSSS AND CTJPS. 
100 handsome F ANS, worth «3 to ttOO earh. 

rr.xx GLAsasa, worth •£ to |r<S aach. 
A fow of the towst Jnrr: 



itnto. 



DREXEL, SATHEE A CHURCH, 

M V9 VT SIGHT IX SOata TO SUIT, ON* 

Ocean B i Now York. 

; : Lraerfcfl Boston 

Moobnnic ' nud FarmerB" Bank Albaoy. 

Drcxol & Co Philadelphia. 

Jo i.'i; i Leo & Co] Richm I. 

.i. B. Morton, E >i Riohmoud, Vn, 

Son. Wm Laiimer Pittabui . Pn; 

A. J. Wheeler Cincinnati : 

a, ii Sunt, Esq; Louisville, Ky. 

.i R Macmnrdo & Co Now Orleans. 

n Detroit, Mich.; Memphis and Nosbville, Tenn., Co 
Ihi.iIhi- , i Jili. i ; Norfolk, v*o. ; imn Charlostoni South Carolina, 
9 lm 



QUARTZ SPECIMENS POLISHED. 

Seals, Rings, Cane Heads, Snuff Box Covers, 

BARRETT e} SHERWOOD, 

MOKTQOXKRV STHKRT. ONE DOUR MOM CoM.Hr.Kc TAL 

Uahment 1 4t 

New Drug Establishment. 

■ 

n >m the Eaatcrn 
^tnto- 

'.■irclullT nut np at all houra, 
Country order* prOinpUT att':. 

6t I'tish rtrpff and Brvanl Plart 



•Tuior PBTsrc to nra Dooa" 

W.ll box into a Floral raar, and aaienad of 
the "nauMMtrdruf." wrotferth* pavtonaeor rTowcrx 
Oar he— ttftri coDeakm of Cnai/arana r..,r*r .srrrf* w<- ao» 



Three are pat tip m haodaooe morocco ensea, or hc au awpn- 
thtc rases of raw* bottle*, wahprintrd tvts and .li 
with prented nowcrs of tho ditfrraot mnailaa of < 
lv that 1 am ""I* 0l Iho n * > * t bcnotifa] trrtr that oan be | 
Prisaw eifta for botne at this m 
'.t.- acteackni tothemat our rooma, w Mwnral Hall 
Building. 
S Bntan and Ft rwrt* 



Daniel D. Page, l David Chamber^ I Francis W, Pace, 
Henrj D. Bacon, Henry Hoight, SacramentoCily. 

St Louis, [ Ban Francisco, | 
PAGE, BACON & CO., 

BANKERS, Montgomery, corner of California street, San 
Francisco, draw at Bight, in eiuiia to suit, on — 

Geo. Peabody &. Co London. 

F. HutU & Co London. 

American Exchange ISiink New York. 

Duncan, Sherman & Co New York. 

Atlantic Bank Boston. 

Philadelphia Bank Philadelphia, 

Josiah Lee & Co : Baltimore, 

Louisimiin .State Bank New Orleans. 

Page & Bacon St. Louis. 

Hutehings & Co Louisville. 

T. S. Goodman & Co. Cincinnati, 

S. Jones &. Co Pittsburg. 

Gold Duet and Exchange purchased at current rates. 1 4t 



GEMS FOR THE PARLOR AND GEMS F0I* 
• THE GARDEN. 

T ! ''-. ch .■-■'' i ■ ■:. tbs, Tulips, Jonquils, etc., 
.■.. ■! Tirdon. 
'.' ■ i a nnd rare Flower Sci ds and Planb ; 

■ 11 '.in. 'in- l Plunts for hordere 

ii ;e Orange Plants, for GABDEM HEDG1 
the safe i and tuoi I oi nanionral hi d te km 
■! i ■ r» eived al WARREN & .- : 

1 Exhibit!, i 



WANTED— A1 the gonenil Agency and Intelligonce otfice, 
No. 87 Long wharf, 3d door bofow Sansome sti ■ t, up 
Btairs, 
Houses, Farms, Lots for aale or to Rent. 
Merchants, Fanners, Mechanics, Hotel Keepers, and Private 
Families supplied with help at die BhortCBt QOtlce, 

Merchanto clerks, laborers rmdeervanta naafind im" diate 
employment by applying as ubove. 
Money loamd im i^-c unties, personal and real estate, 

T, H, PERU ■ 
!'. s. Particular attention paid to famishing Fannen with 
help immediately upon receiving their orders. And in w ritins 
to us they ^^'ill pleaee specify the exact kind of help n ■■ ■■ . 
and the wages. AddrcaB T. II. PERKINS & Co. 

Intelligence Offict 
2 4t " 87 Li ng i 



ADAMS & CO., 

MONTGOMERY STREET, yAN FRANCISCO. 

Bills of Exchange drawn on any of our Houses in New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimare, Washington, Cincinnati, New 
Orleans, St. Louis and London. 

Also payable at the following Banks — 

Merchants' and Farmers' Bank Albany. 

Utica City Bank Utica. 

Bank of Syracuse Syracuse. 

Bank of Auburn Auburn. 

Bank of Attica Buffalo. 

Rochester City Bank Rochester. 

George Smith & Co. Chicago. 

Alex. Mitchell, Fire and Marine Ins. Co Milwaulcie. 

Michigan State Bank Detriot. 

Coin/Branch Bank of the State of Ohio Cleveland. 

Clinton Bank Columbus, Ohio. 

&-W Money und Gold Dust received in Special Deposits, ami 
General Deposits, received from merchants, mechanics, and 
others. ADAMS & CO. 



PIANO FORTES FOR HIRE. 

WOODWORTH &, CO., importers of Piano Forte , i::i' 
Clay street, are aow i eceiving a farther supplj i rial i 
Fortes, from the celebrated " Stodard" manu&ctory, espre&l 

for lure. Also, now lauiling- from tbe clipncrf-', n larr . atfsor!' 
ment of inBtnvments suitable for HOLIDAY PRES1 P - i 
eisdng of 6, G% and 7 octaves, plain and carved, with ; '■■! I 01 'I 
ivory keys, likewise 

Prince's Meladeons, 4 to 5 octave.? ; 

India Rubber Piano Covers ; 

French Piano Covers ; 

Roecwoud Music Stools, &c, &c. i 41 



WELLS, PARGG & CO. 

SOUTHERN EXPRESS.— Mr. Todd, having disposed of his 
interest in tbe Southern Express to us, we shall inn a 
Daily Express to an.l n. mi 

San Francisco, Stockton, Columbia, Murphey's Flat 
and Mokeluuuie Hill, 
Sag with a Daily Express at Stockton for Mr. Op hi b, 
.: Eupoaa. 

■ ■ rom San Francisco to Co 
" WELLS, FARGO & CO., 
3 in Mom j.'])]. : ■ 



SACRAMEKT0 CITY BANK. 

JOHN M. RHOADES. Banker. 

Firs-proof fi ■ i I 

EUi rahznto i 'in'. 

w.ii JEW YORK, on 

■ other points in 

. renernl 

■ ■■ .\ .'. 

■ 

i i 'i.j I 

■ 

iti 



VOLUNTEERS WANTED! 

TO THE GREAT SALE OF 

JEWELRY AT JOHN W. TUCKERS. 

I phall now commence selling oft" my entire stock, co] isth 
of DIAMOND WORK, WATCHES, JEWELRY, SILVER 
WARE, etc, etc. 

Amounting to more than $300,000! 

I have got to eel! all tne above goods before the firet ot June, "- 
I have to rebuild my store according to the new grade. Any 
person who wants a pood article can procure one from me 
Cheaper than in any other City in the World ! 
But I don't wish it to be understood that I i iretend to 
with those who sell trash ; — persona who would not hesitate to 
guarantee a braes ring or a watch for pure gold; — theee 
can sell lower than I can. If I sell an article ol any kirn:, and il 
does not turn out as I represent it, I will return tbe moi ey. N i 
person shall leave my establishment dieeatistied. Call and 
me before you purchase elsewhere. 

JOHN W. TTJCK1 I-', 
1 lm 125 Montgomery street, near Sacramenl o, 

Catalogue of Fruit and Fruit Trees. 

WE call the attention of Nurserymen and Orchardistt to i 
new catalogue just issued by us, prei ared w ii 
labor and coet, giving the lists ofthe best Fruits culUvt.i 
Europe or America, with Idieir synonyme. Thia catidoi lie ■ ii 
braces also lists of best Vegetables, Ornamental Trees, ri . 
ing Pliint», Seeds, &c. — bang a perfect illustration ol >■ 
ran ttes of everything belonging to AgbicoxVUbs, Houticvi.- 
tube, and Fi.oaicui.TURE, with brief dii-ectaons forth cull ■■■ 
each department, and as adapt* >i to Califoi 
Thie work wnl be &und a very great holpto all engn 

cultivation. 
Pi i ■■:. I pa copy. WARREN & 8i i3 

Nun erynien, Seedsmen, and E ' n 
5 Musical Hall Bn 



Miners' Exchange and Savings Bank, 

AND 

ARMORY BA1 :^CO. 

Conn* Sacramento streets. 

DIL A. A WRHiHT, Aoext. 

» ■■ tlu> Banking How* Mil bwir <■■ 

' Hid unr and a half per ccut. |»t month, reilcrtnablc at 

■ i* **• -mil at thi*oflif 
y-tour hemra, and th.- v.-ry l->- 






POL LEY & CO., 

Of the bay State mh i s, would mmoi i i m i 
■ idOtli D "i i i ni in I QUI Cl ■■ 

■ oral, tl al t i i . ■ \ ... ■ : ■ ■ . 

i the Firo Proof Store, No. 49 K street, bi 
Second u e tl ej n IB j >■■•■ aj ■ keep i n hand a lai - 

stock of CnUl'ornl ■ ill and G 

PultHc 

■ .-. ■ ■ ■ 

., .. , 

■ ■ 
. 
i 

■ . . 

GRASS SEED 

. . . ' i 

j. ■ | 

1 ' ■ 
■ 

Musical Hall 1 

■ 



10,000 



WASHINGTON STEAM MILLS. 
WASHINGTON FLOUR MILLS. 






S r- —Will t* k :!d n»r ici.bumri 



ace Bill. of. 



Wholesale Saddlery Warehouse. 
J. C. JOILNSO 

IMP" -tal. n.«i. 

Lmtbor. Ace, N . 130 Sin* m* .ir"*. nrar WMUnctcm, 



SuiF 



tr.i.1 



n.".. .r..l f\!<'L''.\f ^***. l i > L*hj 



dct, umI ■ 



.TCcuiMrDtof beiag abl« to otfrr grmt iadoco- 

nt^rit. to |.afTn»^r^ 
Now oi, hand ■ bm — willliwii l . on-wtim in put ot : 
'■*»; 
lianas; 

-nr~ ; w,.l W«on W 

Bujoct and wason do : N'-vran and Cat > 

riBlll. 

Uiunes: «add>ryBanlwarr: 

OfL Bndka and HaraeM Lcalncr; Patent and cnanaBad 

Lwl.tr. Tall Smb.. Ac 



I 






WAABSN A SOU'S 
II 1 1 II 1 I • 

HALL OF SCIENCZ. 

rl K nfaaenbera take pkaaurc in annowncnw to 
and patmn. tfcat th. 
Drnltore and Natnral rV teu cea. If.-inc no, 



ni 






- 

And a hnr ual **T choice tanetj of Roee Ma; 

Co.; 

APPLE TK: 
Jut tvci---i br WdlA. Far? 

m a i iiirr pf'K f-r- irocn toe Norwrr. 

For iaJeby T * BRALS. 

t In M Bacn-rr acred. 



■v aul dkere, -t r 

< frt- un tr of thf fftttanepeRa of what Uh-; 

Ftaariea wiD br rxtmttm, rnnrajalwa hwiI :Vj.~ i r. .. 



SHADZ A5D OMXAXEXTAL TSEES. 

1.000 Beaoti/al Slaad* TrM*. 
\ " v i4 tike amt- id plant Trm. Pt» a* a -mat arc inriMri 
.> ^B and aw «mt CotMai W»Kai*. Locwal aa-i oti^ 
ixm oc« m-1 : >r •*> at WAX 

1 faMttM Ha.1 



10,000 rKtTTT TREES. 

Grape Tmm, Tig Trees, l^itanj ni Carreot 

\l' ;anrg aD who aatiwil paatatMg Tn»» id Vim* B> <*U 
\\ a aa beaqce th*? —toe ttww p-arrh— •j.wweoa ofm 
tl wmj ■'* " Hl^t i rliT i ■Mii T tTi unl ' ■ * — Otr 



-■a Ti ODder ' 

an the chefcavt Fn.ii- kaown i 

Top Hafpn will rnuOBO i}"WJiupn# at t mil in W 
aad rvvaw awei-MMaw of rtt i/ t iiiu y da« in aatnr- 
— il h ■ tiaiaf i '■.-• *»! P-. 

.ISAM la M •- 

aavta 
pawaaaattof ail ik iac rip ti fa aa tmA of the mot ■li M m aal i- 

-,-r «ad awwrior mnmmt ot 
Ftowf-/ Stwda, ovpcRBag ail ta* aww aaal rw««wi«aW 
and Or»j» 0eeda of a iffii tH -r*\Lu. wtMa«na* aavl 
TVae*k.aohl at H» t MtiBhail wM W ■■i-liJ pm 
and j M iaii. crtw to fMr mm* mA aiaa wn a J km a 



t tbet; tmtfhem t &j %im$*n\l4 v- aaty aar- 



Pirfcaf of Flwer i 



»fnB*iw thna..a i-or 
acTaal rixit li>7 prrJ»K>-. 




48 



8 (J) a (SWf®friB$(S @mw&$< 



->ONG OF THE ANGEL OP THE FLOWERS. 
BY J. WAWLAND, ESQ. 

I rose mid Eden's virgin bowers, 

Aud caught upon my wings 
Yi ur rosy tinte, celestial flowers I 

That bloomed beside her springe. 
The etherial sun his golden light 

£hcd through the perfumed air; 
No foot but mine, at morn or night, 

Could crush the flower-cups there. 
The morning dew-drops as the fell, 

And sparkled in her bowers, 
Paint, in each bright and tiny cell, 

The Angel of the Flowers. 

And thou, sweet bird of Paradise 1 

Dancing from spray to spray. 
Who, in the soft and silver light, 

Singest the livelong day — 
Thou wooest me with thy strain of love 

From flowery lawn to hill, 
And to my song — as wreaths I wove — 

Gay danced each laughing rilL 
Thy music, on the freighted breeze, 

That kissed the Elyeian bowers, 
Entranced, amid young Eden's trees, 

The Angel of the Flowers. 

And when, in that enchanting hour, 

I saw thee soar away, 
1 rose with thee from Eden's bower, 

Into celestial day ; 
I flew o'er earth, her rlowers to cull, 

And sighed for Eden's bliss, 
Among the bright and beautiful 

Whose cheeks the soft winds kiss ; 
Soling on the delicious breeze, 

I heard them in their bowers. 
Each daughter hailed, beneath the trees, 

The Angel of the Flowers. 

And as we song & sad adieu 

To our sweet Eden clime — 
I heard angelic voices chant 

A farewell song sublime. 
I saw them wave their hands, and lean 

Upon their harps the while : 
I wept — as closed the golden gates 

Upon their heavenly smile. 
I turned away, and on my wings 

Caught the light of Eden's bowers, 
And far I heard their farewell chant 

To the Angel of the Flowers. 

Downward to earth I winged my way. 

And wooed the laughing girle, — 
I wove my roses in their cheeks, 

Their lips and sunny curls ; 
The lily's white, the rose's blush — 

I wove them into one ; 
1 braided in their hair the flush 

Of the golden, setting; sun. 
Me pressing, til) our hearts were one, 

We sang, those blissful hours ; 
They pledged their love forevermore 

To the Angel of the Flowers. 

i saw one take her bridal vow, 

A rose upon her breast — 
- tie blushed, as to her bosom's shrine 

Her lover's hand she prest. 
I marked the graceful creature'-- tear. 

As she gave her heart away, 

-i-id crushed, in that embrace, the rose 

Upon her breast that lay. 
Its fragrance breathed from her sweet lips, 

As she kissed him in her bowers, 
tad welcomed to their preen retreat 

The Angel of the Flowers. 

Another, in her radiant bloom, 

1 watched upon the green, — 
She bent above the churchyard tomb, 

And wept for one within. 
y':^e plucked the moss-rose from her breast 

And placed it on bis bier — 
And, as her low-voiced prayer she breathed, 

1 caught that mother's tear. 
But, as she turned in griof away, 

And sought her cypress bowers, 
She touched her lute, in plaintive strain, 

To the Angel of the Flowers. 

i .-aw a bright-eyed child at play, 

His laughing dimples hid 
Beneath his silken curls, — his eyes, 

Like jewels of Giamschid. 
11^ chased the gorgeous butterfly 

From fragant shrub to tree — 
He plucked the wild rose from its stalk 

And laughed with boyish glee. 
The rose no thorn shall bear for him, 

In youth's unclouded hours — 
She fanned the cherub with her wing, — 

Sweet Angel of the Flowers. 

id oh ! amid that lovely throng, 

Two sisters, in sweet glee, 
Were singing, as they tripped along, 

O'er bluoining lawn and lea. 
They phsjffted the daisy in their path, 

Tiie violet from it? bed. 
And Btrewed them where a brother lay, 

To rest his aching head. 
He kissed them for the grateful boon — 

So sweet in his sick hours, 
And bade them cling, with sister's love, 

To the Angel of the Flowers. 

I jrazed at Beauty, as she sighed, 

Upon her jewelled throne, 
And scattered wealth around, like pearls 

That chwp her virgin zone. 
Queen-like, she trod — her fairy feet 

Tripping to songs of mirth — 
The south wind dalUed with her cheeks. 

Bright creature of the earth I 
I pressed her lily hand in mint — 

As we sought the rosy bowers, 
I breathed my perfumes to her lips, 
And Woman since, herself hath been 

The Angel of the Flowees. 



and that can make pie is a continual 
feast to the husband that marries it. 



Old Jests. — Persons who gloat over dust and 
black-letter need scarcely be told that the best of 
of "modern" jests are almost literally from the 
antique: in short, that what we employ to ' : set 
the table in a roar " were employed by the wise 
men of old to enliven their cups, deep and strong; 
that to jest was a part of the Platonic philosophy; 
and that the excellent fancies, the flashes of mer- 
riment, of our forefathers, are nightly, nay. hourly 
re-echoed for our amusement. Yet such is the 
whole art of pleasing : what has pleased will, with 
certain modifications, continue to please again and 
again, until the end of time. 

A speculative gentleman, wishing to teach his 
horse to do without food, starved him to death. 
'■I had a great loss," said he; "for, just as he 
learned to live without eating, he died." 

A curious inquirer, desirous to know how he 
looked when asleep, sat with closed eyes before a 
mirror 

A young man told his friend that he dreamed 
that he had struck his foot against a sharp nail. 
i( Why then do you sleep without your shoes?" 
was the reply. 

A robustious countryman meeting a physician, 
ran to hide behind a wall ; being asked the cause, 
he replied, " It is so long since I have been sick, 
that I am ashamed to look a physician in the 
face." 

A gentleman had a cask of Aminean wine, 
from which his servant stole a large quantity. 
"When the master perceived the deficiency, he 
diligently inspected the top of the cask, but could 
find no traces of an opening. " Look if there be 
not a hole in the bottom," said a bystander. 
" Blockhead !" he replied, " do you not see that 
the deficiency is at the top, and not at the bot- 
tom ?" 

A young man, meeting an acquaintance, said, 
: ' I heard that you were dead." " But," says the 
other, "you see me alive. "I do not know how 
that may be," replied he: "you are a notorious 
liar ; but my informant was a person of credit." 

A man hearing that a raven would live two 
hundred years, bought one to try. 

A man wrote to his friend in Greece, begging 
him to purchase books. From negligence or 
avarice, he neglected to execute the commission ; 
but fearing that his correspondent might be 
offended, he exclaimed, when next they met, 
" My dear friend, I never got the letter you wrote 
to me about the books." 

A wittol, a barber, and a bald-headed man 
travelled together. Losing their way, they were 
forced to sleep in the open air ; and, to avert dan- 
ger, it was agreed to keep watch by turns. The 
lot first fell on the barber, who for amusement, 
shaved the fool's head while he slept; he then 
woke him. and the fool, raising his hand to scratch 
his head, exclaimed, "Here's a pretty mistake; 
rascal ! you have waked the bald-headed man in- 
stead of me." 

A man that had nearly been drowned while 
bathing, declared that he would not again go into 
the water until be had learned to swim. 

A fellow had to cross a river, and entered a 
boat on horseback ; being asked the cause, he re- 
plied, " I must ride, because I am in a hurry. 

A student in want of money sold his books, 
and wrote home, "Father, rejoice, for I now 
derive my support from literature." — Mrs. Par- 
tington's Carpet Bag. 

Becoming a Medium. — The fascinating spirit- 
ual rapping is without a doubt gaining strength 
among us, and some very ludicrous incidents 
often grow out of it at times, as well as more seri- 
ous and deplorable ones. 

A few nights since, within this week, a young 
male friend of ours, who from a sneering skeptic 
had become a devout believer, retired to rest, after 
having his nervous system partially destroyed by 
the information, through the spirit of his grand- 
father, that he would very soon become a power- 
ful medium. He was in his first comfortable 
snooze, when a clicking noise in the direction of 
the door awoke him. He listened intently ; the 
noise was still going on — very like the raps of the 
spirits on the table, indeed ! 

"Who is there?" 

There was no answer, and the queer noise 
stopped. 

" Anybody there ?" 

No answer. 

•' It must have been a spirit," he said to him- 
self. "I must be a medium. Pll try. (Aloud.) 
If there is a spirit in the room it will signify the 
same by saying ' aye' — no, that's not what I mean. 
If there is a spirit in the room, will it please rap 
three times?" 

There very distinct raps were given in the 
direction of the bureau. 

" Is it the spirit of my sister ?" 

No answer. 

( 'Is it the spirit of my mother ?" 

Three taps. 

" Are you happy ?" 

Nine taps. 

" Shall I hear from you to-morrow ?" 

Raps very loud again; this time in the direc- 
tion of the door. 

" Shall I ever see you ?" 

The raps then came from the outside of the 
door. He waited long for an answer to his last 
question, but none came. The spirit had gone; 
and after thinking on the extraordinary visit, he 
turned over and fell asleep. 

On getting up in the morning, he found that 
the spirit of his mother had carried off his watch 
and purse, his pants down stairs into the hall, 
and his great coat altogether. — Mrs. PaifmgtOtifo 
Carpet Bag. 

Fish for no compliments, as they are generally 
caught in shallow water. 



PEORIA PREMIUM STEEL PLOWS. 

THE FORMER CELEBRITY OF THE PEORIA PRE- 
MIUM STEEL PLOWS, and the unequalled success oi 
their introduction in this State, would eeem to preclude the ne- 
cessity of any further effort on our part to drew attention 
thereto: hut in view of the transitory nature of business in 
general in California, and the probability that some may hare 
looked upon our eetubl itdimcnt of an extensive and permanent 
man 'failure ol Plows here, in the face of euch enormous im- 
portations and cxtnivajant prices of material, as an impossi- 
bility — we believe it expedient to adopt this method of brmging 
it within the special notice of all concerned, that we are now 
manuiaeturhiR, ami will have ready for this eeason'B demand, 
three thousand of the most superior Plows ever made or used 
within this State. 

We feel warranted in making this assertion, from the fact 
that all who used our Plows last season tentiiy that they were 
Buperior: and we have studied so closely the immediate wants 
of our patrons from every section of the State, that we can 
now furnish Plows suitable to any particular kind ol soil known 
in tin' State. 

Our material has all been selected in the East by one of our 
firm, and imported by us directly from the manufacturers, 
which pluces it in our power to say coniidently that nothing is 
: in quality, while we are enabled to make the plows at a 
COSt greatly below that of last season, and are determined to 
sell at prices within tiie reach of every furmer who may wish 
to u^o die Peoria Premium Steel Plow. 

It should in' remembered that these plows will do double the 
work with half the team required in ueine the ordinary cast 
Plow ; mid 1 1 1 f i t the work, when done, will bo well done. 

Em* particulars of prices, and descriptions of plows, we refer 
you to tin" Subjoined card The prices therein detailed are 
those established at our factory, and the only alterations from 
them that we authorize our agents to make, is the addition of 
the cost of transportation to their places of bueiiiees — thus plac^ 
ing the plows at every accessible point of the State for the 
exact price Charged at the Factory, with the necessary expenses 
only Boded. 

Farmers ordering our plows through mercantile houses here, 
would do well to write to us at the same time, if they would 
make sure of getting the right plow, for some are interested in 
represemiui; mat we are QO! making plows at all, while other 
Hill not Bell our plows when they can get "tl" a cast plow. We 
therefore recommend that order* should he sent to us directly, 
accompanied by an order upon your merchant for the amount, 
which you ran always know by a reference to the card accom- 
panying tin- circular. 

On the 24th of June the interest of T. Adams in our business 
ceased, by the sale of his entire interest therein to L. E. Mor- 
gan. Aside from this, there has not, nor will there be, any 
alteration, as we have the same efficient and thoroughly prac 
tised bands in every department of our business. 

E. L. MORGAN &. CO., Successors to 
T. ADAMS & CO., 
Corner of Broadway and Battery streets. 

£3p* The following are the established prices for the Peoria 
Premium Steel Plows, at our Factory, and the only addition 
our Agents are authorised to make thereto, is the C06t of trans- 
portation to their points of business : 

SIZK. DESCRIPTION. FUBBOW, PRICE. 

No. 5 plain lOin 8 30 

5>£ " 12in $ 35 

6 " 14 in $ 40 

7 " Ifiin $ 50 

6 clipper or prairie 14 in § fiO 

16 " " l*i in S 70 

18 " " 18 in $85 

20 " " 20 in $100 

39 " " 22 in §110 

24 " " 24 in $125 

26 " " 26 in $150 

30 " " 30 in $175 

40 " " 40 in $225 

Bubactf] Plows $40 

Cultivators $25 

[For the addition of wheel ami axle to any of the above clip- 
per Plows, an additional charge ol t30.{ 

L. E. MORGAN & CO., BuoaeflBon to 
1 T. ADAMS & CO. 



SIGN OF THE GOLDEN M0RTAE. 

JUSTIN GATES, wholesale and retail Prutunst, 7fi K street, 
Sacramento, offers f< r sale at greal iy reduced prices, a large 
and well selected assortment of 

Paints, Oils, Turpentine, BnaOier, Alcohol, Lamp Oil, 
Ncatsfunt Oil, Quinine, Morphine, Opium, Camphor, 
Tartaric Add, Cream of Tartar, Bi da, Tapioca, Bops, 
Cloves, Caf tile Soap, Indigo, Bay Water, Congress Wate^ 
Shaker's Herbs and Boom, Tflden's Extract, Badhci Powderej 
Supporter-, Truces, .Syringes, Patent ami 1! itanic Medicines, 
Dental and Surgical Instruments, Lulling Extracts, 

Electric Concentrated Preparations, lVriuiiicrv (all kinds), 
Osgood's Cholagogue, Townaend's. Sands' and Myers' Sana. 

parilla. Ayera Cherry Pectoral, Dr. Jauea' Expl ■cti-rant. 
Alterative Pills, Mortar's flitters and Pills 
Green Mountain Oiotineut, Halloway's Ointment and Pills, 
Wright's, Uraijdreth's and Cnok'n Pills, Davis' Pain Killer, 
Mexican Muntang, Nerve and Bono Lmamsnt, 
Choice Wines and Liquors for the Sick, 
Buperior l lid Port Wine Bitters. 

Agents for Br. Robinson's Mountain Extract 
CURES THE FEVER AND AGUE IN ONE DAY. 
£&* Don't forget, " t-itm of the Golden Mortar," To" K street, 
Bacramento. Mm 



Italian Marble, Granite and Free Stono Warehouse, 

Ify. 99 Battiry Street 

OBELISKS, Monuments, Head Btonee, Imposing Stones, 
Table Tops, Centre Tables — the largest ami besi assort 

mentiu the city, 

Italian Marble Mantels, of various patterns, richly carved Sta- 
tinnery Bfni 

All kind i dune to order. 

Quincy Granite, Connecticut Free Stone, Some choice pat- 
terns of moulded architectural Lintels; Red ami Free Stone, «C 

We are constantly In receipt oftresb supplies of Mantels and 
Grates, together with building fronts, &c, by clippers from Now 
York, and wc are at all times prepari 'I [<> execute Job Work on 
the most reasonable terms. For sale, to arrive, 100 mantels o) 
new and superior Styles, to which WO invite the attention of the 
trade. We are determined to sell cheap, 

COIT ,v BEALS, 
Sign "i the Marble Obelisk, 
2 lm ier of Clay. 



PROCLAMATION EXTRAORDINARY. 
Woman's Rights 

VINDICATED AND MAINTAINED. 

WHEREAS, in in the creation of the world, it was designed 
hy tl-' I I lause " that 

Womans's Rights and Privileges 
should be co-equal to Man's ; and whereas, she has been treated 
by many men in nil ages, op to the present time, as an Inierioj 

beuuc to themselves : Now, therefore, be it known that I, M. 
L. WINN, of 

Winn's Fountain Head and Branch 
bavins expended large sums *->i money at the FOUNTAIN 
HEAD tor the gratincatin of the appetites of Gentlemen, do 

recommend that Woman be hereafter allowed and provided 

with the tacilitias to enjoy aS iho privflegea (br which she was 
by Providence designed; ami for this purpose I do hereby prot 
Claim, that my 

BRANCH, 
Comer Muntunmery and Wiislungton streets, 

shall be i Ini'ted with a view cxclu.-iveiy to the Enjoyment 

and Comfort of Ladies, and such Gentlemen as know and 
ire their worth. 
At the earnest tahcttananaf many Ladlss and Gentlemen 
nut) aerceoble to my promise some inon (marge the 

BRANCH, .-ii a- to accommodate itrouage 

1 shall, in a few days, add Two Spacious Stores on Monl 
street, to the Original Branch, nnUtii 

MOST? EXTENSA E ICE CREAM 

And Refreshment Establishments in California. 

The day ol opening will be duly announced through the med 

UI!1 Of I '■■ I 

aecomplit bed I n fj o ai c <rxam dati I ' i 

best rift to man." In the meantiii and Ji Alification 

iiinv in- enjoyed in rouding the mottoes and feastta : upon the 
luxuries to be enjoyed at 

WINN'S FOUNTAIN II E A D . 

~8 and SO Long Wharf, and Br i Washington and 

Montgomery u reel ■ . 
where Every Thine lor the Holidays maj be found, from a 
Sui.'ur Whistle to a Brule's Cul<» of half n ton. 

1 M. L. WINN, Proprietor. 



SELIM & EDWARD FRANKLIN, 

REAL ES TATE AGENTS AND AUCTIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom, 102 Merchant st.j between 
Montgomery street and the Plaza. 

Real estate of all descriptions sold at public and private sale. 
Particular attention given to sales for Administrators, A 
Receiver.-', Mortgagees, and others, accordini; to law. 

Monies invested Rnd rent? collected for parties at a distance. 
Loans etfected on Bonds and Mortpiees. Titles examined a 
surveys made by competent parties in the office, and the Nond 
rial business exected by WILLIAM A. CORN/WELL, Notata- 
Public. 

A register open to pvblic inspection of property for sale. 

The Spanish and French lanirunees spoken. 

Improved and unimproved Ranches and lands for side iu 
various parts of the State— Spanish titles, 5 4t 



% 



JAMES E. WAINWRJGHT. ALBERT G. RANDALL 

JAMES E. WALNWRIGHT, Auctioneer. 



WADTWRIGHT, RANDALL & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS, 

Office and Salesroom. 100 Merchant Street, 
between Montgomery and Kearny. 

Messrs. Wainwright, Randall &. Co. respectfully an- 
nounce to their friends and the public generally that they have 
made this business connection, and re-established themselves, 
for the purpose of transacting the Real Estate business in all its 
branches, for the successful management of which they deem 
themselves well qualified, having had upwards of lour years 
experience in this city. 

They will give especial attention to making public sales of all 
kinds of property for Administrators, Assignees, Receivers, 
Mortgagees, and others, according to law. 

Particular attention paid to preparinc "Rancho" property 
for sale, and every facility will be afforded to the holders of eucn 
property for the transaction of their business. Mr. RandaL 
being conversant with the Spanish language (having resided 
several yeurs in South America,) will give his personal attention 
to the translation of title papers, when required. 

A practical Surveyor and Draughtsman will be in constant 
attendance at the office. 

A large amount of property at private sale. 

Conveyancing, under the supervision of A- G. RANDALL, 
Notary Public, under, the law of 1853 — and Commissioner for 
the State of New Hampshire. 5 4t 



THEODORE PAYNE. 8Q.ULBB P. DEWEY. 

THEODORE PAYNE & CO., 

REAL ESTATE AND STOCK AUCTIONEERS. 

OFFICE AND SALES-BOOM COKNEB CALIFORNIA AND MONT 
GOMERV STBEETS. 



THEODORE PAYNE A UCTIONEER. 

C^p 1 Ifesare. PAYNE & CO. respectfully inform the public 
that they have &-tuhlished themselves as above, for the purpose 
of transacting the 

Real Estate business, in all its branches, 
For the conducting ol which they esteem themselves peculiarly 
qualified, by bavin e, civen it their special attention for over two 
years past, and made themselves familiar with all questions 
affecting title-, 80c. fed 

They will give their especial attention to the puhlic sales of 
estate, by Administrators, Assignees, Receivers, Mortgagees, 
&c., carefully complying with the forms of law. 

A Register for Property, at either public or private sale, 
always open at their office 5 



DONAHUES UNION IRON WORKS, 

[THE FIB3T ESTABLISHED IN THE STATE.] 

Cor. of First and Mission Btretts, Happy VaUey, .S'on Francisco 

THE undersigned calls the atteution of the citizens of Califor- 
nia andOregon to his unequalled facilities' for doing "ink with 
rapidity and cheapness, He has made, and will continue to 
make, such additions t" hi- time nod Labi 1 . .nery, as 

the increasing wautu of the State require,and hence solicits pub- 
lic patronage 

Saw and Grist Mill Irons, 

Quartz Crushing and Amalgamating machinery, 
and Castings of either Iron or Brass of every description (having 
1 mosj extensive naaoroment of ready made patterns) made 
promptly t" ordi r. 

STEAM ENGINES from the manufactories of VVDham Bur- 
don, Brooklyn. New York, and other celebrated maker-, con- 
stantly on hand and fur 

BOILERS of every description furnished at lower rates than 
can be afforded elsewhere, the iron for the some being imported 
direct, and the machinery foi shearing, punching and riveting 
In ingdriven bj steam p< war. Patent Bteazn nnd water Guages r 
Steam Whistles, Cocks, [mho Rubber Btoam Paeidng, Ready 
made Bolts and Nuts, Belting Luce and otl < 1 I ■ < er'e Find 
ii w for sale. 

23m JAME8 DONAUUE. 



^Y 



FAMILY FLOTJB. 
IIOKX BR»S PEEK] I'M FLOUR. 

UNION CITY MILLS. 
"T. LNVITE the particular attentl n of Families and the 
Trade, to the quality ol thi Flour i rd by us. 

Onr great aim has been, in the eatahlisbmciit ol our Hills to 

Srocure the most pirrlcci machinery, to cmploj the ablest mil- 
ire, and I -1 .■. h< bi In the country. 

That we bavc bi en able to accc. inulisl I'm duct 

of our Mille uow before il ■• communitj is (he u 1 evidi 1 ■ 

] LOCRwomonuiacrure hasbecnFubmitti 1 1 
judges "i our State, and altor the most rJL--ii and tborougb test, 

ive awarded to us the "Pasurou pukb," and wi 
have offer the same as "Horner's Premium Flour;' 1 ll bail be 
ourcomnant effort to maintain for it the reputation of bi ■■ 
The Best Flour in the Land. 
Orders left with HORNER &. CO. at our Btoreship, Broad- 
way wharf, will receive prompt attention. 
5 4t IIORNXR. 



STTPEHIOR FUENITTTBE. 

TIIE largest and beat Mock in Bacramento may ar all times be 
found at the Old Stand oj B, P, A D.MOORE, No. 77 Third 
street, where they still persist In Belling as mncb be)on their 

■ ■ ■ as their superior facilities wuj admit of Havu 
hand the m ■. atial assortment ofall 

Furniture ever offered in Sacramento, ">■ reel oonfidont. with 
piicesi away empty thai may favor us 

with a call. 
Our stock constats of Bureaua, Secretaries, Wardrobes, Stands, 
. ! ■ I las, Painted Mahogany . I 

Walnut, Satin and Roam I Seite— some of the Ernest and 

a this 1 f&rkeL 
Also, HattraBECS, ol Curled Hair, Patent Pelt, Mom Wool, 
■ Tops, Also, Feathet PI 
1 emibr Beds, with s large Btockol QuUfs, Comforts, 
B anketSj dbk, S c. Also, a very large ->. 
Wood, a foil descriptions: also, ol Hair, Cloth, 

■ her and Caipet Bottoms, with Rockers of all 
kinds; all of which will be sold at reduced rate.-. 
5 -It AI-.. r\ 130 Jai 



A OARD. 

FREE EXHIBITION HALL.— We dedra to announce, and 
we do bo mosl respectfully, that hen afl 
Exhibition, our Hall, containing all the rnagniffci nl ■ pi ■ 
of the Agricultural Exhibition, together ■■■ ce I'aint- 

ogs and Embroldoi les, and man; rare and bet 

and curiosities from tl Hands ol the Sea,'' will bo open to 

the vi-it- i.i i,i! whowiab toi xamj 

We would also annotu 1 
them FREE, ti> exhibit ■ 

1 all persons who bnvo Paintings, Statuary 
■ 1 Ait, Curiosities, or extra specimens oj mrytl 
domestic 1 

mi r t extradi d notice 
;■ an in it. Ail n ■. ol the 

curioi itiesol the country, oj wonderful 
culture ' ■ 

"H ■ i ippi prii ■■ pli ' 

\\"e,|. ir c also to 

■ 1- 1.1 the United State and the pi inr-Wl pub ■■ 

ol Agriculture, Horticulture, and 
Floriculture and other scientific subject 1 
and to the causo ol Scienoo, tbej aro ever open, and wo tender 
our best aid to dm 
resulting from thi m 

,V iV A. BON 




2liOJ r 3.vn:iM>>A 



&t$imw$< 



VOL. 1. 



SAN FRANCISCO, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 16, 1854. 



NO. 7. 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER, 

AND .nil R.1 XL Of USEFUL SCIENCES, 

IS ISSUED AT THE OFFICE, ON BUSH STREET, 

F.VllKY THURSDAY MORNING, 

At Eight Dollars Per Annum, in Advance, 

BY JAMES K. PHILLIPS St CO., Publishers. 

JOHN F. MORSE, Editoh. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of Advertisements 
will be inserted nt the following rates : For.one square of eight 
lino*, per month, $'1. For business nonces "f Eve lines or less 
per month, $4. A Blight reduction will be mnde to regulft, 
advertisers. 



The Ruined Valley, 

It was in the early part of June. The weather 
had been unusually warm, the sir sultry and close. 
Weary. I had sought my pillow for rest. Sleep 
did indeed come, but it was neither a continued or 
a refreshing sleep, and, after restless hours I arose 
before the dawn and sought the open air upon the 
neighboring hills. 

I had selected a lofty point, commanding an 
extensive prospect upon all sides and there I 
awaited the opening day and the rising sun. 

A strong wind had sprung up in the night, 
from the west, and the sultry atmosphere of past 
days had left, and a clear and sweet air gave new 
life to both body and mind. Nothing could be 
more beautiful, nothing more calculated to elevate 
and purify thoughts than to witness a scene like 
the one just unfolding before me. At first, a pale 
yellow tinge faintly gleamed upon the eastern 
horizon, but quickly this expanded and deepened 
in color from faint tints to those of bright and bur- 
nished gold, each moment producing new beauty 
and power; from their low and distant bed these 
harbinger clouds rose upwards and onwards. 
mounting hill after hill, and then leaping upward 
to the very heavens with a bound. At this mo- 
ment my attention was directed to the grove near 
me, from which issued a chorus of the sweetest 
melody that ever struck my car. It seemed an 
anthem of praise — and so it was, for as I turned 
my head eastward, the glorious sun was lifting 
himself upward to gladden the earth. It was this 
beautiful advent that had called forth the sweet 
anthems from the feathered songsters a moment 
before, and now there were added a thousand nolo 
in joyous chorus, for from every tree, bush and 
plant, every living thing gave a recognition of 
coming day — unitedly they gave forth their morn- 
ing song of praise to God 

Tears unrestrained flowed freely from own eyes 
as 1 beheld this universal evidence that God was 
thus acknowledged by created beings even in this 
lower order of his work s; and my heart bowed in 
adoration as it joined to swell the morning livnin 
of praise that was now going up to him who said 
'•Let there be light." 

Refreshed and strengthened by this spiritual 
communion, and being in a proper state of mind 
to look forth upon Nature and her fair ami glorious 
work. 1 gazed forth upon the scenery which now 

met my sight, as the early morning light rested 

upon it. II was indeed beautiful. Hills, valleys 
streamlets and rivers, orchards, gardens, woods 
grovesand lawns were scattered in rich ami varied 
profusion for miles around me. and my eyes 
feasted upon Ibis vision of nature's own handi- 
work for many hours. 

As I viewed and reviewed every scene that came 

within t hi' reach ol vision my eye would constantly 
turn to one spot mole lovely than all the re>t 

There 1 loved to gaze, for it seamed a hallowed 

spot. There was a quiet ami a charm resting 
upon this place, that, turn and gaze as 1 would, my 
eyes WOOld be drawn back to it. for there they 
loved to rest. So often had I viewed it. that it 
Beamed a familiar spot. The mansion was large 
and handsome ; over the arched gateways the 
rose and honeysuckle shed forth their beauty anil 
fragrance, liroad and smoothly pebbled walks 
around the borders of these grounds gave a taste 
and a charm to all the other arrangements that 
marked this "vale of sweets." for the spit which 
1 shall now more fully describe lay in a beautiful 
valley. High and strong walls and fences enclosed 
the beet jiortions of these rich and fertile lands 
stream ran through the centre of the 



summer-houses, and cool retreats were there in 
abundance. Near the centre of these grounds 
just over .a neat little bridge. 1 saw a miniature 
pond, the surface of whose waters was covered 
with the fragrant water lily. The more I gazed, 
the more 1 feltconvinced that this was no ordinary 
spot ; it seemed to me the home of flowers ; fur. 
gaze where I would, new beauties constantly de- 
veloped themselves. My eye caught sweet little 
alcoves, tastefully arranged, where the busy bees 
were at work, culling from the flowers around 
their own home, their stores of transparent nectar 
and bearing it away to their own perfect cells. 

My eye now rested upon a beautiful temple near 
the grounds, surrounded by a chaste portico, with 
its columns ; beneath which seats were arranged, 
giving a quiet retreat at all times from the sun 
and heat of the day. I had scarcely comprehended 
all that was to be seen in this sweet spot, ere my 
attention was attracted by noticing some one leave 
the mansion and walk towards this retreat. I 
now saw the person distinctly, and quickly ga- 
thered from his appearance that it was he who 
claimed this spot as his home. In one hand he 
he held a scroll, and in the other a flute. His 
walk was slow and sad, and there seemed in his 
gait a measured sadness. I had brought my glass 
with me, and now a deep interest in this person 
caused me to raise it to my eye. to ascertain if I 
could read a deeper, truer lesson than mere 
imagination would teach. I was not disappointed 
— my conjectures were true ; distinctly I could 
see by movement and gesture that sad thoughts 
were tenants of his mind. He had now reached 
the temple and seated himself; after a minute 
he raised his flute to his lips, and the sweet but 
melancholy strain that reached my car fully con- 
firmed all I had supposed. It was an air that had 
long been familial" to me; I listened with deep 
emotion. Suddenly he ceased playing, and, laying 
aside the instrument, wiped from his eyes the 
tears that had freely gushed from them. Such 
was the effect upon me that I could not turn away 
my gaze, and in a few moments he rose, and 
drawing his hand across his prow, he raised his 
eyes upward, seemingly to catch inspiration from 
above, and broke forth, in tones soft and distinct, 
to the same strain he had been playing. Clear 
and free his song Boated away upon the win 

the early morn, and. distant as I was. I could catch 
a portion of the gong that came from his lips, for 
it was familiar. These were his words: 



•• 'Ti ipon 

Thi 
When every > eai tbel we irka on 

■pate 

With their Omnia nml :' 

hope- of yean 

For " nirs." 

He seemed much affected, l"r he turned away and 
rested against one of the pillars of the verandah, 
for a moment ; but again lie sang — 



"'Ti. sml. "II- .nd l<> Hour 
i . ! * t <rwy. 

une mnile nnaajrr 
Armani u 

turned away. 

ine«£iun 



I < 






His voice trembled ere he had finished, and 
quickly bowing himself upon the - 
way to his sorrow. 1 I here was an 

interest in my soul, awakened for him. I 
inv own control. My attention was again awak- 
ened by the appearance of another person from 
the mansion. Thisp-r-nn differed altogether from 
the former — he of whom I have spoken so •: 

i and noble I 
porpos "uoTedl 

quickly, and gated arouni trchof some I 

one. or fearful of meeting re aras 

that in his movement ti . .e not satis- 

fied with h" re» as well a* the move- 1 

moots of these two individuals was w 
ant; the former* mofanAmei 

the latter, of a foreigner; the cap bearing upon 
its front the 

■Id that he was a Hichlandrr : and as soon as I 
Here a pretty stTaavm ran through the centre of the his eye rented ■) 

grounds shnees as well as lieauty to the, seated in the verandah, he hastened to his side. 

R|iot. It wasthe season af roses, and it required They seemed rw m | 

but little imagination to conceive that the frvsh the deportin -'ranger enough to con- 

breeze which now reached me from tli vince me that there was dancer in trusting the. 

bore to me some of the fragrance tl 

from the large parten - that I coul M if danger was immcdia: 

were then opening their fragrant petals to ran my sympethe 

morning Ight. Tn -inner away ight, and feelnagl 

fruit, ai d with the grape, an wearied even by' 1 

were there. There, too. beneath the interested myself I laid my Dead upon my doak 
af many houses could be seen plants and for rest and meditation, when quickly I was lost | 
. the orange and i 
were th. ' lemon and the pomegrai deep had been th. 



a reality, how fearful. God save my friend from 
the fate which my dream fastened upon him by 
his treacherous friend. 

How long I slept and dreamed I know not. but 
here is the fearful picture, and it can never leave 
my mind : 

Methought I was still looking at this friend 
and the stranger, who were uow engaged in 
earnest conversation, every moment growing more 
and more excited as I judged by their gestures. 
Presently they both arose. My friend raised his 
head slowly and pointed upward toward Heaven; 
he then waved his hand to the stranger as if bid- 
din" him depart, and turned from him and seated 
himself again, overpowered by strong emotions. 

At that moment darkness seemed to gather 
suddenly the heavens were overcast, dark and 
fearful clouds arose rapidly, the lightning flashed. 
the pealino" thunder shook the very earth ; a hur- 
ricane came on. I looked for my friend; there he 
sat. calm and immovable. His companion at that 
moment sprang to him, to arouse him. but quickly 
turning from him, left the verandah and walked 
away a few rods, when, returning upon the oppo- 
site side he sprang forward and hastily climbing 
one of the columns of the portico, and placing 
himself upon the verandah, moved around to 
where my friend had sat, who had at this mo- 
ment risen and was leaning against a column of 
the portico. Over this very column now stood 
the foreigner. Again a cold shudder chilled the 
blood in my veins, for it seemed as if some fearful 
treachery was preparing for my friend. 

The gathering storm was approaching, and 
most fearfully was it thundering. The darkness 
had nearly shut onl my vision. As I looked again, 
the bright glare of the lightning revealed to me 
my friend still leaning against the column. But 
the stranger was suddenly transformed into a 
hideous serpent, so awfully hideous and monstrous 
that, though dreaming I remember I closed my 
mi shut "id the aw lid sight. When I looked 
again, the serpent was slowly and stealthily 
moving forward and bending down upon the very 
nn against which my friend rested. I saw 

and felt the danger. 1 essayed to scream, buf 
my tongue clave to my mouth with fear. 1 saw 

move on in his deadly purpose; 
nearer he approached his victim. Coldness crept 

over me; I grew faint. I saw the serpent ap- 
and make ready for his spring, his head 
.ring, his forked i 

hissing. All was now ready, victor and victim. 

I would have sprung forward, but I could not 
horror h.M \ moment only of 

nt loused his hold 

: upon the heart of my friend. 
A wild and fearful shriek of agony reached my 

ear. This was followed by a flood of lightning 
iii.il to burn into my ver 

i he bursting thtin- 
derboldt. and then all was still. I dared not look 
forth again for many moments, but when I . 

il. The storm had spent 
its fnrv on the brightest spot i loved. My i 
ry thing lovely, had liocn laid 
destruction I pon everything beautiful 

and I - band 

had marked 

• tern- and w 
lung in and around had lieen 
fury.' triumphant. The 

f ruins 

that 1 

I was 
off — the home of the rare and beautiful 
i.vay and nothing 



All's Well. 

" Twelve o'clock lit night, unit nil's well 1" 

Falsf, prophet ! Still and statute-like, at yon- 
der window stands the wife. The clock has told 
the small hours; yet her face is pressed closely 
against the window-pane, striving in vain, with 
straining eye, to pierce the darkness. She sees 
nothing ; she hears nothing, but the beating of 
her own heart Now she takes her seat; opens a 
small Bible, and seeks from it what comfort she 
may, while tears blister the pages. Then she 
clasps her hands, and her lips are tremulous with 
mute supplication. Hist! There is an unsteady 
step in the hall ; she knows it! Many a time and 
oft it has trod on her heart-strings. She glides 
down gently to meet the wanderer. He falls 
heavily against her ; and. in maudlin tones, pro- 
nounces a name he had long since forgotten "' to 
honor." 0, all-enduring of woman's love ! No 
reproach, no upbraiding — the slight arm passed 
around that reeling figure, once erect in " God's 
own image." With tender words of entreaty, 
which he is powerless to resist, if he would, she 
leads him in. It is but a repetition of a thousand 
such vigils! It is the performance of a vow, with 
a heroism and patient endurance too common and 
every-day to be chronicled on earth ; too holy and 
heavenly to pass unnoticed by the " registering 
angel" above ! 

"All 's well!" 

False prophet ! In yonder luxurious room sits 
one whose curse it was to be fair as a dream of 
Eden. Time was when those clear eyes looked 
lovingly into a mother's face — when a gray-haired 
father laid his trembling hand, with a blessing, 
on that sunny head — when brothers' and sisters' 
voices blended with her own, in heart-music, 
around that happy hearth. ! where are they 
now 1 Are there none to say to the repenting 
Magdalen, " Neither do 1 condemn thee. — go. and 



of SV I f"r my frier 

of th 

iv he hail to 
and upon h 



- porter, said it was so i 
tret a ge that taken in great quantities it al 
vs made him fat. 

'I have soon the time," said another, ■ when i 
da you 1 

^ed the enlo. 
'Last I 



.now ale^ebr 



i -.main to the man who didn't know 
mathematics, hat kaew J:m Matics like a book, 
gentleman (affcrtiooate 
uind! that the scene before me was continued - My son, why do yrvo chew thatfilthy tobaun 
pale vellow to mg purple, luscious and in mv sleep ; bot sack a d rum — fcaifhl evan to Preeacf 

tempting; beautiful walks shady arbors, andlthe dVaaraer; ahonkt it be even a hint afc a d ew of ont of it, 



whv rki too chc* that wtny to-.a 
..us' Tooth '-.**,-- To ■"**■ 



juice 



sin no more ?" Must the gilded fetter continue 
to bind the soul that loathes it, because man is 
less merciful than ( iod 7 

" All '« well I" 

False prophel ! There lies the dead orphan. 
In all the length and breadth of the green earth 
there was found no sheltering nest where that 
lonely dove could told its wings, when the parent 
birds had flown. The brooding wing was gone, 
that covered it from the cold winds of neglect and 
unkindness. Love was its life; and so it drooped! 
" All '■ well I" 
False prophet ! Sin walks the earth in purple 
and fine linen; honest poverty, with tear-bedewed 
face, hungers and shivers and thirsts, "while the 

■in stands afar oil '!" The widow pleads in 
vain to the ermined judge for "justice;" and, till- 

ied of Heaven, the human tiger crouches in 
his lair, and springs upon his helpless prey '■ 

"All ■« well I" 
Ah. yes, all is well !— for " He who scoth the 
end Iriini the beginning" holds evenly the 
of justice. Dives" shall vst bt izarus." 

human tear is counted. They shall yet 
sparkle as gams in the crown of the patient and 
enduring disciple ! When the clear, broad light 

i ■ 
pitfalls from which our 
I us 111 ; and. in tie 
tunty of our full-grown faith, w. "igly 

will, but as Thou 
— h\ ,-.■ / 

"Nil Desperandum." 

- a silver lining ; 
and II 

power- developed in pros|- 

Oark may glide in smooth water with a f.i 
gale; I 

and no cho 
spaed. Keep yoar bea 

,,. ; ,ler amUaa asspatr nor weak vacllati Ira* 

you under. Heed not the poisoned arrow of 
'-■ • ik ■• • Bros • -v tti.it jsfci// - last jron from 
■i,.. .,,.. r . Jadas- i hfffwl: wheat !.■'■ ml I ■-.- 



I 
man reed from an- ' 

lean oa the "Rack of 
. i uxtpaases you throogh 
purify. The fire may - 
r consume you. li 

The narrow path may he 
Oder feet ; bot the " promised 
The tlaaterii of Hops aaay ba 
af kith; yoa hand aha 
eyas revel, from the naouataia 
i fanfares sad still wat ra of 
ret anhoekay yoar doaty armor. 
ahaJI fan yoar viator 
/ -. (saw. 






«n with 
grasp thei 



while sal 



50 



U%$ 0&<nH$®m§® §nimn^< 



THE CALIFORNIA FARMER. 



.1 L. L F. WAKTCKN, Assistant Editor. 



SWTS for oalifohnia faemes. 
-jams & Co., lit all their odee.- throughout the United 
lei or Europe. 
:i ..:-- Wells, Fargo & Co., nt their office.? throughout the 
Country. 
San. Frnitchcrr—ti cw8, Murray it Co., booksellers, Mont- 
gomery street; SotLrvAN's newspaper Btunri, near the Poet 
Ullice ; Iyi.iihali.'?, Noisy Curriers Hull, Lung wharf. 
CA'/ceue/— Ml". Wiwiz Williinl. • 

Benicio, .v.-.-.r ■<<:. .v. — Messrs. Stiles & Doilds. 
Union City arid Mission San Joss— Messrs. Uuniird & Cham- 
berlain. 

Sim Luis Obispo— Hi. Tliomnn L. Harvey, P. M. 

Sacramento — Mr. O.^ciir D. Avuliue ; Messrs. Curie Brothers. 

I aim Humboldt Bay— A. II. Murdoch, P. M. 

Mbmt Farm, 0. T. — Gen. M. M. MeCurver. 

,"i/V. --M iH.i — (h-t. S. Ieekcr. ^ 

■>.. — Rosenhaum & Joackimsen, \ 

.' c ■.- Y<>n. City, .V. T.—J. M. Thorburn & Co. 
N. B. — We want Agents in nil the principal localities, and 
persons disposed to act can have the opportunity! ifeataatactorj 

to all parties. 



To the Friends of Agriculture. 

We u*k of nil to whom we ecml this number, who are not 
already subscriber's, to examine the Farmer, and to give i! their 
influence. We trust to hear from them and to knew that they 
will not only become 'subscribers to our Journal, but favor us 
with their communications. We desire to call their attention to 
our terms of subscription for clubs. 

Special Premiums for Subscriptions. 

In addition to the standing inducement for the getting ol sub- 
scribers for the "Faioieu," we will make a present ol HAM- 
PER'S ILLUSTRATED FAMILY BIBLE to the person who 
procures the most Subscribers in the first six months of our 
publication. This we regard as one of the most beautiful books 
ever issued. Who will have the prize? 

A Premium — Farmers' Clubs. 

With the hope of inducing such ot our friends, and those 
who have a little leisure, to ride among their neighbors and 
introduce au Agricultural Paper, we toko pleasure in offering 
the CALIFORNIA FARMER: and, to make it an taducftment 

we say to such friends — if you will get us FIVE subscribers, and 
remit the amount, we will send you six PArERS, or for TEN 
subscribers, twelve papers. We trust there are many friends 
who will cheerfully take a little pains to aid us, and thus extend 
the circulutio n of the Farmer, and make a useful vehicle for 
he Agriculture of California. 

Subscribers will please he particular to name the Post Office 
to which papers are to be sent ; or, if forwarded by express, 
which hue they prefer. 

To Our Patrons. 

To ADVEnTISERS. — We would call the attention of there wbl i 
desire to have their advertisements produce quick returns, to 
the pages of the California Farmer. 

The Farmer will reuch sources of trade entirely new and 
uuiittainnble by any other means, and thus eeeurea large and 
immediate profit to thoso who desire to make known their 
business. By a glance at our advertising columns, it will beper- 
ceived that we present the best known and most extensive 
houses, and as we have space for but one or two of each 
brunch, these will be the most prominent houses, and Urns give 
more influence to them. 

To Agents. 

Ej^ 3 We desire Agents to report as early 09 possible, rhjit we 
may be prepared in our issues for a sufficient number to supply 
the demand. Be sure and report promptly. 



Legislative Influence. 

We fuel proud of California and the influence 
she is exerting, and can exert, by recognizing 
with pride and satisfaction the resources ofher 
own mighty valleys and plains. AVe feel a 



revealed under the fostering care of a wise Legis- 
lation. No people can long be prosperous and 
happy who rely solely upon their mineral re- 
sources. Vast as is the mineral wealth of Cali- 
fornia, it is but a drop to theoceau in comparison 
with the value of agriculture, and all history tells 
the talc of those countries, where the people are 
consumers and not producers of those articles that 
constitute the necessaries of life. 

California stands before the world pre-emi- 
nently great in all those resources that make 
her a truly independent State, and if the present 
Legislators of California will but give their atten- 
tion to this most important subject, there shall 
be such a beginning, the very dawning of which 
shall fill the hearts of the people with wonder, and 
a few short years only will pass ere the wildest 
enthusiast will see his dreamings more than real- 
ized. AVe have faith to believe that we have in 
our present Legislature members from all sections 
of our State, who feel right on this subject, who 
arc actuated by high and statesman-like views 
and wdio feel a pride in all that tends to elevate 
our .State and stand ready to encourage " Home 
Industry." 

We arc satisfied that California will take the 
lead in this'matter, and that our public men, our 
senators and representatives are desirous to prove 
to the people at large, in spite of ail the charges 
of extravagance and political corruption that they 
are the friends of the laboring classes — the " bone 
and sinew of the common wealth" — and everything 
that will tend to elevate them, everything thai 
shall encourage home industry shall have their 
earnest and prompt attention and cure. AVe have 
confidence, therefore, that the " Eureka State " 
shall lie the '' Pioneer State" in the establishment 
of agricultural schools, colleges and institutions 
under the patronage of the State. 



Sonoma County in the Field. 
AVe were gratified exceedingly to notice a few 
days since that the agriculturalists of Sonoma 
county were about forming a County Society, and 
that the cultivators of that section were invited to 
meet at I'ctahuna on the 23d February. This is 
a most suitable way to honor that day- The 
birth, day of the ''Father of our Country" can be 
honored in no more appropriate and feeling 
manner, than to cherish his practical virtues and 
recall the noble efforts lie made to diffuse the 
blessing of cultivated and happy homes. Wash- 
ington was an agriculturalist in the most exalted 
sense of that word, lie was a practical farmer, 
arid amid all his labors as a statesman, he had 
time to correspond with the scientific and practi- 
cal minds of our own country and Europe, and he 
expended liberally of his wealth to improve the 
breeds of stook, and also many other branches of 
agriculture, the mosl important to our country. 
His " Letters on Agriculture" to Sir John Sin- 



that the happiness of the people, the perron 

of the Stale, the blessings and influence she has it I clair, in England, were of thai lofty and patriol ic 

in her power to exert over other portions of our strain that spoke of his love of country and his 



country and the world, depends, in a great meas- 
ure, upon the action of our Legi I: 

The Legislature of California stand at the pre- 
sent moment in the same position as that of a 
parent, who. holding the hand of a promising 
child, points him to the world into which he is 
about to enter ami act for himself. 

Shall the young man leave the shelter of the 
parental roof and go forth alone, uncounselled and 
unaided, to rise or fall, however many difficulties 
and dangers may meet and crush his earliest 
hopes ; or shall he, while relying strongly upon 
his own energy and determined perseverance, feel 
that in the day of dark adversity, there is a help 
ing hand that is ever ready to stretch forth, that 
will not permit him to sink and faint. 

Thus it is at this present moment with the 
agriculture and agriculturalists of California. A 
great science is presented to a people who are em- 
barking their all, ready to give all their energy, 
all that personal care, all that devotgm which its 
greatness demands, according to their several 
abilities. A vast and almost illimitable field lies 
before them, ready to receive the impress that 
science shall give, and feeling the greatness 
of the enterprise in which they are engaged, the 
agriculturalists look to the Legislature for that 
shield,' that protection, that aid, which the youth 
would feel he needs from the hand of his parent. 

A wise, a generous, a magnanimous Legislation 



desire to advance this greatest interest. These 
are Washington's words: "I know of no 
that will add so much to the greatness of a coun- 
ter, as the improvement of its agriculture " j Tins 
was his belief, and his life was an exemplification 
of his belief. 

AVe i rejoice that his memory is 

to be hallowed, i ad [i the friends of agriculture 
devote that day in recalling the active virtues of 
Washington and strive to imitate his noble ex- 
ample ; let them gather together their families 
around an altar, erected on that day. and inscribe 
upon it — " Washington ! the Father of ids Coun- 
try — the devoted friend of Agriculture." 

AVe were also pleased to receive a call from one 
of our friends of that county, 0. 1'. A'orse, Esq., 
of l'claluma, in reference to this subject, and we 
feel assured that [Sonoma county will act with 
energy, and that the day named will be appro- 
priately observed. 

AVe shall hope to be able to accept their kind 
invitation to be among them, feeling it will be 
good to be there. 



President Pierce and Agriculture. 

It must be a matter of great surprise to all. that 
the President of the United States, in hismessage, 
should have so entirely overlooked the great in- 
terests of Agriculture. It cannot be supposed for 
a moment that this arose from any other cause 
than unintentional omission for the magnitude of 
the interests involved would preclude the possi- 
bility of its being considered in any other light 
than the basis of our wealth. 

This omission we at first supposed arose from 
an intention on the part of the President to make 
the Agriculture of the United States the subject 
ot a " special message" and the establishment of 
a National Bureau the foundation of the message. 
We believed the time had come for such action, 
Lind. as so many of the Stales of our Union were 
moving in this matter, we hail the hope that this 
was the cause of the President's thus passing over 
this source of wealth. 

We need only refer to the last census report 
to show one feature of the interests involved. 
The value of the "Live Stock" of the United 
States, taking the census report as a basis of cal- 
qulation, would now be estimated at six hundred 
millions of dollars! Here is an interest and a 
value exceeding that of all the manufacturing es- 
tablishments in the country, and also exceeding 
the capital employed in commerce, both inland 
and foreign, And what must we think when so 
great an interest shall be overlooked by those who 
have the guardianship of these interests? We 
look with anxiety for an explanation of the reason 
why this subject is thus overlooked — and wc look 
with hope. 

River Steamers — Rise of the AVati.ks 
etc. — Wc never wire more convinced of the 
value of our river steamers, than on a trip up 
and down, a few days ago ; one feels so secure on 
board of them. It was our good fortune to enjoy 
a trip down river last .Monday, on the pioneer 
steamer Senator. There is a luxury now in trav- 
elling, fur in addition to the safety, there are so 
many comforts that one ran bul enjoy it. 

The late rains hai •' (he waters above 

and the river at Sacramento is now higher than 
at any other time this season, being above the 
.iM banks opposite the city. The oily is safe, 
however; her present substantial levee is proof 
against any Hoods or storms Sacramento will 
ever see again. The city presents a handsome 
appearance, in her long sin its so perfectly dry 
and passable at ail times— strangely in contrast 
rvith the great city of San Francisco. 

Along the banks of the river the plows are 
in!-\ and the grounds present a garden-like ap- 
pearance. Clearings, upon an extended scale, are 

n. AVe hope for a generous return to the 

cultivators, which v. ill no doubt be realized, un- 
less the fi ■■ "!' 'die wal irS should prevent. AVe 
wish, however, we could see a little more care to 
obviate these dangers by a system of dyking and 
embankments. We believe the danger could be 
. moved if this was done, 'the best portions of 
ih" grounds could thus be protected and much 
loss prevented. 

In coming down river, we had an opportunity 
towitneS) what may truly be called great, pilot- 
in-, 'the Senator entered the slough with a full 
bead of steam, at a rapid rate, the current, running 
very strong, and portions of the river like a boil- 
ing cauldron. With the speed of a race horse 
kept on her way. sleadily and bravely; it 
3 have made an old-fashioned pilot shake in 
his shoes to have seen her turn the short bends 
in this crooked passage j but fearless she swept 
through. She reached San Francisco at 8 r. a., 
Only six and a half hours from city to city, being 
one of the very best passages made. 



State Agricultural Society. — AVe have 
been exceedingly gratified to have the opportuni- 
ty to peruse the plan of a bill which the Hon. 
W. S. Letcher kindly forwarded us for our exam- 
ination, upon this subject. The bill has been 
admirably drawn, and bears upon its front that 



,, , , , . generous care and regard for the great interests 

upon agriculture, at the present moment, would I. , , , . ° TJ 5 

. . _ , , , involved, becoming statesmen. A\ e 

secure a greater amount of good and make more 

permanent "Happy Homes." than would all the 

wealth of the mines, could they be accumulated 

in one measureless body, and that wealth diffused 

in luxurious living, for the first would strengthen 

the arm of labor and encourage home industry, 

the latter only leads to indulgence, idleness and 

waste of the agricultural wealth which may yet be 



ma;,- we be 

proud of our legislators when we have such evi- 
dence that they are indeed the people's represen- 
tatives. AVe look with the deepest interest to 
further action upon this good work. 



AVe are sorry to learn that Judge Ames, of the 
San Diego Herald, lost a press, type, etc.. in the 
ship San Francisco. 



Ball oftiie Marion Rifles. — Do you dance? 
If you do, kind reader, we hope you were present 
at the festival ball of this gallant corps. AVe shall 
not bo charged by any oue with misrepresentation 
when we say that the Ball of the Marions was 
the most recherche of the season. There may 
have been greater numbers, and more wealth, ami 
brighter diamonds, at previous assemblies ; but, 
for social enjoyment, for real pleasure in dancing, 
agreeable partners, elegant dancers, excellent mu- 
sic, and a tip-top supper, give us the Marion's 
Ball. It was a patriotic affair, and the Mi- 
deserve the thanks of the community for their 
efforts to make the heart merry in times like the 
present, when the "blues" are so prevalent, and 
surely it is better to dance off trouble than to lay 
it to heart. Thanks, again, to the gallant Marions. 



The law suit relative to the Tuolumne Canal 
has compromised, and the properly is said to have 
been acquired by James King of William. 



Correspondence. 

Tin: following letter of Mr. Woodhom, of 
Santa Clara, contains many facts which will be of 
interest ; and wc desire cultivators to excha 
thoughts through the columns of lb" Farmer, 
and thus a mutual benefit will be the result. 

'far difficulties the fanners meet with from the 
-pests of the farm" squirrels, gophers, etc., can 
in a great degree be remedied, by constant inter- 
change of efforts made by each one. The cause 
of rust and blight in wheal and other calamities 
will thus be discovered, and we therefore ask for 
the California Farmer an interest among our 
friends for its circulation, that we can thus spit ail 
ill the light we can for their benefit 

Santa Clara. Dec. 6, 1853. 

Messrs. Warren & Son : — In answer to your 
circular of Nov. 15th, I assure you 1 shall heart- 
ily unite with you in an endeavor to promotefhe 
interest of agriculture in California. In answer 
to your specific questions I may say: I have re- 
siided here three wars. I come from New York 
lo Chili in LS42; from thence to California in 
1849. I occupy 160 acres — all prairii 
acres cultivated in grain, vegetables, &e. Should 
have planted more, but the land this year was too, 
wet to plant. I have no waste land, [have four 

1 : iclover, red top. and a very iii, c gross. I 

cultivate about 200 peach trees. A small garden 
spot and 50 or 60 plants. About 8 acres ol pota- 
toes ''Viae WOrmy and not worth digging. 

My land has a descent of about til) feel ; tiie 
upper part dry and somewhat sandy mi the top 
in places, and crops liable to destruction by squir- 
rels. The lower part of the laud wet six weeks 
later in the spring and six weeks earlier this fall 
than the two preceding seasons. 

I will bete state the results of my experiments 
in fanning. I have. been on this spot durinj 
residence m California. The first year no crop 
of any amount, except potatoes — in low land 
sowed wheat; in dry land, in the latter part of 
December, it was overrun by mustard and squir- 
rels, our great obstacles to cultivation. Next year 

I had Q I crops of wheat and barley sowed early 

— from Aug. to Feb. — ploughed in some immedi- 
ately after harvest, to save the seed remaining 
after harvesting. This come good as any. The 
wheat was much down and difficult to harvest. 
I had to reap, mow, cradle, and about 12 ac 
[ got it out by a machine at double price. This 
is aditliirl'.y from early sowing. 1 should like 
in know ib" re till of mow ing down cli so, about 
Vpril, as well to check growth of straw, as to 
deep down mustard. I estimated my red wheat 

bushels, and white wheat at oil per a 
sowed a bushel to the acre. This \ ear 1 
late, in hopes to avoid mustard ; the some quan- 
tity as before to the acre; but the mustard was 

quite as bad. and nut over hall a crop of wheal in 
many places, and where very thick, SO rusted as 
in be scarcely worth harvesting. My experience 
is in favor of early sowing, and such band a- mine, 
still' and heavy, shallow ploughing for grain, and 
deep for potatoes. 
Wishing you success in your undertaking, 
1 remain 3 our obebient servant, 

Joseph WoODBAM. 

[for tlie CoUfbmiB Flintier. 

Gentlemen: Are not we California™ too 
heedless of the many little things that m. ' 

of the ili-g.i lot homi ■ Are we not too 

proud uf the teemjng brain '" -.and 

the strong arm and firm will thai execute OUT 
projects ? 'Ion exultant in youth, forgetting that 

youth and manhood must termin when 

rest must be our portion, and comfort OUT dl 
in ell the trivial matters of every day life, 
a renders a I cue COSy than the 

■eh ival ion of : iwoi around it. Who has not 
i an ordinary-looking houSO, embowered in 
climbing plants, with the exclamation of — "that 
is a comfortable looking place I " 

AVe who originated from New England, where, 
those who wish to slander our w ho 
their ignorance of the !■ and 

physiology by asserting that the sun has become 

so disgusted at shining upon so barren a c ttry, 

that it takes the " smartest men in A'ankee laud " 
to .pry him out of bed morning after morning, 
with crowbars; and that the pasture ground 
so bestrewn with stones that liny are obliged hi 
sharpen the noses of the slice]) that they may get 
them into the interstices between the Ston 
way of enabling them to get the scanty herbage; 
we acknowledge thai several months in if 
are rather cool and frosty, and that the unculti- 
vated portions ol the country ore nol especially 
fertile ; still wc recollect the breath of the sweet- 
brier and pink, and the low, block roofed houses 
overgrown and rendered so charming, dining the 

sin cr months. l>y the woodbine. Those of us 

who \wt\' born farther south and wist, under a 
more genial son and on a more fruitful soil, all 
recollect that plants were growing by ni 
every door-step. And this country which has 
received us from every place, assimilating our 
sectional prejudices and peculiarities, the lovely 
■■ land of our adoption," will receive kindly almost 
every variety of plant and flower. 

Much has been said of the mural effect of the 

association with flowers. One word mi the sub- 
ject : Have you noble, aotive boys, frolicking and 
ami boisterous, never quiet unless sleeping, and 
when even then their "feat Been) dream 
(not "a' dance." like the poet's French girls.) a 
double shuffle ; whose hi mtinuaUy in- 

truding upon the furniture and corn stricken lues: 
and whoso unfortunate elbows are always dis- 
arranging table covers, overturning ink stands. 






@j).i 3aM$0tafri(Q 3n-xniJ(3< 



■1 



flowei garden 

plot l I 

: ol be roughly 
n upon « itli impunity, they 
will learn t 
of nil 
mono : 
in tin- excha 

which but for tins sub a would 

vent in billet-doux which might in mature years 

be „;;,, or mortification. 

-,,- have l>ni twenty feet 

wering shrubs and grace- 

lutifying the town or hamli I of 

which lents as well as adding to the 

f those things which con- 

life." 

\YlKXTu \ ALLPY. F. 

Every one to his Trade. 

The following interesting facts were made 
known to US the last week, on a trip up river: 

Some time in '50 a worthy man met our friend 
who is well and agreeably known on board the 

Senator as Dr. , and upon being asked by 

the Doctor what he was doing, he rather mourn- 
fully said, he was doing nothing, lie was in fact 
-dead broke." Did what can you do, said the 
Doctor, whose generous feelings were prompting 
him to aid his fellow man. well, said he, I can 
'• make sausages ; " but I have no money ! But, 
said the Doctor. I will let you have money, if you 
wisli to try. Tire man replied that he would try, 
most cheerfully, and was very grateful. 

This industrious and worthy man, by the kind 
aid thus tendered him, set to work, and being 
well skilled in this particular trade, he was suc- 
cessful ; his customers increased, until he had as 
much business as he could attend to. His fame 
as sausage maker was widely known, and such 
was his success that in a year or more he ac- 
cumulated about $ 8000 and left for the States. 

As we have had so many instances of the 
change which comes over a man upon his return 
East, so our worthy friend must needs try his 
luck, and engage in some specidation and prepare 
to come back again. But in this he was unlucky, 
and in a little time found himself poor again. 

Again he met his friend the Doctor, and again 
was he cheered and aided, and went to work at 
his old trade of sausage making. 

And now he is doing " first rate," as the word 
goes; and so great has been his success, we are 
informed, that lie " monopolizes" all the trade of 
Hie "up river boats," i. c., he makes sausages for 
them all; and reader, if you are a lover • of a 
"real good sausage," just take a trip up river, 
and when you dine, don't forget to call for a 
'"sausage." We understand that, surh is the in- 
creased demand now for this favorite dish, that 
the steward is obliged to lav in an extra supply. 
Let us not for"! while we enjoy this dish, that 
we owe it to our friend the Doctor, whose gener- 
osity and aid gave encouragement to a worthy 
man, and thus a double good has been done. W. 



Agricultural Machinery. 

Nothing is more worthy the attention of agri- 
culturists than the improvement of the imple- 
ments and machinery of the farm. A tool that is 
often used should be of the very best construction, 

even at an additi d cost, ll is quite a 

oration to a laborer who does Bftj days' work at 

hoeing ill a season, if by the use ofa perfect tool, 
costing fifty rents more, he ran do this WO] 
easily in fori) days, and save ten days of labor. 
The former who throws aside his four-dollar 
plow, and, by purchasing oneai eight dollars, is 
enabled to save for bis team in live years one- 
fourth of a hundred days' plowing each, or one 

hundred 1 twenty-five days in all, mak 

investmcnl with his extra lour dollars for exceed- 
ing thai in any hank, railway, or gold-digging 

If the , a most inter 

and no tion might he man 

Fair airing than any thing else could 

he of ! ^( modern agriculture. — 

by ] ion of all the implements, 

lucli I in this State iii the year 

Inished machines of 
1853. Ml ' plows, with their 

rds — the 
subsoilers, the deep-tillers, and cast-steel plated 
implements, would be represented by the old 
square-faced ■• hull plow i" the threshing ma 
in all their-: s, by the swing-Halt J the 

inii.i Binning mills and separators, bv 

the v wheat drills, gang plow 

wheel cultivators, by a shouldered bag of grain 
and a forked barrow; revolving horse 
mow : : 1 rake, 

scy the and sickle. Ac. I he implen 
would tan load a D of 1853, with 

ultural 

. aniens 
of these relics of tin; 

'. • : 

. .... 

ie friction an 

per secoo 

- 
- 

i an averagv | is m.i 

- 
- 

English agriculturists have boon late 
much occupied in endeatoring to d< 



other way of loosening and pulrcrizi 
beside: 

ful, although some of their' newly intro- 
duced machines, in connection with the pi 
have accomplished wi The two most 9 

cient iii perhaps Croskill'a Clod-crusher 

and the Noiwegian Ilarrow, both o( which we 
described some months ago. and which might be 
introduced into our clayej districts with great 
probable advantage. A recenl number of the 
English Agricultural Gazette described a ncwdig- 
ging machine, which has" lately been tried with 
s e success. It is rather a .forking than a dig- 
gin- machine, acting by prongs, not by cutting 
tint surfaces and edges, Drawn by six horses, it 
pulverized the soil of a field, consisting of a fria- 
ble loam plowed the previous autumn, so that in 
walking over it the feet sank three inches, and a 
stick could be thrust down eight or nine inches. 
Every circle of its twelve teeth revolved on a sep- 
arate rowel, of which there were seven, six inches 
apart, strung upon one axle. The rowels con- 
sisted of heavy cylindric blocks of iron, one foot 
in diameter, and four or five inches wide, from 
whose surfaces project teeth ten or twelve inches 
long, curved in such a manner as to enter the 
earth perpendicularly as the machine revolves. 
Between the blocks are heavy washers, which 
keep them asunder, anil facilitate the motion and 
cleansing of the whole. Such a machine as this 
may in some cases pulverize the earth more per- 
fectly than the plow and harrow, but otherwise 
appears to possess no advantage on the score of 
economy or expedition ; for the six horses required 
to draw it, pulverize a strip only three and a half 
feet wide, and get over only about four acres a 
day ; an amount easily plowed and harrowed by 
the teams separately. Still, however, it is not 
altogether impossible that such a machine may he 
the germ of something fitted to a single two-horse 
team, and working the earth more economically 
or more efficiently than the common law. In 
this respect an important step may have been 
taken. 

More recently, we observe a notice of a new 
subsoil plow, lately invented in the north of Eng- 
land, which certainly proposes to accomplish won- 
ders. In the first place, it " skims the surface ;" 
secondly, trenches the land; thirdly, subsoils tie' 
ground to any required depth ; fourthly, it will 
perform either of these operations combined or 
separately ; fifthly, it requires no skill in holding 
and no '"balks" can ever he made ; sixthly, it 
buries all vegetable matter and weeds; seventhly, 
it may lie Used On land wet or dry ; and eighthly, 
it trenches land at one quarter of the ordinary 
expense by hand. This plow appears 1 not to have 
been tried as yet. although commended by an 
English agricultural journal of high character ; 
but we confess, so many wonderful qualities par- 
take largely of the marvellous, and remind 
the extraordinary quack medicine, wh 
cured the difli many 

other ^ery useful properties, surh a- i 
rent hunt, doubling the milk of the cows, causing 
hens to lay with greal rapidity, preventing 
in feme posts, preventing horses from balking, 
rendering railroads proof against collisions, mak- 
ing steamboat boilers safe from exple 
i ni the boal 

Another ! this 

eliims t" be at the 

1 exhibition of the 

1 simply of 

Ion ndler. set spiral)] with - 

90 as to dig up the laud w lieu drawn over 

fair ground, and in 

sail among the tei th a- ,1 

became an immens 

which the t< 1 hidden. 

ie, end- d lie 

Thou 
for years in improving tie- - 
inverter, the plow ; ami possibly nothing better 
than this implement will I ; bul 

ingenuity in other linly worthy 

of encouragement 

ing machine is greatly needed, that • 
quire six or 
trench plow 

may he set to wank and turn up th-- suh*,.il and 
throw under the surface, with all the 
of tin i - 1 with 

one quarter of the expense, — .1/ouny Cult 

Lime and its Compounds. 

LtifB aid in' 

all our it -I-- it in 

tain 81-2 
bushels 

') tons . 
The | 

nized 1 

'.e na- 
ture of the w 
soil. 1 






bonato whenever it is exp- od to air; but p 
lime he n ority over the carbonate in il 

I de - :mv other or- 

c matter, Honi I "Ways useful when 

i crops are ploughed in. or new g I are 

broken up, .Most fruit trees also consume largo 
quantities of lime. 

Quicklime has the power of setting frco the 
aramonin from guano and from fermenting man- 
ures. Hence its use in connection with such fer- 
tilizers, that is, when they are first applied, should 
generally be avoided. 

Recent analyses of soils in Ohio, Iowa, and 
Wisconsin, by Dr. Wells and fir. Owen, lead to 
the conclusion that those soils are not derived 
from the disintegration of underlying rocks, but 
from materials brought from a distance. For not- 
withstanding those rocks are chiefly carbonate of 
lime, not the slightest trace of carbonic acid was 
found in the soils. Hence the presence of lime- 
stone in the rocks of a given territory must not 
be held as conclusive evidence that these elements 
exist in the soil. Actual analysis alone can de- 
monstrate the fact. 

Lime is useful in clay soils, by diminishing its 
adhesiveness, and setting free its alkalies. Slacked 
lime acts most speedily, but the effects of the car- 
bonate are more permanent, 

Sulphate of lime, or gypsum, is serviceable in 
various ways. It retains useful elements that 
would otherwise be lost, as ammonia ; it acts as a 
stimulant upon loams and peaty soils ; it is also 
a fertilizer, furnishing the necessary food for the 
growth of the crop. But if huniic acid is abun- 
dant, it will decompose the gypsum, and the sul- 
phuric acid being set free, will prove injurious to 
the roots of the growth. On soils very rich with 
humus, gypsum should therefore be used very 
sparingly. 

Gypsum may be used either in a powder, in the 
raw state, or roas ed — that is, calcined. It is es- 
pecially beneficial when applied to the growth of 
clover, beans, peas, and sundry grasses ; but less 
serviceable to grains, turnips, and other green 
crops. It may be applied to the surface, scatter- 
ing it broadcast, or placed in the hills, at the time 
of planting, or applied at later periods. It may 
also be used on ihe compost heap. On grass land 
it should be sown ill the spring; but, if sown in 
the fill, it will he chiefly beneficial to the next 
year's crop. When applied to grain, 200 or 300 
pounds per acre is generally used, and On 
lands five or six bushels per acre. 

'flic phosphate of lime is one of the most essen- 
tial kinds of manure, which must be applied, in 
some form, on all lands from which crop 

taken. One of its elements, at least, the phos- 
phorus, is of ' d sooner than any other 

o much 

■ I said of il elsewhere, that we lie -d 

i it here, in these element 

tlons. 



Taking TJp and Storing Dahlias. 

In a treatise on this Bower, recently published 
by Groombridge, the cutting down is ret imen- 

have ' 

good ' plan to , 

small hillock of di 

plant. This protects the embr th from 

the heavy autumnal rains. In wet 

tl -.di in high land it mi 

■ 

down ' 

do* n. and turn them op 



it will 



to shrivel, fix upon a p them 



From the Sandwich Island; 
The brig Princodc Joinville arm 

part on Sunday, twenty days from 

Advices are in the 21st January. 

The Polynesian discusses the subject of hard 
times which prevail there, and points out the ne- 
cessity of an increased developoment of their ag- 
ricultural resources. Il says that coffee, sugar, 
syrup, molasses, indigo, arrow-root, cotton and: 
wool, may be produced to a large extent, though 
they are not, and that the soil and climate are 
much better for their production than (hose of 
Louisiana. 

In relation to the weather, the Polynesian says: 
11 We have had several days of winter weather 
during the past week, and the thermometer has 
actually been down to GO — a degree of cold which 
attracted the attention of everybody, and has 
elicited as much remark as ten degrees below zero 
would have called forth in cold climates. This 
temperature has been highly enjoyed by most 
people, and no cases of freezing to death have yet 
come to our knowledge. We should " like a few 
more of the same sort." 

A correspondent of the Polynesian on East 
Maui writes — "I am happy to report the state of 
things on this part of the Island as prosperous. 
There have been from six to ten cases of small 
pox in Hamakua, and three deaths. No new 
case during the past six weeks. We can now re- 
port freedom from the small pox, if no new case 
should be introduced from abroad. There has 
been no case in Koolau, none in Kula. none in 
in Honuala, and but one or two in Wailuku. We 
hear that there are but few cases remaining in 
the districts of Hana, Kipahnlu and Kaupo. 

"■ A word in respect to agricultural prospects at 
Makawao and vicinity. The weather has been 
quite favorable all along for plowing, and much 
of it has been done. Cattle and horses are still 
basil) employed, and as three months remain in 
which wheat can lie sown, there remains a strong 
probability that much will be put in; especially 
as there is no lack of seed." 



■ 

iay be reeog- 
i£ it in 



*V III IV 1 






The Dromedary. 

We would call the attention of our citizens, 
particularly those whose business is to travel long 
distances and to pack goods across the broad val- 
leys and oar mountains, to the introduction of 
the enduring dromedary. We believe they could 
be introduced with success, and be of invaluable 
price to our country. Who will have the pat- 
riotism to make the first trial ? 

cl has elicited Hie pre, inns attention 

of some of oui ten, and It will be seen by 

quoted below, that ii Is e tteemed of 

to attract tiie notice of our 

Government officials: 

'I'll- Secretary of War recommends trying the 

loent of employing camclsand dromedaries 

in the transportation of military supplies among 

West. Mr. Davis says flic 

iron now used — wagons drawn 

by hot 

and generally unsatisfac- 
t nilcs per d - 

and water cannot I long inter- 

tiding tin- pi 

"On 

have 






-.n-.- pnat •• ■■■ the valuc-i 



erfcliesoi 

It is at 

■ 

Uint, ami has a brother-in-law « - 

I I mrr.-«.s from -. . . ^uu. 5. P. Beoeon :..,.. 



rule of lime and of 
same. Pure lime b o mnta a car- 



le may •tore the fbi r •■i-i.- ml w- I- •* V" r,i- i.'i ;tl Mmrr. — A 
amber or u> inv out-i.udd ng.provi-M pondW of too ImuyaTilm Eayram mya m»t 
a be kept from them by some kind of «■•«• aoid dinar, the laat week in Jan . 
•rh as eUcarpete or garden mat- i.tk.iiff M-™ ■>; 

lire more frrqaent America* work cattle m demand at fEB 

.remove all 4ea -ing roots ami noma. , to \» 1 > ' per j okt 






52 



Sty a (&®U$mvM §®mm$< 



CALIFORNIA FARMER, 



JOHN F. MORSE, EDiTOit. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
Thursday, February 16, 1854. 



System, 

In no pursuit in the world is system more es- 
sential than in farming. This is perhaps of all 
other vocations the one in which method is 
most positively a source of unvarying suc- 
cess, and without which the most certain dis- 
comforts and beggary result. In childhood this 
broad fact was peculiarly illustrated to our mind 
by our spelling-book representations of " Thrifty " 
and ■' Unthrifty." Two farm scenes were pour- 
trayed by the artist. One exhibited a farm sur- 
rounded with neat, substantial and secure fences, 
with bars and gates in a perfect condition of use- 
fulness and convenience ; a dwelling of symmetri- 
cal architecture, and beautifully painted, embel- 
lished in front by a soft and luxuriant lawn, and 
on each side by spacious gardens filled with flow- 
ers, fruits, and vegetables, near to which were 
barns, corn-cribs, carriage house, sheds and poultry 
yards, neither of which had been neglected by the 
carpenter, nor basely abandoned by the painter, or 
by the more common beautifier of farms — the 
whitewasher. In this picture could be seen fat 
and spirited horses, peering from the stable win- 
dows ; cozy looking cows, ruminating with con- 
tentment beneath the sheds expressly prepared 
and kept clean for their comfort; unsquealing 
hogs, levelling in obesity ; well trained sheep, 
with their white faces- -the living symbols of 
purity and ease ; together with geese and turkies, 
ducks and hens, so tutored and managed as to 
yield all the evidences of their beauty and utility 
without any of those repulsive annoyances which 
result from giving them universal license and pro- 
miscuous lodging-places. The ploughs were care- 
fully stored ; the ox -carts and wagons well painted 
and in exact repair ; the yokes in a particular 
spot , the harnesses, unbroken and complete, 
hanging where method had provided them a se- 
cure place ; and indeed everything in and about 
the farm in exact and beautiful keeping with the 
wishes of a farmer who had " a place for every- 
thing, and everything in its place." 

But while such was the view held up to an 
admiring and forming mind, there was an oppo- 
site picture so dissimilar and so wretched, as to 
leave no one indifferent in respect to a choice be- 
tween them. 

The farm of Unthrifty, or the man without sys- 
tem, had as much land, but unfortunately it was 
mortgaged, overgrown tvith rank weeds, with 
almost unapproachable roads, dilapidated fences, 
no gardens or lawns, no finished houses, barns, 
sheds, gates or bars, no carts or wagons that were 
not so much the victims of breakings and repairs 
as to make them unfit for use, no harnesses that 
had not been grievously patched with twine, 
ropes and chains, and in short not an animal or 
an ordinary improvement could be seen that did 
not appear in open and malignant rebellion 
against the presiding husbandry of the place. 
These were extremes, but true pictures of farm- 
ing, with and without system. And the same 
delineations then made, the same good and evils 
then resulting from the different policy and habits 
of farmers, do still exist, in representation of the 
beauty of method and the utter tendency to de- 
struction which an absence of system induces. 

"We advert to this subject because California is 
just being settled and developed in its agricul- 
tural resources, and because it is difficult to ele- 
vate a husbandry that has been generally de- 
praved in the beginning of its career. Should 
the first efforts at cultivating California soil be of 
the impoverished, filthy, unsystematized kind that 
indicates an unthrifty husbandman, then will it 
be a difficult thing to secure to this pursuit amon» 
the rich lands of the State, such a reputation as 
can be achieved by system and by a generous at 
tention to the beauties and luxuries as well as the 
indispensables of a farmer's life. 



Lecture of J. B. Crockett, Esq.,— We pub- 
lish to-day a portion of this able Lecture. It will 
be found to embrace most important interests, and 
in order to give the entire Lecture, we are obliged 
to publish it in two numbers. We feel assured 
our readers will find it a document worth pre- 
serving. 



Soft-Soapino Rabbits. — We are informed 
that the application of soft soap to the trunks of 
fruit trees, late in autumn, will effeectually protect 
them from the attacks of rabbits. It is applied 
with a swab. 



Planting Fruit Trees and Eaising Fruit. 
This is one of the most important questions 
at this moment among the Cultivators of Califor- 
nia. It is not the mere question, can we grow 
Apples, and Pears, or Peaches and Plums ? for 
these can be grown almost any where, and it has 
already been proved that we can grow them in 
California ; the specimens already exhibited in 
our markets and at the late Exhibition, arc the 
best evidences that it can be done. 

And now the question arises, shall the Cultiva- 
tors of Fruits be crowned with success? We 
answer in the affirmative, believing as we do that 
California will, within a few years, exhibit the 
finest Fruit in the world. 

We aver the fact from careful examination, that 
we have soil and climate, season and temperature 
so well adapted to Fruit-growing that California 
can successfully grow almost every fruit known. 
We shall in successive numbers endeavor to give 
the best modes of cultivation and the soil and ex- 
perience suitable for each. 

We make these remarks to call the attention of 
our readers to a very interesting " dialogue " upon 
the subject of " Planting Fruit Trees," which we 
copy from the " Magazine of Horticulture " of 
Messrs. ITovey & Co. of Boston, a work most al tly 
conducted, now in its nineteenth volume. 

We have examined carefully the article, and 
cheerfully commend it toour readers — premising, 
however, that our autumn is January and Feb- 
ruary, instead of October and November. In 
California, it is necessary to wait for the first rains 
to soften the earth well — then we recommend the 
planting to commence — and the season is gov- 
erned by early and late rains. We advise a care- 
ful perusal of the article in all its detail. Capt. 
Lovctt, to whom reference is made in one of the 
paragraphs, is a gentleman distinguished for his 
success in Fruit-growing, and his testimony can 
be relied on as resulting from practical experience. 
We shall be glad to hear from all who feel in- 
terested in the subject, at all times ; 
the best season for transplanting trees. 
Subscriber. Which season do you prefer, 
Spring or Autumn, for transplanting trees '? You 
have had some experience in this matter, and as I 
find my neighbors ditlcr much in their opinions. 
I am anxious to have your advice. 

Editor. It is true there are various opinions 
upon this matter. Many men, indeed a greater 
portion of those who give such advice, sometimes 
rather dogmatically, never planted more than a 
dozen trees, and those not more than once or 
twice in their lives, — when, perhaps, making their 
garden around their dwelling, — and as they, of 
course, chose the season they thought the best, 
whether fall or spring, they advise all to do as 
they did. Their evidence is ex parte; for they 
never took hold of the thing experimentally, — 
planting fall and spring for a series of successive 
years, — the onty way to test such a question. 

Sob. So I should think : but I find, too, people 
not only differ as regards the general season of 
planting, but as regards the kinds of trees suited 
to the season. 

Ed. Yes. I am aware of that: one cultivator 
states that he prefers the